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In recent years in Taiwan, pedestrians have been injured by external wall tiles falling from high-rise buildings. In numerous cases, exposure to temperature and/or seismic behavior caused the tiles to fall off. This is now treated as a public safety threat. Therefore, in 2015, the Office of Building Administration of the Taoyuan City Government started inspecting buildings that were eleven stories or higher and constructed before 1996. From 2015 to 2016, the authors inspected 298 high-rise buildings for external wall tile failures in the city as contract research. We put building risk into Levels from A to E. Levels D and E accounted for 41.6% of the 298 buildings. These were dangerous buildings that needed to be repaired immediately. Additionally, we analyzed our data based on building age, number of stories, exterior materials, the directions walls faced, and city districts. Of the buildings inspected, 84% were between 20 and 25 years old. Approximately 74% were 11 to 15 stories high. Moreover, 74.5% used tiles such as mosaic, square brick, Nikogake, or half of Nikogake. Also, 44.3% of degraded buildings were in Taoyuan District. The authors hope that the research results are a useful reference for inspection systems and that they will lead to periodic inspections. Keywords: external wall tiles; Taoyuan city; public safety; degradation condition; periodic inspection 1. Introduction higher and constructed before 1996 in the city. Until In recent years in Taiwan, some pedestrians have recently, Taipei City, New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Taizhong, been injured by falling external wall tiles. One Taipei Tainan, and Kaohsiung were the municipalities directly resident was killed by tiles from the United Daily under the jurisdiction of the Central Government. News building in March 2015. In addition, Taiwan According to the provisions of the Local System Act, these had the lowest temperatures in 10 years in late January are areas with more than 1.25 million people and where 2016, until the temperature suddenly rose 12.5 degrees there are special needs regarding politics, economics, on January 26. This caused a large number of building culture, and other metropolitan affairs. Taoyuan City was 1) tiles to fall off. Moreover, on February 6, 2016, in added to the above municipalities in 2014. Meinung Town, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.6 The current study was a continuation of contracted 2) on the Richter scale caused a large number of building research. Our team inspected 298 high-rise buildings tiles to fall off. There have been numerous other in Taoyuan City for the city government from cases where exposure to temperature and/or seismic September 2015 to May 2016. All the buildings behavior caused exterior wall tiles to fall to the ground. in this study were selected randomly. The exterior This issue is now treated as a threat to public safety. finish of 74.5% of the inspected buildings was tile. Consequently, the Taiwan government began paying Our report includes data from 1980 to 2015 in the attention to exterior wall problems and conducting "Account and Residence Census Report" published visual inspections for signs of deterioration. by the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and In line with this, the Office of Building Administration Statistics of Taiwan and the Construction and Planning of the Taoyuan City Government started inspecting Agency in the Ministry of the Interior. According to exterior walls of high-rise buildings eleven stories or this "Account and Residence Census Report", the number of householders from 1983 to 2015 in Taoyuan City had two peaks. One was 27,362 householders *Contact Author: Chu-Tsen Liao, Assistant Professor, in 1995; and the other was 23,122 householders in National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, 2006 (Fig.1.). Most buildings built during the peak Kaohsiung University Road. Nan-Tzu District, of 1995 were in poor condition. For this reason, we Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan also conducted research on buildings constructed in Tel: +886-7-5919392 Fax: +886-7-5916876 Taoyuan City before 1996 that had eleven or more E-mail: email@example.com stories. How to maintain and manage existing old ( Received April 4, 2017 ; accepted July 23, 2018 ) buildings has become an important issue. DOI http://doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.17.549 Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/September 2018/556 549 3) Tile is one of the most popular materials for from Taipei, Taoyuan, and Taizhong City are similar. the finish of exterior walls for housing in Taiwan, We used such a form and classified the building risks especially for reinforced concrete and steel-reinforced- into five categories: Levels A to E. Buildings at Levels concrete structures. In the current survey, 74.5% of the D and E were regarded as dangerous and requiring buildings studied used tiles in Taoyuan City. The types immediate repair. of tiles included mosaic, square brick, Nikogake, and Of the buildings that we inspected, 109 (36%) half of Nikogake. of them were rated Level C (Fig.2.). During initial Tile adhesion failure can be caused by a number inspection, 27 of those 109 were rated D or E. of factors, including adhesive deformation, improper However, they were later upgraded to C because workmanship, and humidity. We collected data using protective eaves, iron windows, and/or protective nets nondestructive visual inspection of exterior wall were installed. tiles. The purpose of the study was to determine the The risk-level classifications are defined below. relationships between degradation conditions and building ages, number of stories, exterior materials, directions that walls face, and city districts. It is hoped that this study will be a very useful reference for inspection systems as well as provide important ideas on approaches to and implementation of periodic inspections. Fi g .2. Pe rc e nt a ge o f Bu i l di n g s R e c e i vi ng E a c h Ri sk Classification for 298 Inspected Buildings ● A: Nonexistent. The exterior walls do not have any attached objects, and the walls are clean and flawless. ● B: Caution required. The risk level cannot be classified as Level C, D, or E. ● C: Improvements recommended. There is sporadic wall degradation due to tile peeling, floating, serious water leakage, and/or efflorescence. Buildings rated Fig.1. The Number of Newly Constructed Buildings from 1983 as D and E are upgraded to C if sufficient protective to 2015 in Taoyuan City eaves, iron windows, and/or protective nets are added. 2. Background on the Study and Our Methods ● D: Potentially dangerous. The number of floating Our team inspected the external walls of 298 high- tiles is four or less on the exterior walls, and each rise buildings from September 2015 to May 2016. is smaller than 5 m . In addition, there are four or Each building had eleven or more stories and was fewer severe cracks in the exterior walls. constructed before 1996 in Taoyuan City. There are ● E: Dangerous. The number of floating tile areas is thirteen districts in the city. Sixty buildings were greater than or equal to five on the exterior walls, surveyed monthly from October 2015 to January 2016. and each is greater than or equal to 5 m . In addition, We were also responsible for responding to "1999" the number of severe cracks in the exterior walls is emergency notifications, which came in through a 24- greater than or equal to five. hour City Hall hotline. If there was a notification about 2.2 Survey Form falling tiles, we had to arrive at the scene within two Three architects and two civil engineers were hours and inspect the exterior wall immediately. responsible for the main inspections. First, they held Our team consisted of a university professor, three discussions with a community management committee architects, two civil engineers, and three students and residents. Then, they reported on those discussions seeking master's degrees. We used the naked eye, to professors at the University of Kaohsiung. After binoculars, and high-powered single-lens cameras to that, the professors integrated the information with city inspect the buildings and record the deterioration of government information to create the survey form. The their external walls at the sites. inspectors had to complete the form each time they 2.1 Risk Classifications: Levels A, B, C, D, and E examined a building. The six municipalities started inspecting the exterior The following are the items on the form. walls of high-rise buildings in 2015, 2016, and 2017. ● Item 1. Building information: Address, license, The inspectors first discussed what type of survey type of construction (e.g., reinforced concrete), form to use so as to best be able to make prompt and number of structures, usage, and filing code. correct evaluations at the scenes. The survey forms 550 JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Chu-Tsen Liao ● Item 2. Inspectors, contract institution, and building-visit information: All the architects and civil engineers, the University of Kaohsiung, and the community management committee had to sign and date the form. ● Item 3. Evaluation of walls and attached objects: The building risk classifications were Level A (Nonexistent), B (Caution required), C (Improvements recommended), D (Potentially dangerous, meaning moving to temporary facilities is recommended), and E (Dangerous, meaning a warning belt is necessary around the building and evacuation to temporary facilities is recommended). ● The evaluations factored in the material used for the exterior walls (tile, stone, compacted light pebbles, monolithic finish, etc.) and attached objects (railings, air conditioning equipment, eaves, iron windows, etc.). ● It e m 4. Re c o m m e nda t i o n f o r use o f sa f e temporary facilities ● Item 5. The damage status of each floor ● Item 6. Photos showing current conditions ● Item 7. Drawings showing building and street status Fig.4. Survey Form's Item 7: Drawings Showing Building and Figs.3. and 4. illustrate Items 6 and 7, respectively, Street Status on a survey form for a Level E building. 3.1 Ages of Buildings Fig.5. shows the ages of the buildings inspected in this study. Approximately 85% of the buildings were 20 to 25 years old, 11% from 26 to 30 years old, and 4% over 30 years old. For the relationships between their ages and the risk levels for which data was available, see Table 1. Fig.5. The Ages of All the Buildings Inspected Table 1. The Relationships between Building Ages and Risk Levels Risk Building ages levels 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 A 13 3 1 0 B 41 2 2 1 C 85 17 1 1 D 44 2 1 0 Fig.3. Survey Form's Item 6: Photos Showing Current E 54 7 5 2 Conditions Total 85.0% 11.0% 3.0% 1.0% 3. Basic Building Information 3.2 Number of Stories In this section, we explain the basic building Fig.6. shows the number of stories of the buildings information, i.e., the year of construction, number of inspected in this study. About 74% of them were 11 to stories, and types of exterior wall finishes. 15 stories high, 17% from 16 to 20 stories high, 3% JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Chu-Tsen Liao 551 less than 11 stories high, and 6% over 20 stories. Table 4. The Degradation Conditions of the Exterior Wall 2. shows the relationships between the number of Tiles floors and the building risk level. In this section, we show the relationships between 3.3 Tile Sizes and Exterior Wall Types the deterioration of the inspected buildings and the Table 3. lists common tile sizes in Taiwan. Right building ages, the number of stories, the exterior after that, Fig.7. shows the types of exterior wall materials, the direction each wall was facing, and the finishes for the buildings inspected. Approximately 5% Taoyuan City districts. of the buildings used mosaic, 45% were square brick, 4.1 The Degradation Condition in Taoyuan City 20% were Nikogake, and 5% were half of Nikogake. The relationships between the deterioration of the Therefore, 75% of them used tiles. The others were buildings and their exterior wall types, wall directions, compacted light pebbles, monolithic finish, stone, and districts are shown in Tables 4., 5., and 6., curtain wall, and decorative plate. respectively. We made several significant discoveries through our statistical data. (1) Of the inspected buildings, 84% were 20 to 25 years old, and most of them were rated as Levels C, E, or D. (2) In terms of height, 73.5% of the buildings were 11 to 15 stories high, most of which were rated as Level C or E. (3) The tile materials among 74.5% of the buildings were mosaic, square brick, Nikogake, and half of Nikogake. The square brick was the most Fig.6. The Number of Floors of All the Buildings Inspected commonly used material at 44.8% among all the buildings. Table 2. The Relationships between Building Heights and Risk Level (4) The degradations were the most common when a Number of building floors Risk wall was facing east (15%), northeast (14.3%), or Level 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 30~ south (14.1%). 0 0 10 2 3 2 (5) Regarding districts, 44.3% of the degraded B 0 0 39 4 4 1 buildings were in the Taoyuan District, with 26.5% C 2 2 83 18 2 2 in the Zhongli District. D 0 0 37 9 1 0 Among our structures, Fig.8. shows a 12-story E 7 2 50 17 1 0 reinforced-concrete building (filing code: 10410-2). It Total 2.0% 1.0% 74.0% 17.0% 4.0% 2.0% was constructed in 1989. The building's square bricks were the most common type of tile used from 1985 4) Table 3. Common Tile Sizes in Taiwan 4) to 1995. All the buildings in this study were selected Types of When Size (mm) randomly and 154 of them (51.7%) had square bricks. tiles common As for brick sizes, 100 x 100 mm was common for the 18 x 18 / 24 x 24 / 50 x 50 / 55 1970- Mosaic square bricks, and 230 x 50 mm was the most common x 55 / 60 x 120 1985 for the Nikogake. In contrast, 60 x 120 mm and 40 x 75 x 75/ 80 x 80 / 90 x 90 / 95 x 1985- Square brick 190 mm were the most common sizes for mosaic and 95 / 100 x 100 1995 half of Nikogake. 230 x 60 / 230 x 50 / 210 x 55 / 1985- Nikogake 227 x 60 / 240 x 52 present Table 4. shows a large amount of tile spalling 173 x 40 / 190 x 40 / 1985- for square brick (44.8%) and Nikogake (20.3%). In Half of 195 x 35 / 200 x 32 present Nikogake addition, wider tiles with larger sizes tended to fall off more easily. Most notable was the square brick, with risk levels of C, D, or E accounting for 88.3% of the spalling. In addition, up to 1995, site workers often used cement mortar made with powdered seaweed as the tile adhesive. As a result, the material ratio and the amount of time the adhesive was in proper condition were 5), 6) not easy to control. In addition, underdeveloped construction skills and tile unit areas that were too large caused a large percentage of square brick spalling. Fig.7. The Types of Exterior Wall Finishes 552 JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Chu-Tsen Liao 4.3 The Degradation Conditions of the Level E Buildings in the Zhongli District Because 24% of the degraded buildings were in the Zhongli District, we have additional analysis regarding the relationships between the Level E buildings and their stories, exterior wall types, and directions there. (1) We observed that 88% of the inspected buildings were 20 to 25 years old. None of the buildings were 26 to 30 years, but 12% were 31 to 35 years old. (2) In terms of height, 71% of the buildings were 11 to 15 stories high, while 23% were 16 to 20 stories high. (3) We found that 92% of the buildings had tile materials, including mosaic (8%), square brick (52%), Nikogake (28%), and half of Nikogake (4%). Again, the square brick was the most common tile material that we found. (4) Most of the degradations were located on the southwest (22%), east (18%), and west (18%) sides of the buildings. Fig.8. Top Photo: 12-story Reinforced Concrete Building that Fig.9. The Number of Floors of the Level E Buildings We Inspected; Bottom Photo: Some Deteriorated Square Bricks 4.2 The Degradation Conditions of Level E Buildings Level E structures accounted for 26% of the 298 buildings inspected. We were therefore able to create additional analysis with respect to the relationships between the Level E buildings and their stories, exterior wall types, directions, and districts. Level E buildings had the following characteristics. (1) The ages of 81% of the buildings were 20 to 25 years old. In addition, 11% of them were 26 to 30 Fig.10. The Types of Exterior Wall of Level E Objects years old. (2) In Fig.9., we can see that 68% of the buildings 4.4 The Degradation Conditions of Level E Buildings were 11 to 15 stories high. Additionally, 23% of in the Taoyuan District them were 16 to 20 stories high. Because 44.3% of the degraded buildings were in the (3) Fig.10. shows that 84% of the buildings' tile Taoyuan District, we have more analysis with respect materials included mosaic (8%), square brick to the relationships between the Level E buildings there (49%), Nikogake (20%), and half of Nikogake and their stories, exterior wall types, and directions. (7%). Clearly, the square brick was the most (1) In Fig.11., we can see that 74% of the inspected common tile material in our study. buildings were 20 to 25 years old. In addition, (4) Most of the degraded walls were on the eastern 16% of them were 26 to 30 years old. and southeastern sides of buildings. (2) Fig.12. shows that 68% of the buildings were 11 to (5) By district, 54% of the degraded buildings were 15 stories high, while 18% of them were 16 to 20 in the Taoyuan District. The Zhongli District had stories high. 24% of them. JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Chu-Tsen Liao 553 Table 4. The Relationships between the Deterioration of Inspected Buildings and Exterior Wall Types Types of exterior walls Com- Risk Percent- Half of Mono- Cur- Decor- Mo- Square Niko- pacted level age Niko- lithic Stone tain ative saic brick gake light gake finish wall plates pebbles A 6.7% 0 2 6 2 1 0 0 7 5 B 16.6% 2 16 15 2 1 2 3 12 4 C 38.1% 4 66 26 5 3 2 14 8 3 D 12.2% 3 25 5 1 0 1 2 4 1 E 26.5% 7 45 18 6 0 1 6 5 3 Total 100% 4.7% 44.8% 20.3% 4.7% 1.5% 1.7% 7.3% 10.5% 4.7% Table 5. The Relationships between the Deterioration of Inspected Buildings and Wall Directions Risk Percent- Directions that degraded walls were facing level age North South East West Northeast Southwest Southeast Northwest A 1.4% 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 B 6.8% 3 1 5 5 4 6 4 1 C 39.4% 20 26 21 24 28 22 9 18 D 19.5% 8 15 11 15 11 6 8 9 E 32.9% 18 18 22 15 18 19 21 9 Total 100% 11.7% 14.1% 15% 13.8% 14.3% 12.4% 9.9% 8.7% Table 6. The Relationships between the Deterioration of Inspected Buildings and the Districts They were in Districts Risk Tao- Zhong- Lu- Long- Ping- Yang- Gui- Guan- Bade Percentage level Daxi yuan li zhu tan zhen mei shan yin A 5.7% 9 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 B 16.1% 14 12 6 1 4 0 0 10 1 1 C 36.6% 47 30 9 0 5 0 2 6 0 9 D 15.8% 21 18 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 E 25.8% 41 18 4 0 10 0 0 3 0 1 Total 100% 44.3% 26.5% 7.7% 0.7% 6.7% 1% 0.7% 6.7% 0.3% 5.4 Fig.11. The Ages of the Level E Buildings in the Taoyuan District Fig.13. The Types of Exterior Walls of the Level E Buildings in the Taoyuan District (3) In Fig.13., we can see that 98% of the buildings had tile materials, including mosaic (18%), square brick (44%), Nikogake (29%), and half of Nikogake (7%). Again, the square brick was the most common tile material. (4) Most of degradation directions were southeast (19%), northeast (17%), and southwest (16%). Fig.12. The Number of Floors of the Inspected Buildings at Level E in the Taoyuan District 554 JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Chu-Tsen Liao 5. Conclusions Nikogake (20%), and half of Nikogake (7%). The Construction and Planning Agency in the Clearly, the square brick was the most common Ministry of the Interior announced regulations for the tile material in our study. In fact, it was the most public safety verification of buildings in 1996 and commonly used tile type from 1985 to 1995. strengthened them in 2000 and 2010. The regulations Construction workers often used cement mortar state that fire prevention facilities and safety equipment made with powdered seaweed as the tile adhesive need to be checked to help ensure safety. However, the up to 1995. Consequently, the material ratio and condition of exterior walls has never been regulated. the amount of time the adhesive was in proper To protect pedestrians from exterior wall tiles that fall condition were not easy to control. Moreover, off, the walls should be listed in the near future as an underdeveloped construction skills and tile unit item to check to determine safety. How to maintain areas that were too large caused a large percentage and manage exterior wall tiles of existing buildings has of square brick spalling. Therefore, implementing become an important issue. laws for regular tile inspections and maintaining In this study, our team inspected exterior walls of these existing buildings with advanced housing high-rise buildings that were eleven or more stories age have become important issues. high and constructed in or before 1995 in Taoyuan (3) Degradation directions: City. Of those buildings, 16% were rated as Level D Degradations are most common when walls and 26% of them were Level E. In addition, 84% of the in Taoyuan face east (15%), northeast (14.3%), buildings were between 20 and 25 years old. Also, 74% and south (14.1%). In addition, the locations of of the buildings were 11 to 15 stories high, and 17% openings such as doors and windows affect the of them were 16 to 20 stories high. Moreover, 74.5% deterioration of the tiles. To avoid excess exposure of the buildings used tiles in Taoyuan City, such as to relatively hot western sunlight and cold wind, mosaic, square brick, Nikogake, and half of Nikogake. there should be fewer openings on the north and Additionally, 44.3% of the degraded buildings were in west. Therefore, the openings should be in other the Taoyuan District. directions, resulting in most tile spalling on the 7) Citizens who live on the 11th to 15th floors of eastern and southern sides. In this study, openings buildings that use square brick and are twenty years on the east, northeast, and south also affected the old or older in the Taoyuan District should have the tile deterioration. external walls checked. The government should also (4) Level D and E buildings: establish an inspection system for these buildings to We classified the risk of building degradation prevent accidents involving falling tiles. into five categories: Levels A to E. Level D and The features of the degraded buildings are below, E accounted for 41.6% of the 298 buildings with two considerations for actions to take in Paragraph inspected. These are regarded as dangerous (2). buildings that should be repaired immediately, (1) The degraded buildings' ages and stories: especially those at Level E. Our ratings showed As stated earlier, the number of householders that 16% of the buildings were at Level D and from 1983 to 2015 in Taoyuan City had two peaks. 26% at Level E. This means that 42% of the One was 27,362 householders in 1995, and the buildings need to be repaired. other was 23,122 in 2006. Most of the buildings In the case of Level E buildings, 81% of them at the peak in 1995 are in poor condition now. were 20 to 25 years old. We also found that 68% Approximately 85% of the inspected buildings of the buildings had 11 to 15 floors. In addition, we were 20 to 25 years old, and 11% were 26 to 30 learned that 84% of the buildings had tile materials. years old. About 74% of the buildings were 11 The square brick was the most common type. to 15 stories high, and 17% were 16 to 20 stories Additionally, most of the degradations were at the high. Based on our Level E data, cases at 26 to eastern and southeastern sides of the buildings. 30 years old accounted for 22.2% of the total. In (5) Degradation conditions of Level E buildings in addition, those 31 to 35 years old and 36 to 40 the Taoyuan District: years old made up 42.9% and 66.7%, respectively. A significant 44.3% of the degraded buildings Therefore, a higher housing age means a higher were found to be in the Taoyuan District because percentage of dangerous deterioration. Citizens this district was developed earlier and its should be concerned about buildings that population was about double that of the other correspond to these conditions. districts. (2) The tile materials of the exterior walls: Level E structures are regarded as dangerous Of the inspected buildings, 74.5% had tile buildings that should be repaired immediately. Our materials on the exterior walls, with square brick team teaches repair methods for exterior walls to being the most common. In the Taoyuan District, the community management committee. we found that 84% of the buildings used tile, including mosaic (8%), square brick (49%), JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Chu-Tsen Liao 555 There are several notable features of Level E buildings in the Taoyuan District. We observed that 74% of them were 20 to 25 years old. Additionally, 68% of them were 11 to 15 stories high. In addition, 98% of the buildings had tile materials. Moreover, it again became clear that the square brick (44%) was the most common tile material. Finally, most degradations were on the southeastern side (19%) of the buildings. Acknowledgement This study was funded by the Office of Building Administration of the Taoyuan City Government. We highly appreciate the assistance that we received from the local architects. References 1) ChuTsen Liao and YouZhen Fu (2016) The Relationship Between Low Temperature and the Deterioration of External Wall Tiles- In the Case of 1999 Notification in Taoyuan City, The Tenth Presentation of research results of Taiwan Institute of Property Management. 2) National University of Kaohsiung & Of fice of Building Administration of Taoyuan City Government. (2016) Cooperative Survey of Exterior Wall Condition in Taoyuan City. 3) Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior (2017). The study of assessment check and examine standard of building exterior tile finish. Annual Research Report. 4) Peiyee Tai. (2008) Nondestructive Testing of Exterior Wall Tiles by Tap Tone Method, National University of Kaohsiung Thesis, pp.2-10. 5) Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior (2010). The study on the reason of high-rise building tile peeling and its solution. Annual Research Report. 6) Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior (2016). Exterior Tile Construction Technology Manual. Annual Research Report. 7) Tsaii Kao. (2000) A Research and Innovation of the External Wall Tile Deterioration on the Building –For Example with the University School Building–, National Cheng Kung University Thesis. 8) Tomomi ITAYA, Yohei HEBIGUCHI, Norihiro NARITA, Yongsun KIM, ChuTsen LIAO, ChiaLiang WENG and Shuichi MATSUMURA. (2016) A Study on the Deterioration of the Exterior Wall Tile for High-rise Apartments in Taiwan. Part 5. On the Project of Exterior Wall Tile Survey by the Local Governments. Conference of Architectural Institute of Japan (KYUSHU). 9) Yohei HEBIGUCHI, Tomomi ITAYA, Norihiro NARITA, Yongsun KIM, ChuTsen LIAO, ChiaLiang WENG and Shuichi MATSUMURA. (2016) A Study on the Deterioration of the Exterior Wall Tile for High-rise Apartments in Taiwan. Part6. On the Exterior Wall Tile Survey in site by Taiwan City Government and Deterioration of the Survey Objects. Conference of Architectural Institute of Japan (KYUSHU) 556 JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Chu-Tsen Liao
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Sep 1, 2018
Keywords: external wall tiles; Taoyuan city; public safety; degradation condition; periodic inspection
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