Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
E. Higgins (2008)Culture and Personality: Variability across Universal Motives as the Missing Link
Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2
N. Roese, T. Hur, Ginger Pennington (1999)Counterfactual thinking and regulatory focus: implications for action versus inaction and sufficiency versus necessity.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 77 6
E. Higgins (2001)Promotion and Prevention Experiences: Relating Emotions to Nonemotional Motivational States
N. Cantor, J. Kihlstrom (1987)Personality and social intelligence
(2011)Stuck in the middle: The psychophysics of goal pursuit
E. Higgins, James Cornwell (2016)Securing foundations and advancing frontiers: Prevention and promotion effects on judgment & decision making
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136
E. Plant, Patricia Devine, Michelle Peruche (2010)Routes to Positive Interracial Interactions: Approaching Egalitarianism or Avoiding Prejudice
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36
B. Houston, W. Hodges (1970)Situational denial and performance under stress.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 16 4
James Austin, J. Vancouver (1996)Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content.
Psychological Bulletin, 120
D. Wilson, A. Clark, K. Coleman, T. Dearstyne (1994)Shyness and boldness in humans and other animals.
Trends in ecology & evolution, 9 11
A. Freitas, N. Liberman (2002)Regulatory fit and resisting temptation during goal pursuit.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38
P. Corr (2013)Approach and Avoidance Behaviour: Multiple Systems and their Interactions
Emotion Review, 5
G. Gudjonsson (1981)Self-reported emotional disturbance and its relation to electrodermal reactivity, defensiveness and trait anxiety
Personality and Individual Differences, 2
Abigail Scholer, D. Miele, K. Murayama, K. Fujita (2018)New Directions in Self-Regulation: The Role of Metamotivational Beliefs
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27
Cecilia Cheng, Feng-Chi Yang, Song Jun, J. Hutton (2007)Flexible Coping Psychotherapy for Functional Dyspeptic Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Psychosomatic Medicine, 69
B. Franks, E. Higgins, F. Champagne (2014)A Theoretically Based Model of Rat Personality with Implications for Welfare
PLoS ONE, 9
E. Higgins, L. Idson, A. Freitas, Scott Spiegel, D. Molden, T. Higgins (2003)Transfer of value from fit.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 84 6
L. Idson, N. Liberman, E. Higgins, Maya Bar-Hillel, Miguel Brendl, Jens Förster, David Krantz (2000)Distinguishing Gains from Nonlosses and Losses from Nongains: A Regulatory Focus Perspective on Hedonic Intensity
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36
C. Chan, L. Cameron (2012)Promoting physical activity with goal-oriented mental imagery: a randomized controlled trial
Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35
E. Thorndike (1972)The fundamentals of learning
American Journal of Psychology, 47
Thomas Langens (2007)Regulatory Focus and Illusions of Control
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33
Abigail Scholer, E. Higgins (2013)Dodging Monsters and Dancing with Dreams: Success and Failure at Different Levels of Approach and Avoidance
Emotion Review, 5
K. Markman, Matthew McMullen, Ronald Elizaga, Nobuko Mizoguchi (2006)Counterfactual thinking and regulatory fit
Judgment and Decision Making
C. Brendl, E. Higgins (1996)Principles of Judging Valence: What Makes Events Positive or Negative?
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 28
London. (1978)Functions of the septo-hippocampal system
C. Heath, Richard Larrick, George Wu (1999)Goals as Reference Points
Cognitive Psychology, 38
E. Higgins, N. Liberman (2018)The Loss of Loss Aversion: Paying Attention to Reference Points
Journal of Consumer Psychology, 28
B. Franks, D. Reiss, Patricia Cole, Volney Friedrich, Nicole Thompson, E. Higgins (2013)Predicting how individuals approach enrichment: regulatory focus in cotton-top tamarins (Sanguinus oedipus).
Zoo biology, 32 4
Abigail Scholer (2014)In pursuit of progress: promotion motivation and risk preference in the domain of gains.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 106 2
Andrea Bonezzi, C. Brendl, Matteo Angelis (2011)Stuck in the Middle
Psychological Science, 22
S. Roth, L. Cohen (1986)Approach, avoidance, and coping with stress.
The American psychologist, 41 7
E. Higgins, T. Higgins (1987)Self-discrepancy: a theory relating self and affect.
Psychological review, 94 3
E. Finkel, D. Molden, Sarah Johnson, Paul Eastwick (2009)Regulatory Focus and Romantic Alternatives
Jack Curtis, O. Mowrer (1960)Learning Theory and Behavior
Alexander Rothman, Roger Bartels, J. Wlaschin, P. Salovey (2006)The Strategic Use of Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages to Promote Healthy Behavior: How Theory Can Inform Practice
Journal of Communication, 56
J. Haidt, Greg Lukianoff (2018)The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure
D. Goodhart (1986)The effects of positive and negative thinking on performance in an achievement situation
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51
Abigail Scholer, S. Stroessner, E. Higgins (2008)Responding to negativity : How a risky tactic can serve a vigilant strategy
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44
Yanwen Wang, Michael Lewis, David Schweidel (2018)A Border Strategy Analysis of Ad Source and Message Tone in Senatorial Campaigns
Mark. Sci., 37
A. Elliot, Todd Thrash (2002)Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: approach and avoidance temperaments and goals.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 82 5
David Butz, E. Plant (2009)Prejudice control and interracial relations: the role of motivation to respond without prejudice.
Journal of personality, 77 5
H. Parad (1981)Loss: Sadness and Depression. Attachment and Loss Series, vol. 3. By John Bowlby. New York: Basic Books, 1980. 472 pp. $22.50
Social Work, 26
J. Shah, E. Higgins (1997)Expectancy × Value Effects: Regulatory Focus as Determinant of Magnitude and Direction
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73
A. Schmidt, R. DeShon (2007)What to do? The effects of discrepancies, incentives, and time on dynamic goal prioritization.
The Journal of applied psychology, 92 4
Abigail Scholer, Xi Zou, K. Fujita, S. Stroessner, E. Higgins (2010)When risk seeking becomes a motivational necessity.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 99 2
C. Carver, M. Scheier, J. Weintraub (1989)Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 56 2
Franki Kung, Young-Hoon Kim, D. Yang, Shirley Cheng (2016)The Role of Regulatory Fit in Framing Effective Negative Feedback Across Cultures
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47
D. Kahneman, A. Tversky (1979)Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk Econometrica 47
E. Impett, Amie Gordon, A. Kogan, C. Oveis, Shelly Gable, D. Keltner (2010)Moving toward more perfect unions: daily and long-term consequences of approach and avoidance goals in romantic relationships.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 99 6
Timothy Fogarty (1990)Case Western Reserve University
E. Higgins, C. Roney, Ellen Crowe, Charles Hymes (1994)Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance: distinct self-regulatory systems.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 66 2
E. Impett, L. Peplau, Shelly Gable (2005)Approach and avoidance sexual motives: Implications for personal and interpersonal well-being
Personal Relationships, 12
Lorraine Idson, E. Higgins (2000)How current feedback and chronic effectiveness influence motivation : everything to gain versus everything to lose
European Journal of Social Psychology, 30
N. Liberman, R. Dar (2009)Normal and pathological consequences of encountering difficulties in monitoring progress toward goals.
L. Idson, N. Liberman, E. Higgins (2004)Imagining How You’d Feel: The Role of Motivational Experiences from Regulatory Fit
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30
L. Werth, J. Förster (2007)The effects of regulatory focus on braking speed
D. Kahneman (1973)Attention and Effort
Richard Solomon, Leon Kamin, L. Wynne (1953)Traumatic avoidance learning: the outcomes of several extinction procedures with dogs.
Journal of abnormal psychology, 48 2
Stephanie Payne, Satoris Youngcourt, J. Beaubien (2007)A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net.
The Journal of applied psychology, 92 1
A. Elliot, Shelly Gable, Rachael Mapes (2006)Approach and Avoidance Motivation in the Social Domain
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32
H. Dittmar (2001)Impulse buying in ordinary and "compulsive" consumers
Suzanne Miller (1980)When is a Little Information a Dangerous Thing? Coping with Stressful Events by Monitoring Versus Blunting
Abigail Scholer, E. Higgins (2008)Distinguishing Levels of Approach and Avoidance: An Analysis Using Regulatory Focus Theory
A. Vieth, T. Strauman, G. Kolden, Teresa Woods, J. Michels, M. Klein (2006)Self-System Therapy (SST): A Theory-Based Psychotherapy for Depression.
Clinical Psychology-science and Practice, 10
M. Cornette, T. Strauman, L. Abramson, Andrew Busch (2009)Self-discrepancy and suicidal ideation
Cognition and Emotion, 23
Angela Lee, Jennifer Aaker, W. Gardner (2000)The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: the role of interdependence in regulatory focus.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 78 6
C. Carver, M. Scheier (1998)On the Self-Regulation of Behavior by Charles S. Carver
J. Levine, Kira Alexander, A. Wright, E. Higgins (2016)Group brainstorming: When regulatory nonfit enhances performance
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19
D. Green (2015)On "The Coddling of the American Mind"
J. Förster, Heidi Grant, L. Idson, E. Higgins (2001)Success/Failure Feedback, Expectancies, and Approach/Avoidance Motivation: How Regulatory Focus Moderates Classic Relations
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37
F. Gino, J. Margolis (2011)Bringing Ethics into Focus: How Regulatory Focus and Risk Preferences Influence (Un)ethical Behavior
Experimental & Empirical Studies eJournal
(2010)Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Journal of CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY Journal of Consumer Psychology xx (2011) xxx–xxx The course of motivation
A. Elliot (1999)Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals
Educational Psychologist, 34
Dina Van-Dijk, A. Kluger (2004)Feedback Sign Effect on Motivation: Is it Moderated by Regulatory Focus?
Applied Psychology, 53
C. Carver, T. White (1994)Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67
A. Elliot (2006)The Hierarchical Model of Approach-Avoidance Motivation
Motivation and Emotion, 30
E. Higgins, J. Shah, R. Friedman, T. Higgins (1997)Emotional responses to goal attainment: strength of regulatory focus as moderator.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 72 3
B. Odlaug, L. Schreiber, J. Grant (2013)Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling
Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 26
Romina Mauro, Antonio Pierro, L. Mannetti, E. Higgins, A. Kruglanski (2009)The Perfect Mix
Psychological Science, 20
V. Bohns, E. Higgins (2011)Liking the Same thingS, but Doing thingS DifferentLy: outcome VerSuS Strategic compatibiLity in partner preferenceS for Joint taSkS
Social Cognition, 29
Gráinne Fitzsimons, E. Finkel, M. vanDellen (2015)Transactive goal dynamics.
Psychological review, 122 4
A. Costantini, K. Hoving (1973)The effectiveness of reward and punishment contingencies on response inhibition
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 16
Gevorg Hunanyan (2019)Portfolio Selection
Finanzwirtschaft, Banken und Bankmanagement I Finance, Banks and Bank Management
S. Levine, H. Ursin (1980)Coping and Health
T. Strauman, A. Vieth, Kari Merrill, G. Kolden, Teresa Woods, M. Klein, Alison Papadakis, K. Schneider, Lori Kwapil (2006)Self-system therapy as an intervention for self-regulatory dysfunction in depression: a randomized comparison with cognitive therapy.
Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 74 2
James Harter, F. Schmidt, Corey Keyes (2003)Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies.
B. Skinner (1969)Contingencies Of Reinforcement
A. Elliot, Marcy Church (1997)A HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72
B. Franks, E. Higgins, F. Champagne (2012)Evidence for individual differences in regulatory focus in rats, Rattus norvegicus.
Journal of comparative psychology, 126 4
M. Gelfand (2010)On “Feeling Right” in Cultural Contexts
Psychological Science, 21
Alison Papadakis, Rebecca Prince, N. Jones, T. Strauman (2006)Self-regulation, rumination, and vulnerability to depression in adolescent girls
Development and Psychopathology, 18
(1996)The psychology of action: Linking motivation and cognition to behavior
Suzanne Miller, C. Mangan (1983)Interacting effects of information and coping style in adapting to gynecologic stress: should the doctor tell all?
Journal of personality and social psychology, 45 1
T. Strauman (2002)Self-Regulation and Depression
Self and Identity, 1
J. Norem, N. Cantor (1986)Defensive pessimism: harnessing anxiety as motivation.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 51 6
F. Shontz (1975)The psychological aspects of physical illness and disability
N. Petry (2001)Substance abuse, pathological gambling, and impulsiveness.
Drug and alcohol dependence, 63 1
C. Carver, M. Scheier (1998)On the Self-Regulation of Behavior
Minjung Koo, Ayelet Fishbach (2008)Dynamics of self-regulation: How (un)accomplished goal actions affect motivation.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 94 2
G. Miller, E. Galanter, K. Pribram (1960)Plans and the structure of behavior
(1973)Separation: Anxiety and anger (Vol
Klodiana Lanaj, C. Chang, Russell Johnson (2012)Regulatory focus and work-related outcomes: a review and meta-analysis.
Psychological bulletin, 138 5
Shelly Gable (2006)Approach and avoidance social motives and goals.
Journal of personality, 74 1
E. Higgins (2023)What Distinguishes Promotion and Prevention? Attaining “+1” from “0” as Non-Gain Versus Maintaining “0” as Non-Loss
Polish Psychological Bulletin
N. Weinstein, J. Lyon (1999)Mindset, optimistic bias about personal risk and health-protective behaviour
British Journal of Health Psychology, 4
Robert Emmons (1996)Striving and feeling: Personal goals and subjective well-being.
A. Elliot, Kennon Sheldon, Marcy Church (1997)Avoidance Personal Goals and Subjective Well-Being
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23
Audrey Miller, K. Markman (2007)Depression, regulatory focus, and motivation
Personality and Individual Differences, 43
(2001)Bad is stronger than good
E. Higgins (2000)Making a good decision: value from fit.
The American psychologist, 55 11
D. Sherman, Geoffrey Cohen (2006)The Psychology of Self‐defense: Self‐Affirmation Theory
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38
Jennifer Kaywork (2019)Attachment
Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences
P. Lang (1995)The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention.
The American psychologist, 50 5
A. Logue (1979)Taste aversion and the generality of the laws of learning.
Psychological Bulletin, 86
Abigail Scholer, Yuka Ozaki, E. Higgins (2014)Inflating and deflating the self: Sustaining motivational concerns through self-evaluation
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51
R. Janoff-Bulman, Sana Sheikh, S. Hepp (2009)Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: two faces of moral regulation.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 96 3
Cecilia Cheng (2001)Assessing coping flexibility in real-life and laboratory settings: a multimethod approach.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 80 5
A. Kruglanski, J. Shah, Ayelet Fishbach, R. Friedman, W. Chun, David Sleeth-Keppler (2002)A theory of goal systems.
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34
Robin Vallacher, D. Wegner (1987)What do people think they're doing? Action identification and human behavior.
Psychological Review, 94
W. Tanner, J. Swets (1954)A decision-making theory of visual detection.
Psychological review, 61 6
N. Lewis (1935)A dynamic theory of personality
H. Plessner, C. Unkelbach, D. Memmert, A. Baltes, A. Kolb (2009)Regulatory fit as a determinant of sport performance: How to succeed in a soccer penalty-shooting.
Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10
J. Warm, R. Parasuraman, G. Matthews (2008)Vigilance Requires Hard Mental Work and Is Stressful
Human Factors: The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomic Society, 50
Tory Higgins (1997)Beyond pleasure and pain.
The American psychologist, 52 12
Angela Lee, Jennifer Aaker (2004)Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 86 2
E. Higgins, M. Brewer, J. Brockner, Per Hedberg, Peter Herman, A. Kruglanski, W. Mischel, T. Pittman, C. Seligman, Edith Smith, T. Higgins (2006)Value from hedonic experience and engagement.
Psychological review, 113 3
W. BrownAnimal Intelligence: Experimental Studies
J. Shah, R. Friedman, A. Kruglanski (2002)Forgetting all else: on the antecedents and consequences of goal shielding.
Journal of personality and social psychology, 83 6
Scott Motyka, Dhruv Grewal, Nancy Puccinelli, Anne Roggeveen, T. Avnet, A. Daryanto, K. Ruyter, Martin Wetzels (2014)Regulatory fit:a meta analytic synthesis
Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24
B. Headey, A. Wearing (1990)Subjective well-being and coping with adversity
Social Indicators Research, 22
Abigail Scholer, D. Miele (2016)The role of metamotivation in creating task-motivation fit
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation, 2
Shelly Gable, C. Gosnell (2013)Approach and Avoidance Behavior in Interpersonal Relationships
Emotion Review, 5
AbstractApproach motivation (striving for desired end-states, eagerly focusing on where one wants to be) is often held up as the best type of motivation: It feels good and is associated with many positive outcomes. Indeed, a common perception is that regulation in terms of approach motivation is almost always better than regulation in terms of avoidance motivation. However, as we discuss, this conclusion is worthy of a deeper look. We consider how approach and avoidance motivation manifest at different levels in a self-regulatory hierarchy and how this can help us understand the upsides and downsides of both approach and avoidance motivation. In other words, approach motivation is not always beneficial and avoidance motivation is not always problematic. Understanding these trade-offs involves a consideration of which level in the hierarchy approach or avoidance is manifested, what types of outcomes are being examined (the experience of regulation vs. performance), and how the approach or avoidance regulation fits or does not fit with an individual’s broad concerns or specific situational demands. Furthermore, a hierarchical approach helps make sense of behaviors that reflect simultaneous approach and avoidance tendencies, such as tactical approach to remove (avoid) a threat, providing a dynamic and nuanced view of motivation.
Psychological Inquiry – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jul 3, 2019
Keywords: Approach; avoidance; promotion; prevention; self-regulation; goals; hierarchy
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.