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The purpose of the research is to suggest improvement directions of G-SEED certification criteria and standards. To verify the present condition and improvement points, the certification scores of 97 apartments were analyzed by category and criteria. Based on this, a certification specialist intensive interview was conducted, and specialist questionnaires were collected for multiple organizations. One hundred and thirty two questionnaires were analyzed by matrix analysis to establish synthetic improvement directions of criteria concerning similar tendencies. Based on this, the final improvement directions of G-SEED criteria were established. Keywords: G-SEED; green building; certification; apartment; specialist survey 1. Introduction In spite of 12 years of certification, however, Due to the global crisis concerning environmental G-SEED has not been evaluated as a completed system, pollution, the field of architecture has made various and it still requires improvement and development 8) attempts to decrease environmental load. It has in various aspects . There have been many studies reported that the total amount of GHG emissions to improve the criteria and standards of G-SEED. by commercial and residential buildings is 39% of The studies related to the present conditions and total industry in the United States, while buildings improvement directions in systematical aspects have 1), 3), 5), 13) represent 40% of energy consumption and 36% of been conducted by many researchers ( ). Also, 15) GHG emissions in Europe . As a result, the demands various studies on the improvement directions of for green buildings have increased internationally, and criteria and standards in G-SEED were conducted based since 2002, the Korean government has developed and on case analysis: case analysis studies for improvement 6), 7), 9), 14) operated Green Standard of Energy and Environment direction ( ), certification criteria improvement 4) Design (G-SEED), formerly KGBCC, to lead and studies by certification score analysis , and studies on 2) promote green building construction. the importance analysis of certification criteria . 16) In the beginning, G-SEED certified only apartments, In addition, Seok and Hong analyzed problems and the target has been expanded to every type of between pre-certification and certification, and 11), building today. There are four levels of certification in demonstrated improvement directions. Lee and Yeom 12) 10) G-SEED, and 1,214 buildings received certification and Kwon et al. conducted satisfaction surveys on (Pre-Certification: 2,170) by March 2014. In addition, the residents of certified and general apartments, and the numbers of certified buildings, certification types, showed improvement directions focused on criteria 17) and certification rate in total constructed apartment that demonstrated low satisfaction. Also, Son et al. projects have increased steadily, and this verifies that investigated and showed the economic benefits of the G-SEED has been successfully established in the Korean green building certification system. 12) construction market in Korea . Many researchers conducted improvement studies of G-SEED in many aspects; however, studies done on the certification score analysis are insufficient. Research on improvement concerning the opinions *Contact Author: Kyu-In Lee, Ph.D., Professor, of certification specialists is necessary, due to their Department of Architecture, Ajou University important role in the operating certification system. 443-749, Sanhakwon 720, San 5, Woncheon-dong, With this background, the aim of this research Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Republic of Korea is to suggest improvement directions of G-SEED Tel: +82-31-219-1817 Fax: +82-31-219-2945 certification criteria and standards. To accomplish this, E-mail: email@example.com the certification scores of 97 certified apartments were ( Received April 8, 2014 ; accepted October 27, 2014 ) Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/January 2015/136 129 Lifetime management Durability - analyzed by category and criteria to verify problems. Inclusive design Private area - In addition, improvement directions were surveyed by Public area - certification specialists. Home network Home network system - Security and safety Security and safety contents - Housing 2. Methodology Fire fighting Sensors and alarms - Performance Smoke extraction system - The range of research is G-SEED certification for Fire resisting capacity - apartments, which comprise the majority of applicants Evacuation safety Horizontal evacuation distance - for the Korean certification system. The certification Width of corridor and stairs - category and criteria for apartments in G-SEED are Evacuation facilities - + Note shown in Table 1. Evaluating height of the apartment and parallel distance Daylight interference to the other site in the north direction to prevent Table 1. Certification Criteria for the Apartment prevention plan blocking sunlight in the neighboring site Category Item Criteria Point Evaluating storage area per room area to prevent and Living furniture use Ecological Value Ecological value of the construction reduce material use for living furniture such as closet prevention plan site and cabinet. Influence on the Evaluating connected area rate to the rainwater Daylight interference prevention plan 2 Rainwater load reduction surrounding site reduction facility to prevent urban flooding and reduce plan Residential Community center and facility plan 3 rainwater related facility construction cost environment plan Evaluating the number of applied noise reduction Pedestrian pathway plan in the Noise protection from Land Use and 3 methods from the toilet and air duct to prevent noise apartment the toilet Transportation from the neighboring residential unit Connection to the outer pedestrian network To verify the present condition and improvement Transportation load Access to public transportation 2 reduction points, the certification scores of 97 apartments Bicycle storage and pathway plan 2 Distance between the center of the w hich achieved certification from M arch 2011 apartment and center of the locality/city to December 2012 were analyzed. Preliminary Energy saving Energy performance 12 Energy and improvement directions were deduced, and based on Sustainable energy use Renewable energy use 3 Environ- Global warming this, certification specialist interviews were conducted CO emission reduction 3 mental prevention Specific material prevention intensive. The interviewees were the CEO, committee Pollution regarding ozone layer members and senior researchers in the certification Resource saving Floor plan for life-style change 3 organization, research institutes, design firms, and Waste reduction Living furniture use prevention plan 3 Living waste Separate collection of recyclable consulting companies. Ten interviewees with long- separate collection material term certification work experience were selected by Food waste reduction 2 Materials and purposive sampling, and the problems, reasons, and Resources Sustainable resource Certified green product use for valid use resource recycling improvement directions of each certification criteria Carbon emission footprint of material 2 were surveyed. Optional for Structure reuse 7 Based on this, specialist questionnaires were remodeling Non-bearing wall reuse 2 collected for 4 certification organizations, 5 research Water circulation Rainwater load reduction plan 4 system Water institutes, 4 design firms, and 4 certification- Water resource Daily water use reduction plan 4 Circulation consulting companies. The questionnaires consisted saving Management Rainwater use 4 of 4 demographic questions, 5 general questions Graywater installation 3 about G-SEED, and multiple-choice questions about Systematic site Reasonability of construction site management management plan improvement directions of certification criteria. The Efficient building Providing operation/maintenance answers in the multiple-choice questions were deduced maintenance document and guideline Maintenance Efficient unit by synthetic analysis of related studies and specialist Providing user manual 1 maintenance interviews. There were nine answers for each choice; Easy maintainability Private area 2 'Increase Point', 'Decrease Point', 'Increase Standard', Public area 2 'Decrease Standard', 'Thorough Revision', 'Weight Green area plan in Connected green axis plan 2 site Natural soil green area rate 2 Revision', 'Maintaining the Present', 'Deletion', and a Ecological Ecological function free answer. Environment of outdoor and Ecological area rate 10 The survey was conducted from September 27 building surface Habitat Plan Biotope plan 4 to October 11, 2013, and 182 questionnaires were Atmosphere Low emission material use for indoor distributed. Seven disqualified questionnaires were environment air pollution substance excluded from the analysis, and 132 questionnaires Natural ventilation plan 3 were analyzed. The reliability and differences between Ventilation performance of unit 3 Thermal environment Auto thermostat in each room 2 values were verified by cronbach α (0.738) and t-test. Sound Environment Light floor impact sound prevention 2 Indoor In addition, certification scores and survey results Environment Heavy floor impact sound prevention 2 were analyzed by matrix analysis to establish synthetic Noise protection between units 2 improvement directions of criteria concerning similar Indoor/outdoor noise level from transportation tendencies. Based on this, the final improvement Noise protection from the toilet 2 directions of G-SEED criteria were established. Light environment Daylight ratio in the unit 4 130 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Dongwoo Yeom 3. Certification Score Analysis Results The average certification score of 97 apartments was 69.68 (out of 122), which indicates the second level in the G-SEED. The allotted points, average score, and Structure reuse Non-bearing wall reuse Rainwater load reduction plan score rate by category are shown in Table 2., and score distributions of criteria are shown in Table 3. In the analysis result by category, the Maintenance and Transportation category scored high. However, Daily water use reduction plan Rainwater use Graywater installation Water Resources and Environmental Pollution Prevention demonstrated relatively low scores, and Ecological Environment showed less than 50% of allotted points. In particular, these three categories Reasonability of Providing operation/ are directly related to environmental load reduction. construction site maintenance document Providing user manual management plan and guideline Thus, due to the basic purpose of certification, these categories required urgent improvement. Table 2. Certification Scores by Category Avg. Score Rate Category Allot Points Score (%) Connected green axis plan Natural soil green area rate Ecological area rate Land Use 12.00 7.26 60.52 Transportation 6.00 4.92 82.06 Energy 15.00 10.27 68.49 Materials and Resources 15.00 9.60 64.03 Low emission material use for Biotope plan Natural ventilation plan Water resources 13.00 6.76 51.99 indoor air pollution substance Environmental Pollution Prevention 6.00 3.18 52.92 Maintenance and Management 4.00 3.89 97.37 Ecological Environment 18.00 8.44 46.88 Indoor Environment 24.00 15.34 63.94 Auto thermostat in each Floor impact sound Noise protection between room prevention units Table 3. Score Distribution by Criteria Indoor/Outdoor noise level Noise protection from Daylight ratio in the unit from transportation the toilet Ecological value of the Daylight interference Community center and +Index: Biased Criteria construction site prevention plan facility plan In score distribution analysis results by criteria, the differences between criteria were large, from 0 to 100. All 97 apartments achieved a perfect score in Harmful Pedestrian pathway plan Connection to the outer Access to public substance prevention from construction material and in the apartment pedestrian network transportation Auto thermostat in each room. Providing operation/ maintenance document and guideline and providing user manual in the Maintenance category showed the average at 99.48%, which indicated almost every Distance between the apartment scored 100%. In addition, Daily water Bicycle storage and center of the apartment Energy performance pathway plan and center of the locality/ use reduction plan, Separate collection of recyclable city material, and four other criteria showed average scores above 90%, and the average scores of 13 criteria appeared higher than 80%. However, none of the apartments received scores Specific material Renewable energy use CO emission reduction in two criteria for remodeling, which are optional prevention for ozone layer in certification, and Graywater installation was analyzed very rarely. In addition, Daylight interference prevention plan, Rainwater load reduction plan, Connected green axis plan, and Indoor/Outdoor noise Floor plan for life-style Living furniture use Separate collection of level from transportation scored less than 20%, and change prevention plan recyclable material including these four, 12 certification criteria achieved an average lower than 30%. Furthermore, many criteria showed bias on specific points. In particular, biased criteria, which scored either Certified green product use Carbon emission Food waste reduction for valid resource recycling footprint of material 0 or 100, and the criteria where the difference between JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Dongwoo Yeom 131 the best and the second point was larger than 50% need the X-axis and the average of improvement direction to be improved. Therefore, score distribution analysis response rate (62.4%) was set as the Y-axis. The was conducted through detailed analysis and specialist analysis results are shown in Fig.3. and Table 4. survey, and the improvement directions of criteria were suggested from a practical perspective. 4. Survey Result Analysis and Discussions Specialist questionnaires were distributed equally to synthesize the opinions of various organizations: 31 for certification organizations, 34 for research institutes, Fig.1. Accumulated Improvement Response Rate 38 for consulting companies, and 36 for design firms. 4.1 Demographic and General Analysis Results The number of male respondents was twice as many as female respondents, and half of the respondents were in their 30s. The education level was M.A (42.4%), B.A. (39.4%), and Ph.D. (15.9%), which indicates a high level of education. Fifty four point six percent of the respondents have worked more than 5 years, so the respondents were well experienced for the survey. Fig.2. Accumulated Improvement Directions Ninety seven point seven percent of the respondents knew G-SEED, which showed high awareness. The average number of certification projects (design, construction, evaluation, research, consulting, etc.) was 37. In addition, half of the respondents (49.6%) had participated in the certification projects for more than 3 years, so they were experienced enough to create an accurate survey. In the 7-point scale question about the necessity of G-SEED, the average was 6.1, which indicated that the majority agreed with its necessity. However, 49.2% of the respondents answered that the mandatory approval requirement is the reason for certification achievement. Thus, understanding of the purpose of certification appeared low in the specialist group. In addition, the respondents answered 5.1 (on a 7-point scale) about the effect of certification for the spread of green buildings and construction technology transfer, which indicated that G-SEED effectiveness is weak. Fig.3. Matrix Analysis Results (Index: Table 4.) 4.2 Analysis Results The accumulated choice rate by the improvement Table 4. Score and Improvement Requirement Rate direction of criteria is shown in Figs.1. and 2. # Criteria S. I.R. Sixty one point five percent of the respondents Average 56.8 62.4 1 Ecological value of the construction site 45.4 66.4 answered that the improvement of criteria is 2 Daylight interference prevention plan 13.6 74.0 required, and it was higher than 'Maintaining the 3 Community center and facility plan 92.3 61.8 Present' (38.5%). In the accumulated choice rate by 4 Pedestrian pathway plan in the apartment 94.3 51.5 improvement direction, 'Increase Standard' received 5 Connection to the outer pedestrian network 24.2 64.1 the highest score. 'Thorough Revision', 'Increase 6 Access to public transportation 78.4 47.0 7 Bicycle storage and pathway plan 72.7 47.0 Points', 'Weight Revision' demonstrated a high rate, Distance between the center of the apartment and the center of the and 'Deletion' appeared relatively low. 8 95.2 54.6 locality/city To accomplish the improvement directions in detail, 9 Energy performance 73.2 63.4 10 Renewable energy use 49.7 65.2 the certification score by criteria and the improvement 11 Floor plan for life-style change 59.8 59.8 direction response rate were compared and analyzed 12 Living furniture use prevention plan 20.2 77.1 by matrix analysis. During the analysis, Harmful 13 Separate collection of recyclable material 95.1 55.4 substance prevention from construction material 14 Food waste reduction 51.5 56.2 was excluded due to deletion in the 2012 update. In 15 Certified green product use for valid resource recycling 89.5 61.5 16 Carbon emission footprint of material 79.4 54.2 addition, Auto thermostat in each room is mandatory 17 Structure reuse 0.0 98.9 due to another certification, so it was also deleted. 18 Non-bearing wall reuse 0.0 70.2 The average certification score (56.8%) was set as 19 Rainwater load reduction plan 17.5 73.8 132 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Dongwoo Yeom 20 Daily water use reduction plan 98.5 47.3 Table 6. The Improvement Directions of the Second Quadrant 21 Rainwater use 75.5 61.5 Improvement Criteria Requirement Improvement Direction (%) 22 Graywater installation 1.0 70.5 (%) 23 CO emission reduction 57.4 57.7 Specific material Increase Standard (17.4) 24 Specific material prevention for ozone layer 48.5 70.5 70.5 prevention for ozone layer Thorough Revision (16.7) 25 Reasonability of construction site management plan 91.0 51.9 Increase Standard (16.9) Rainwater load reduction 26 Providing operation/maintenance document and guideline 99.5 56.2 73.8 Decrease Standard (13.8) plan 27 Providing user manual 99.5 52.3 Increase Point (12.3) 28 Connected green axis plan 13.1 74.6 Floor impact sound Increase Standard (22.1) 69.5 29 Natural soil green area rate 35.1 71.8 prevention Increase Point (17.6) Deletion (21.4) 30 Ecological area rate 55.2 61.8 Structure reuse 70.2 Thorough Revision (15.3) 31 Biotope plan 49.0 71.2 Thorough Revision (16.7) 32 Low emission material use for indoor air pollution substance 78.3 62.1 Non-bearing wall reuse 68.9 Decrease Point (13.6) 33 Natural ventilation plan 31.2 56.5 Natural soil green area Increase Point (19.1) 71.8 34 Floor impact sound prevention 29.6 69.5 rate Weight Revision (15.3) 35 Noise protection between units 80.7 59.2 Increase Point (16.8) Daylight interference Decrease Point (11.5) 36 Indoor/Outdoor noise level from transportation 18.6 56.8 74.0 prevention plan Thorough Revision (11.5) 37 Noise protection from the toilet 82.0 54.6 Weight Revision (11.5) 38 Daylight ratio in the unit 62.3 61.3 Increase Point (22.0) + Index: S – Score (%) / I.R - Improvement Requirement (%) Renewable energy use 65.2 Increase Standard (18.9) Weight Revision (16.8) Ecological value of the According to the results, tendency and improvement 66.4 Decrease Standard (14.5) construction site Increase Standard (12.2) directions of certification criteria were distinguished Weight Revision (16.7) Biotope plan 71.2 by each quadrant. The largest number of criteria Decrease Standard (16.7) (19) appeared in the fourth quadrant and the second Connection to the outer Weight Revision (14.5) 64.1 pedestrian network Decrease Standard (14.5) quadrant also contained a relatively large number of Living furniture use Decrease Standard (15.3) 77.1 criteria (13). The first quadrant, on the other hand, only prevention plan Thorough Revision (14.5) Decrease Standard (20.0) included one criterion, and the third contained only Connected green axis plan 74.6 Thorough Revision (16.2) 4, which is a relatively small number. The specific Increase Point (15.4) analysis and improvement directions of certification Decrease Standard (13.6) Graywater installation 70.5 Increase Point (12.9) criteria in each quadrant are as follows. (1) The First Quadrant Various opinions appeared for improvement directions The criteria in the first quadrant indicates a such as 'Increase/Decrease Standard', 'Increase Points', high certification score and high improvement and thus requires further study. requirement, and it included Energy performance The largest number of resident complaints concerned (Table 5.). 'Increase Weight' had the highest number 12) Floor impact sound prevention , therefore increasing of improvement directions for these criteria; however, the standard and points are required. Non-bearing wall 'Increase Points' and 'Increase Standard' also showed reuse and Structure reuse are difficult to apply for new high necessity. Therefore, the standard, allotted points, construction, so no cases were reported concerning and weight need to be elevated. these criteria. Therefore, 'Thorough Revision' is a Table 5. The Improvement Directions of the First Quadrant proper direction or development, and operation of an Improvement Improvement Direction exclusive standard for remodeling is urgently required. Criteria Requirement (%) (%) 'Increase Point' and 'Weight Revision' were Weight Revision (15.3) Energy performance 63.4 Increase Point (14.5) investigated for the Natural soil green area rate. This Increase Standard (14.5) criteria is expensive to achieve, thus the allotment points need to be increased and weight revised. Various (2) The Second Quadrant directions were surveyed for the Daylight interference The second quadrant includes low-score and high prevention plan such as 'Increase Point', Decrease improvement-required criteria, and these criteria Point', 'Through Revision', and 'Weight Revision', needed improvement most urgently (Table 6.). Diverse which required further study. improvement directions were established for three 'Increase Point' and 'Weight Revision' showed a high criteria in 'Increase Standard', one criterion each for response rate for Renewable energy use, and this is a 'Deletion' and 'Thorough Revision', and five criteria for reasonable improvement direction to meet the demands 'Decrease Standard'. of the times. Ecological value of the construction site 'Increase Standard' was the dominant opinion for is decided by site condition, so the achievements are Specific material prevention for ozone layer . However, limited. Thus, thorough analysis is required before it is already mandatory by government environmental improvement and revision. standards, so 'Thorough Revision' was suitable for this Biotope plan installation would cost a lot, thus direction. In Rainwater load reduction plan, it was decreasing the standard or increasing weight are discovered that the standard for permeable pavement required to increase the number of installation. area needs to be reintroduced through specialist 'Decrease Standard' and 'Weight Revision' had the interviews, which was excluded in the last update. JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Dongwoo Yeom 133 same response rate for Connection to the outer needed 'Thorough Revision' (2) and 'Deletion' (2). pedestrian network. The site condition is absolute for This demonstrated that the certification specialists this criterion, so as the survey showed it needs to be understood that most criteria in this quadrant require improved. fundamental improvement. In the specialist interview, one issue brought up was Table 8. The Improvement Directions of the Fourth Quadrant that the present standard does not evaluate storage Improvement Criteria Improvement Direction (%) space in the living room, entrance or kitchen for the Requirement (%) Living furniture use prevention plan. It also showed a Increase Standard (16.2) Community center and facility 61.8 Thorough Revision (11.5) high response rate in the 'Thorough Revision', thus this plan Deletion (11.5) needs further study. Pedestrian pathway plan in 51.5 Increase Standard (19.2) the apartment Multiple directions were identified, such as 'Decrease Separate collection of Increase Standard (13.8) 55.4 Standard', 'Thorough Revision', and 'Increase Point' for recyclable material Thorough Revision (13.1) the Connected green axis plan, so this also required Certified green product use Increase Standard (18.5) 61.5 for valid resource recycling Weight Revision (10.8) additional research. Graywater installation is a Carbon emission footprint of Increase Standard (16.8) 54.2 difficult criterion to apply due to high cost, engineering material Weight Revision (9.2) level, and lack of understanding. It was surveyed that Rainwater use 61.5 Increase Standard (22.3) deriving score achievement is required by decreasing Increase Standard (13.8) CO emission reduction 57.7 Increase Point (13.8) the standard and increasing allotment points. Providing operation/ Increase Standard (13.8) (3) The Third Quadrant maintenance document and 56.2 Thorough Revision (9.2) guideline Weight Revision (9.2) The criterion in the third quadrant indicates a low Low emission material use for Increase Standard (19.7) certification score and improvement requirement, and 62.1 indoor air pollution substance Weight Revision (15.9) it includes four criteria (Table 7.). However, all of them Noise protection between 59.2 Increase Standard (29.2) units are close to the average score, and although 'Increase Noise protection from the toilet 54.6 Increase Standard (22.3) Standard' was dominant in all criteria, various opinions Daylight ratio in the unit 61.3 Increase Standard (21.4) were investigated at a similar rate. Therefore, these Reasonability of construction Thorough Revision (11.6) 51.9 criteria need further studies. site management plan Increase Standard (10.1) Floor plan for life-style Thorough Revision (14.4) 59.8 Table 7. The Improvement Directions of the Third Quadrant change Decrease Point (14.4) Improvement Deletion (13.8) Criteria Improvement Direction (%) Providing user manual 52.3 Requirement (%) Increase Standard (10.0) Increase Standard (16.9) Distance between the center Deletion (16.9) Food waste reduction 56.2 Thorough Revision (12.3) of the apartment and center of 54.6 Thorough Revision (10.8) Increase Standard (15.4) the locality/city Increase Standard (10.8) Ecological area rate 61.8 Increase Point (12.3) Daily water use reduction Maintaining the Present (52.7) 47.3 Weight Revision (12.3) plan Increase Standard (14.7) Increase Standard (14.5) Access to public transportation 47.0 Maintaining the Present (53.0) Natural ventilation plan 56.5 Increase Point (13.0) Bicycle storage and pathway Maintaining the Present (53.0) Thorough Revision (10.7) 47.0 plan Increase Standard (12.1) Indoor/Outdoor noise level 56.8 N/A (p>0.05) from transportation There were many opinions concerning the The installation of a resource recovery facility Community center and facility plan, and 'Increasing appeared very rarely due to its low usefulness for Standard' was the dominant response. According to the Food waste reduction, and 'Thorough Revision' was specialist interviews and a related study (Lee & Yeom, suggested for the improvement direction. Ecological 2012), Pedestrian pathway plan in the apartment area rate criteria have limits due to the building is strongly related to the residents' satisfaction. The coverage and profitability. Thus, it was shown in the highest response rate was 'Increasing Standard', but survey that 'Increase Point' or 'Weight Revision' is there were also many opinions on 'Thorough Revision' suitable for improvement. and 'Deletion'. Therefore, additional studies are Natural ventilation plan is calculated by floor required. area versus opening areas. However, the floor area Separate collection of recyclable material is a includes balconies, thus decreasing the open area rate. prerequisite criterion and 90% of the apartments Therefore, revising the standard is necessary. Indoor/ achieved a perfect score. Thus, it requires 'Increasing Outdoor noise level from transportation is greatly Standard' or 'Thorough Revision'. affected by the surrounding environment. Various To improve Certified green product use for valid opinions were suggested and none of them were resource recycling, 'Increasing Standard' was required significant by t-test, so this also needs further review. due to product expansion. In addition, weight revision (4) The Fourth Quadrant was suggested by the specialist interview concerning T h e fo u r t h q u a d r a n t i n c l u d e s c ri t e r i a wi t h the different feasibility of each green product a relatively high score and low improvement certification. The related products are also expanding requirement (Table 8.). In particular, 12 of the 19 for the Carbon emission footprint of material. Thus, criteria were required 'Increasing Standard', and also 'Increasing Standard' was determined to be dominant, 134 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Dongwoo Yeom and it also needed a minor revision in weight. specific revisions. These criteria were suggested to To achieve Rainwater use, in most cases a retention improve the standard for deriving score achievement. facility was installed, but it was determined that The criteria in further studies showed similar practical use needs to be evaluated after installation. improvement directions or possibilities for argument. CO emission reduction showed the same response rate These criteria need intensive cause analysis and on 'Increasing Standard' and 'Increasing Point', so a improvement direction research through further general raise is required. studies. According to the specialist interview, site-oriented Finally, three criteria, which indicated maintaining documents and general documents needed separate the present standard, need a gradual standard increase evaluation for Providing operation/maintenance to elevate the certification level from a long-term documents and guidelines. Also, there were various perspective. suggestions on this, so it needs further review. Table 9. Synthetic Improvement Direction Applicable products are increasing for the Low Improvement Certification Criteria emission material use for indoor air pollution Direction Increase Point Floor impact sound prevention substance, so the standard needs to be increased. Pedestrian pathway plan in the apartment The contents of Noise protection between units and Separate collection of recyclable material Certified green product use for valid resource Noise protection from the toilet are hot social issues recycling in Korea, so continuous 'Increasing Standard' was Carbon emission footprint of material Rainwater use suggested. For the Daylight ratio in the unit, it was CO emission reduction indicated that the present standard was not suitable for Low emission material use for indoor air pollution the purpose of criteria, and restoring the old standard substance Noise protection between units which evaluated daylight time is needed. It was also Noise protection from the toilet suggested that the standard concerning the limited Daylight ratio in the unit Thorough Daylight ratio in the unit number of perpetual shadowed units needs to be Revision Structure reuse restored. Non-bearing wall reuse Reasonability of construction site management plan Many of the specialists questioned the effectiveness Floor plan for life-style change of Reasonability of construction site management plan Food waste reduction and Floor plan for life-style change in the interview, so Deletion Providing user manual Increase Point Daylight interference prevention plan 'Thorough Revision' was recommended. Renewable energy use A user manual is always provided to residents, thus Ecological area rate Weight Revision Biotope plan the deletion of the Providing user manual criteria Connection to the outer pedestrian network was suggested. The Distance between the center of Decrease Standard Graywater installation apartment and the center of locality/city are limited Further Study Community center and facility plan Required Energy performance by the site location, and there are many arguments Rainwater load reduction plan about the definition of locality/city center. Also, the Natural soil green area rate Ecological value of the construction site improvement directions were surveyed in diversity. Living furniture use prevention plan Therefore, developing criteria to evaluate centers more Connected green axis plan specifically is needed and requires further studies. Natural ventilation plan Indoor/Outdoor noise level from transportation Finally, Daily water use reduction plan, Access Providing operation/maintenance document and to public transportation, and Bicycle storage and guideline Distance between the center of the apartment and pathway plan were deemed 'Maintaining the Present', center of the locality/city so the present standard is reasonable. Maintaining the Daily water use reduction plan Present Access to public transportation 4.3 Synthetic Analysis Bicycle storage and pathway plan To clarify the improvement directions, analysis results were synthesized and arranged by the 5. Conclusion improvement directions which were discussed and The purpose of the research was to suggest concluded in chapter 4.2. The synthetic improvement improvement directions of G-SEED certification directions for certification criteria are shown in Table 9. criteria and standards. To accomplish this, the The dominant improvement direction was 'Increase certification scores were analyzed by category and Standard' which appeared in 11 criteria. Also, criteria to verify the problems, and improvement widespread improvement-required criteria were directions were suggested concerning the certification investigated, such as 'Thorough Revision' (6) and specialist survey. The results are as follows: 'Deletion' (1). This proves that certification specialists (1) According to the score analysis on the 97 understand the necessity of increasing standards, thus certified apartment projects, unequal score distribution urgent improvement is needed. was significant in 19 criteria, and needs improvement. The criteria that required 'Increasing Point', 'Weight In addition, 13 criteria in which the average score was Revision', and 'Decreasing Point' indicates limits to over 80% and 12 criteria where the average was under scoring due to practical matters or requirement for 30% required improvement urgently. JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Dongwoo Yeom 135 (2) 61.5% of the respondents chose answers References 1) Bae, S. and Song, O. (2010) A Study on the Actual Condition and related to improvement. This proves that certification the Effect of KGBCC – Based on Apartment Houses. Journal of specialists consider that the present standard is at a low Architectural Institute of Korea, 26(12), pp.61-70. level, thus the necessity for increasing the standard and 2) Choi, Y. and Lee, S. (2012) Analyzing the Weight of Assessment improvement appeared high. Criteria in Korea Green Building Certification System - Focused (3) In the matrix analysis, the first quadrant, on Certification Standards for Multi-unit Apartment Projects. Jou rn a l o f Kor e a I nst i t ut e of E c o l og i c a l Ar c hi t e c t ur e a n d which indicates a high score and high improvement Environment, 12(1), pp.83-90. requirement, only contained one criterion. This 3) Han, K., Kim, A., and Kim, S. (2007) An Analysis of Domestic requires a gradual standard increase from a theoretical Environment-Friendly Building Design Certification. Workshop of perspective. The second quadrant, which showed the Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture and Environment, low scores and a high improvement requirement, 13(11), pp.53-56. 4) Jung, Y., Kim, J., Baek, H., & Song, O. (2012) A Study on the included 14 criteria. These criteria were deemed as Improvement of Green Building Rating System through Analysis highly needing thorough revision or increase, such of Each Assessment Item of KGBCC Certified Apartments. as 'Increasing Standard', 'Thorough Revision', and Journal of Architectural Institute of Korea, 28(2), pp.53-60. 'Deletion'. In addition, some criteria limited by the site 5) Kim, B. (2006) Introduction and the Present Condition of and project conditions needed deriving by 'Increasing Korean Green Building Certification Criteria. Journal of Korean Association of Air Conditioning, Refrigerating and Sanitary Point' and 'Decreasing Standard'. The criteria Engineers, 23(7), pp.34-15. belonging to the third quadrant indicated low scores 6) Kim, C (2013) A study on the Improvement of the Korea Green and improvement requirement. However, these showed Building Certification Criteria by Assessing the Maintenance scores close to the average, and diverse improvement Categories. Journal of Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture directions were suggested, thus requiring further and Environment, 13(2), pp.93-100. 7) Kim, D., Lee, S., Sadohara, S. (2014) A Comparison of Plan and studies. The fourth quadrant, which indicates a low Facility Items in Green Building Certification Criteria – Focused score and high improvement requirement, included on Energy-related Items in Schools, Journal of Asian Architecture 19 criteria. The majority of improvement directions and Building Engineering, 13(2), pp.429-436. were 12 'Increasing Standard', 2 'Through Revision', 8) Kim, H (2012) The Study on the Management Model Improvement and 1 'Deletion', and this proves that the necessity for of G-SEED, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Architecture, JoongAng University, Seoul, Korea. increasing standards and improvement of certification 9) Kim, S., Lee, D., and Kim, S. (2010) Comparative Analysis specialists are high in this quadrant. of Evaluation Items in Green Building Certification Case of (4) 18 improvement directions called for increasing Apartment Housing. Journal of Korea Institute of Ecological standards and wide revision, which included Architecture and Environment, 10(2), pp.31-38. 'Increasing Standard' (11), 'Thorough Revision' (6), 10) Kwon, H., Yeom, D., and Lee, K (2011) A Study on the Effect and Improvement Directions of KGBCC based on the Comparison and 'Deletion' (1). The criteria where the improvement of Green Residents Satisfaction. Journal of Korea Institute of directions were suggested as 'Increasing Point' (3), Ecological Architecture and Environment, 11(5), pp.79-90. 'Weight Revision' (2), and 'Decreasing Point' (1) need 11) Lee, K. and Yeom, D. (2009) Comparative Research of Residents' improvement to derive score achievement. The 11 Satisfaction Level between Green Building-Certified Apartment criteria for further study need intensive further research Complexes and General Apartment Complexes in Korea. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 8(2), pp.423-430. for improvement, and 3 criteria for 'Maintaining the 12) Lee, K. and Yeom, D. (2012) Comparative Research of Residents' present' (3) need standard increases from a long-term Satisfaction Level in KGBCC-Certified Apartments in Korea. perspective. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 11(1), This research proved the bias of certification scores pp.55-62. through certification score analysis, and it is significant 13) Lee, H. and Choi, C. (2011) A Study on Score Comparison between Preliminary and Main Certification of Green Building that improvement directions of criteria were suggested Certification Criteria for Educational Facilities. Journal of the from a practical perspective. In addition, improvement Korean Solar Energy Society, 31(1), pp.68-76. studies for other building types are required in the 14) Mo, J., Koim, C., Lim, T., Kang, Y. & Kim, B. (2008) A Study future. of Case Analysis on Green Building Certification Criteria for Advanced Methods. Proceedings of the Korean Solar Energy Society, pp.178-183. Acknowledgement rd 15) SBI Energy (2012) Green Building Materials and Construction, 3 This study was conducted as a part of a Ph.D. Edition, Maryland, U.S., SBI (Specialist in Business Information). dis s ertation: Yeom, D (2014) A S tudy on the 16) Seok, H and Hong, H. (2010) Study on the Management of Sustainability Improvement Model for G-SEED, Environmentally Friendly Design Features in Green Housing Department of Architecture, Ajou University, Korea. Estates. Proceedings of Korean Housing Association, 1, pp.355- This work was supported by the National research 17) Son, L., Lee, S., Lim, C., Kim, S. (2014) Economic Analysis of Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Korea Green Building Certification System in the Capital Area government (MEST) (NRF-2011-0018116). Using House-Values Index, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building engineering, 13(2), pp.475-481. 136 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Dongwoo Yeom
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 1, 2015
Keywords: G-SEED; green building; apartment; specialist survey
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