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Chun-Lin Lee, Shu-li Huang, Shih-Liang Chan (2008)Biophysical and system approaches for simulating land-use change
Landscape and Urban Planning, 86
Zhao Ru-zhen (2011)Evaluation of virescence ecological safety in Dongying
Journal of Shandong Jianzhu University
(2004)The essential analysis and progress review of the land use/cover change research
J. Shao, J. Ni, Chaofu Wei, Xie Deti (2005)Land use change and its corresponding ecological responses: A review
Journal of Geographical Sciences, 15
Meng Fei (2010)Change of land use in rapidly urbanized area:A case study of Pudong New Area
Journal of Shandong Jianzhu University
(2000)Ecological landscape planning: urban development, landscape variation and hydrological effects of the Keelung River Basin 1980–2000
J. Nassauer, P. Opdam (2008)Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm
Landscape Ecology, 23
J. Termorshuizen, P. Opdam (2009)Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development
Landscape Ecology, 24
R. Forman (2008)Urban Regions: Ecology and Planning Beyond the City
(2007)Study on Relationship between Land Use and Eco-Environment
(1980)Ecological landscape planning: urban development, landscape variation and hydrological effects of the Keelung River Basin
Shi Pei (2000)Landuse Change Mechanism in Shenzhen City
Wang Ji-wu (2008)"Urban Expansion" and "Urban and Town Sprawl": Policy Analysis of Land-use Regulations in the Urban Growth of China's Mega-cities
China Land Science
GeoloGy, ecoloGy, and landscapes, 2017 Vol . 1, no . 3, 190–196 https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2017.1361150 INWASCON OPEN ACCESS Spatial evolution of URNCL and response of ecological security: a case study on Foshan City a,b a a Huabin Xiao , Mengying Wang and Shuo Sheng a b s chool of architecture and Urban p lanning, shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, china; Institute of ecological planning and landscape d esign, shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, china ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 14 april 2017 As a global event, urbanization will bring long-term effects to the supporting systems and a ccepted 24 July 2017 ecosystem services of the whole world. The concept of Urban and Rural Non-construction Land (URNCL) is proposed based on ecological security. It is a spatial response to facing the grand KEYWORDS challenge of resources and environmental and a demand to achieve sustainable development Urban and rural in rapid urbanizing regions. The paper carries out quantificationally and systematically non-construction land; comprehensive research of spatial evolution of URNCL and response of ecological security of spatial evolution; ecological security; Foshan city Foshan city (ecological factor and ecosystem service) based on integrating multiple data sources including remote sensing data, land-use classification data, relevant statistical data and field survey and monitoring data and introducing remote sensing analysis methods, geographic information systems spatial analysis methods and mathematical model methods. Since the reform and opening up, China has been 1. The connotation of urban and rural facing an unprecedented crisis “man-land relation- non-construction land ship” while the economy is growing at a high speed. Urban and Rural Non-construction Land (URNCL) is Rapid urbanization region is facing two prominent within scope of urban and rural space, based on eco- realistic contradictions: (1) the conflicts between logical security, habitat society, development strategy, tight constraints of land resources and expansion of engineering and other needs, which couldn’t be used construction land. The disorder of urban and rural for large-scale urban development and construction spatial growth can be summarized as tow aspects: the within a certain period or no longer, whose spatial rep- extension of the city and the sprawl of local town (Wi resentation is the scope of the “blank” or “green” area & Wang, 2008). The rapid expansion of construction outside the space urban and rural construction land. land and the lack of effective guidance lead to high- According to “e e Th valuation standard of urban and wayki expansion or urban sprawl to the periphery to rural land (CJJ132–2009)”, the URNCL should include the periphery in “pie” style in many big cities. (2) the non-building land, unfavourable construction land and contradiction between the decline of ecological car- construction land with important ecosystem services. rying capacity and the increasing demand of human ecosystem services. The error industrialization, urban - 1.1. Classification of URNCL ization and modernization pattern that is high material consumption, high pollution, high consumption cause Types of URNCL should be divided into internal and environmental pollution, ecological destruction and external planning area. Within the planning area, disasters, which makes the process of human devel- referring to urban land classification standards, the G opment face with unprecedented challenges. Guided class green space and E class other and (except E6 class by the development view of the return of land ethics towns and villages construction land and E8 class land perspective, “the original behavioral philosophy that for open-pit mines) was classified as non- construction humans dominate nature” should be transformed. land; outside the planning area, referring to the stand- Combined the natural evolution of land with the devel- ard of present land-use classification, the cultivated opment of reasonable development needs of human land, garden, woodland, grassland, water area and beings, we put forward the concept of urban and rural other land were classified as non-construction land. The construction land. URNCL from the ownership relationship, including CONTACT Huabin Xiao firstname.lastname@example.org © 2017 The a uthor(s). published by Informa UK limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an open a ccess article distributed under the terms of the creative c ommons a ttribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 191 state-owned non-construction land (forest parks, urbanization area, which makes the regional ecological scenic spots, the state-owned forest farms, etc.) and environment is facing a huge impact. collective ownership non-construction land (mainly agricultural land); From the view of function, URNCL 2. The evolution characteristics of URNCL in including ecological dominant non-co nstruction land Foshan City for regional ecological security (such as forest parks, Foshan is located in the south-central area of Guangdong nature reserves, a certain size area of basic farmland province, the hinterland of the Pearl River Delta, across protection areas, etc.) and the structure dominant the north latitude 22° 38′ ~23° 34′, longitude 112° non-construction land for blocking construction land 22′ ~113° 23′, east relies on Guangzhou, west meets sprawling (park green space within the city, greenbelt Zhaoqing, south of Zhongshan, north of Qingyuan, adja- around the city, wedge-shaped green space, etc.) and cent to Hong Kong and Macao, the geographical posi- non-construction land of two kinds of functions at the tion is superior. Foshan jurisdiction includs Chancheng same time. district, Nanhai district, Shunde district, Sanshui dis- trict and Gaoming district, there are 11 neighbourhood 1.2. The impact of land-use change on Ecological offices, 20 town, an overseas Chinese economic develop - Security ment zone (area county crown units). With a total area Land-Use and Cover Change (LUCC) will ae ff ct the of 3848.49 km , permanent population is 5.9529 million, structure and function of the major terrestrial ecologi- 2008 census register population is 3.6434 million. cal processes such as energy exchange, water cycle, soil Following the functional and structural classification erosion and accumulation, crop production and so on. principles of landscape ecology, considering the structure LUCC will trigger the related ecological environmental and characteristics of land use and the influence degree of effect, and lead to the change and evolution of ecosys- human activities in Foshan at the same time, the URNCL tems and ecological environment (Hou & Cai, 2004). is divided into (near) natural, semi natural and artificial e infl Th uence of LUCC on regional ecology is quite three types; hen according to the land cover and vegeta- extensive, such as surface runo, s ff urface temperature, tion structure characteristics, the land was divided into habitat suitability and diversity, water resources, the farmland, forest land, greenbelt, dike pond, water. Nature emission of carbon dioxide, nitrogen content and other land includes the forest, water and a part of the green aspects. Among them, surface runo, s ff urface temper - space (mainly for grassland), semi-natural land including ature and biodiversity are considered as the three most the farmland(farmland and garden) and the dike-pond, important indicators of LUCC to regional ecological artificial land mainly refers to urban green space. impact (Termorshuizen & Opdam, 2009; Lee, Huang, This study analyzed the results of TM / ETM + & Chan, 2008). The research focus of LUCC ecologi- remote sensing image classification, including 1990, cal environment effect is usually related to the research 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2008. It is found that URNCL area area. The ecological environmental effects of different decreased significantly from 1990 to 2008 in Foshan research areas tend to have their own focus. For exam- City, in 2008, Foshan’s URNCL with a total area of 2 2 ple, the ecological environment effects caused by urban 2511.62 km , less 985.67 km than in 1990, and the expansion are usually hydrological process change, reduce rate is 28.18%. Farmland, woodland and dike- water environment change, regional ecosystem service pond are the main types of URNCL in Foshan, pro- function change and other aspects (Shao, Ni, Wei, & portion has been an absolute advantage (greater than Xie, 2005; Shi, Chen & Pan, 2000).In the short period of 80%); the proportion of green space and water are less time, because of the drastic change of land-use in rapid than 10% (Table 1). Table 1. Types of URncl in Foshan city during 1990–2008. Type URNCL（km ） Urban and rural construction 2 2 Area Ratio Farmland Woodland Greenbelt Pond Water Total land（km ） Total（km ） 1990 1186.30 959.45 354.31 806.59 190.63 3497.29 349.20 3846.47 33.92% 27.43% 10.13% 23.06% 5.45% 90.92% 9.08% 1995 1048.98 763.44 233.90 931.65 190.35 3168.32 678.15 3846.47 33.11% 24.10% 7.38% 29.41% 6.01% 82.37% 17.63% 2000 890.61 746.40 230.37 895.23 207.04 2969.65 876.82 3846.47 29.99% 25.13% 7.76% 30.15% 6.97% 77.20% 20.80% 2005 849.62 717.81 180.79 803.52 198.92 2750.65 1095.82 3846.47 30.89% 26.10% 6.57% 29.21% 7.23% 71.51% 28.49% 2008 754.35 723.65 119.19 720.34 194.09 2511.62 1334.85 3846.47 30.03% 28.81% 4.75% 28.68% 7.73% 65.30% 34.70% 192 H. XIAO ET AL. the ecological environment quality to decline year by 3. The impact of URNCL change on the overall year, from 0.501 in 1990 down to 0.408 in 2008 (Figure 2). quality of ecological environment e ra Th pid growth of construction land with low e in Th troduction of the regional ecological environment eco-environmental quality index and the sharp decline index as the whole quality index for characteristics of of (almost) natural URNCL with high ecological envi- regional ecological environment, combined with the ronment quality index are the main reasons for the for- ecological service function of different land-use types, mation of this phenomenon (Figure 3). using the analytic hierarchy process for various types of land weight assignment, gain the index of the quality 4. The influence of URNCL change on the of the regional ecological environment. The eco-envi- ronmental quality and area proportion of various land- ecological factors use type in the region are considered comprehensively, 4.1. Impact on hydrological system introducing the regional ecological environment index (EV) to the overall situation of quantitative characteri- Foshan City domain two-thirds area belongs to the plain zation of a regional ecological environment quality. The river network of the Pearl River Delta, with a dense net- greater its value, the better the quality of the regional work of rivers, the influence of URNCL change on the ecological environment, and its expression is: regional hydrological system is very significant. As one of the most important factors for the ecological environ- ment, hydrological effects, and the land, vegetation con - EV = LU C ∕TA (1) t i i stitute a stable triangular frame, which determines the i=1 overall quality of the ecological environment (Table 3). In the Formula (1), the LU and C refer to the area and According to the natural runoff and the average annual i i ecological environment index of the I land-use type in rainfall calculation from 1980 to 2000 in Foshan City, the period of T in this region; TA refers to the total area over the years annual runoff coefficient can be calculated of the region; n refers to the land-use type and quantity to found a downward trend before 1995 and then began of the area (Figure 1). to increase significantly. Through a long time series of Based on the ecological service function of different measured data research, some scholars found that a load land-use types, the expert weight analysis method is range exists in the external disturbances of the regional adopted, which is determined by nine experts in land hydrologic system, that is, there is a certain threshold, management, environmental engineering and ecological human disturbance and the changes of hydrological sys- evaluation. According to the effect of different land-use tem exist “time delay” phenomenon (Yang, 2000). The types on ecological environment quality, the weights of large-scale development and construction changed the different landscape components were determined finally regional land mosaic structure since from the early 80’s (Table 2). By calculating the change of eco-environmen- of the last century in Foshan, making the regional hydro- tal quality index in Foshan City during 1990–2008, it logical cycle system changes. Before 1995, it is construc- shows that the change of URNCL in Foshan has caused tion land increased the fastest (non-construction land Figure 1. l ocation and topography of Foshan city. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 193 Table 2. The ecological quality index weight of different land-use types in Foshan city. Land-use types Farmland Woodland Green Pond Water Construct-ion land Weight of ecological 0.35 0.85 0.50 0.45 0.55 0.15 environmental quality index Figure 2. The change of ecological environment quality index in Foshan city. reduced the fastest) period in Foshan, also during this before 2000. The beginning of 2005, the heat island area period, the importance of farmland→pond of urban and in Foshan city showed obviously a spread tendency, from rural non-construction with internal type conversion is Chancheng spread to the Guicheng street and Dali Town the biggest. Due to impervious rate of construction, land in the Eastern of Nanhai District, the formation of a and water (dike-pond) were significantly higher than larger area of city heat island area; at the same time, that of other types of non-construction land, resulting there has been a strong heat island effect area higher runoff velocity is faster, but the runoff coefficient meas- than 28 °C in the streets of Daliang and Ronggui in ured by average annual rainfall and natural runoff flow Shunde district; the urban heat island in Gaoming area metre is not increasing linearly as expected, but appeared has been mainly in built-up area and along Gaoming to decrease the fluctuation trend. Aer 1995 t ft here is a road; the heat island in Sanshui district has been mainly clear upward trend, which also verifies the hysteresis divided into built-up area and industrial park. In 2008, phenomenon between human disturbance and hydro- e a Th rea of heat island area which surface temperature logic system changes. was higher than 25 °C was further expanded in Foshan City, adjacent to the Guangzhou eastern region has been rolling into the film and the South China Sea area to the 4.2. Effects on surface temperature east of the island area extended to South Nanzhuang Based on the calculated temperature pixel value of Town and Lecong Town, North Street and extended to ArcGIS, the statistics of the surface temperature distri- the south of the town of Shishan Village; the distribution bution area can be found: the urban heat island effect in of urban heat island in Shunde is axially diffused along Foshan City in 1990 was not obvious, but the heat island 105 National Road (Figure 4). area whose surface temperature is higher than 20 °C had obvious upward trend from 1995. This is due to the rapid 4.3. Effect on vegetation cover growth of land surface temperature in the 1990–1995 research period and the rapid decline in land surface Biodiversity, as the basic parameter of the regional eco- temperature of non forest land types. Aer 2005, t ft he logical environmental system, is closely related to the region of the heat island area with a surface temperature elements of the regional ecological environment, its higher than 25 °C increased greatly, which was directly essence is the entity function of ecological environment related to the decrease of the water surface area with factor under the support of fixed landscape pattern and low surface temperature in this period. According to material and energy circulation mode, which has index the change of surface temperature in Foshan City, the significance to the ecological environment quality of the heat island area with surface temperature greater than reaction region (Li, 2007; Ding et al., 2010). The most pop - 25 °C was mainly distributed in the original built-up ulor and mature Normalized Difference Vegetation Index area, newly developed area and main traffic line around (NDVI) was used to characterize the impact of URNCL 194 H. XIAO ET AL. Figure 3. changes of surface temperature in Foshan city. Table 3. change of vegetation coverage in different levels in Foshan city. Number of pixels Vegetation coverage 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 Rate of change (%) l ow vegetation coverage (0 ＜ ndVI ≤ 0.15) 562,532 1132,864 1416,863 1308,777 795,402 41.40 Middle vegetation coverage (0.15 ＜ ndVI ≤ 0.3) 949,549 1359,031 994,744 865,139 719,554 −24.22 High vegetation coverage (ndVI ＞ 0.3) 2497,015 1044,617 691,315 652,763 293,089 −88.26 a verage of ndVI 0.1746 0.1359 0.1204 0.1063 0.0828 −52.58 evolution on the biodiversity in this paper. According to to the trend of forest types of urban and rural non con- actual vegetation cover of Foshan City, the types of vege- struction land. The differences between different coverage tation cover can be classified into three categories: lower level are large, the area of lower cover vegetation increased cover vegetation (0 ＜ NDVI ≤ 0.15), middle coverage of generally; middle coverage of vegetation area showed a vegetation (0.15 ＜ NDVI ≤ 0.3) and high coverage of veg- downward trend; the downward trend in the area of high etation (NDVI ＞ 0.3). According to the change of NDVI coverage of vegetation is very significant, rate of change and spatial distribution in Foshan City, it can be found come to −88.62%. From the perspective of spatial distribu- that the vegetation index of the city showed a downward tion, the average value of NDVI showed up as: Gaoming trend, in which the largest decline in 1990–1995, the rate District＞Sanshui District＞Nanhai District＞Shunde of decrease slowed aer ft 1995, the reversal of the trend of District＞Chancheng District, while the change range of small amplitude decreased aer 2005, w ft hich is similar Nanhai District is the most obvious. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 195 Figure 4. changes of ecosystem services in Foshan city. In the above formula, ESV is the value of ecosystem 5. The impact of URNCL changes on the services (yuan), A is the acreage of study area land k ecological system types of area (ha), VC is ecological value coefficient As one of the ecological system, the urban ecological (Yuan/ha·a), ESV is individual ecosystem services and system integrates the ecosystem services with human their values (yuan), VC are single service function value fk services (Li, Liang, & Zhao, 2011). With the develop- coefficient (Yuan/ha·a). ment of urbanization, the ecological service function is This article choose < Chinese land ecosystem unit gradually replaced by human services. Integration of the area ESV table > by Xie Gaodi, Lu Chun-xia and other service functions believes that there are ecological system scholars, through the different land-use types of the threshold in the process of urbanization, when exceeding calculation of ecological service value, the total value the threshold level, the ecosystem is on the verge of col- of ecosystem service functions, in Foshan City, down lapse (Ding et al., 2010). The definition of ecosystem ser - from 40.7546 million yuan in 1990 to 31.6628 million vice function is given in detail by Daily in his book <the yuan in 2008 in our study, the reduction value of the natural services: human society’s dependence on the formation and conservation of soil and ecosystem ser- natural ecological system>: ecosystem services is to vice function value of biodiversity is most obvious, the support and meet the natural system of human survival most effective of Foshan city ecological service func- and the situation and the process of species composition. tion is soil and water loss and reduction of large forest Including, ecosystem production, generation and main- patches, the biggest drop is in 1990–1995, after that tenance of biodiversity, adjustment and stabilization of the decline has been slow (Figure 4). Contrast to the climatic conditions, mitigation of drought and flood dis - analysis of URNCL change on the hydrological system asters, maintenance and the fertility of soil, air and water disturbance, the threshold value is about in 1995, which purification, waste detoxification and decomposition, the can be speculated that this time period is the threshold material circulation, pollination and seed dispersal of interval for the transformation of the function of the crops and natural vegetation, plant diseases and insect ecosystem. pests outbreak control, human culture’s development and evolution, human senses of mental and spiritual benets fi (Forman, 2008; Nassauer & Opdam, 2008). 6. Discussion Ecosystem service value (ESV) is calculated as follows: In this paper we put forward the concept of URNCL based on the ecological security theory, which is the ESV = A × VC (2) spatial response to huge challenges of resource and envi- ronment to the development of the rapid urbanization area. In addition, it is the demand for changing the ESV = (A × VC ) (3) f k fk concept of development and achieving the sustainable 196 H. XIAO ET AL. development. According to the analysis of URNCL Funding evolution and the ecological security response in Foshan This research was financially supported by National Natural City, it can be found that the change of land use from Science Foundation of China [project number 51408342]; one model to another, especially from the ecological MOE (Ministry of Education in China) Project of Humanities and Social Sciences [project number 14YJCZH166]; Key productive land (non construction land) to the energy Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China consumption type land (construction land), which will University of Technology [project number 2016ZB11]; Key cause different degrees of influence and impact to the Laboratory of Ecology and Energy-saving Study of Dense regional ecosystems following with a stress effect. The Habitat (Tongji University), Ministry of Education. change of URNCL transform the land-use structure via the spatial-temporal accumulation of land use, which References ae ff cts the first level of the ecological security – regional Ding, N., Meng, F., Wang, Q., Li, Y., & Wang, J. (2010). landscape pattern and ecological process, resulting in Change of land use in rapidly urbanized area: A case the changes of the spatial characteristics of landscape study of Pudong New Area. Journal of Shandong Jianzhu and further leading to the second aspects of the land- University, 25, 364–367. scape ecological security/ecosystem service function Forman, R. T. T. (2008). Urban regions: ecology and planning change. beyond the city. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Hou, L., & Cai, Y.-L. (2004). 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Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jul 3, 2017
Keywords: Urban and rural non-construction land; spatial evolution; ecological security; Foshan city
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