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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIODIVERSITY SCIENCE, ECOSYSTEM SERVICES & MANAGEMENT, 2016 VOL. 12, NOS. 1–2, 57–58 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2016.1169578 EDITORIAL This Special Issue of the International Journal of biodiversity as an indicator for intact ecosystems that Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & can sustain production of high-value species, use of Management (IJBESM) examines possibilities for high-value species in restoration and plantations to positive synergy between managing timber species help to reestablish or conserve biodiversity, enrich- (especially those of high value) and biodiversity. ment planting of high-value species to help to main- Management for the production of high-value timber tain forests and their biodiversity by increasing forest species and to conserve biodiversity can conflict with value, and high-value species themselves as biodiver- each other. But the demand for high-value timbers sity in need of conservation. The papers in this Special and increasing urgency to conserve biodiversity Issue illustrate examples of joint management for tim- prompt the goal to integrate these management ber production and biodiversity in seminatural forests, objectives. This Special Issue is based on a technical plantation management of single overstory species session at the IUFRO 2014 World Congress that that conserves biodiversity in other strata, and the explored potentially positive interactions between possibility for biodiversity to enhance timber quality. high-value timber management and biodiversity. Studies by Löf et al. (2016), Owari et al. (2016), and The papers cover a wide geographic range: from Doucet et al. (2016) show how management can help temperate forests in Europe (Löf et al. 2016; meet the joint goals of timber production and biodiver- Merganic et al. 2016), Canada (Hébert et al. 2016), sity conservation. Löf et al. (2016) examined how dif- and Japan (Owari et al. 2016), to tropical forests in ferent management regimes affect high-value timber Cameroon (Doucet et al. 2016) and Ghana production, biodiversity, and cultural services in (Onyakwelu & Olabiwonnu 2016; Stephens et al. Swedish oak forests. Their analysis suggests that active 2016). management can provide an acceptable balance of all Globally, forested lands experience increasing three outputs in forest stands. Owari et al. (2016) pre- pressure for timber production and provision of sent a single-tree management system for extremely ecosystem services, are being converted for agricul- high-value trees in Japanese forests, an approach that ture to feed an increasing human population, and also maintains large trees and their ecosystem function, will be altered by climate change. These conver- even after death. For example, Betula maximowicziana –3 gences make it ever more critical that synergies in can be worth more than 4500 USD m ,and the value benefits are accounted for and that management increases after death, due to the change of the wood to a strategies be developed to meet multiple ends. Of color preferred by buyers. Doucet et al. (2016)describe over 76,000 species assessed and published on the a test of a strategy for enrichment planting, which IUCN Red List, more than 22,000 are threatened employs simple mixtures of 23 native species in second- with extinction (IUCN 2016). Of over 9500 tree ary forest in Cameroon as a method for restoring high- species assessed and published on the IUCN Red value trees, including many of conservation concern, List, more than 6400 are threatened (Global Trees such as Entandrophragma utile. Due to the removal by 2016). At the same time, by 2015, global natural logging of seed sources and the need for canopy open- forest area had decreased by 240 Mha since 1990 ness for early growth, many of these species require (Keenan et al. 2015), 26% of remaining forests was special attention to regeneration for recovery. managed for multiple purposes (including produc- The impact of timber management on biodiversity, tion) (Köhl et al. 2015), and 278 Mha were in especially how biodiversity recovers after plantation plantations (7.5% of forested area) (Keenan et al. establishment, is examined by Stephens et al. (2016), 2015). While strict reserves are certainly needed for Onyakwelu and Olabiwonnu (2016), and Hébert et al. biodiversity conservation, and some land will be (2016). Stephens et al. (2016)showthatthe understory dedicated solely to timber production, neither ant community recovered 80% of natural forest species form of land use will completely fulfill those goals only 2 years after the establishment of small plantations at the global scale. A solution is to manage some of mixtures of native species in Ghana. They concluded lands for both purposes. that modest changes in management, such as incor- Positive interactions between biodiversity and tim- poration of more species in plantations, can help to ber management include biodiversity helping to pro- reclaim significant levels of biodiversity. In Ghana, tect high-value species from pests and pathogens, Onyakwelu and Olabiwonnu (2016)found that © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group 58 S. E. WARD AND N. BROKAW overstory tree diversity was lower in a Gmelina planta- Sheila E. Ward tion than in natural forest, as expected, but the diversity Mahogany for the Future, Inc., San Juan, Puerto Rico, of saplings and seedlings was similar between the plan- USA tation and natural forest. In addition, the saplings and email@example.com seedlings in the plantation included high-value species. Nicholas Brokaw The study by Onyekwelu and Olabiwonnu emphasizes Department of Environmental Science, University of that understory diversity should be considered in bio- Puerto Rico-Río Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA diversity comparisons between plantations and natural forest. Similarly, Hébert et al. (2016)describeunders- References tory recovery in Populus plantations in temperate forest in Quebec. They found that 12 years after severe sub- Doucet J-L, Dainou K, Ligot G, Ouédraogo D-Y, strate modification by scraping and furrowing the Bourland N, Ward S, Tekam P, Lagoute P, Fayolle planting surface to break up the soil, understory biodi- A. 2016. Enrichment of Central African logged for- versity was approaching that of a comparable natural ests with high-value tree species: testing a new approach in degraded forests. Int J Biodivers Sci forest. Of course, recovery of biodiversity in these stu- Manage. 12:59–73. dies depended on the availability of sources for recolo- Global Trees. 2016. Red lists. Global Trees Campaign. cited nizing the sites. 2016 Mar 17. Available from: http://globaltrees.org/threa Positive relationships between biodiversity and timber tened-trees/red-list/ quality are captured by Merganic et al. (2016) and Owari Hébert F, Bachand M, Thiffault N, Paré D, Gagné P. 2016. et al. (2016). Merganic et al. (2016) found that, depending Plantation silviculture intensity influence on tree pro- ductivity and biodiversity using a functional trait on the stage of stand development, forest biodiversity, approach in a context of ecosystem-based management. structural diversity, and spatial heterogeneity can be Int J Biodivers Sci Manage. 12:116–127. positively related to timber quality in the Czech IUCN. 2016. The IUCN red list of threatened species. cited Republic. However, these relationships must be consid- 2016 Mar 17. Available from: http://www.iucn.org/ ered in the context of other factors that also impact about/work/programmes/species/our_work/the_iucn_ red_list/ timber quality. Owari et al. (2016)showedthat, at the Keenan RJ,Reams GA,AchardF,DeFreitas JV, Alan stand level, the number of superior-quality trees among Grainger A, Erik Lindquist E. 2015.Dynamicsofglo- extremely high-value species in Japan was positively bal forest area: results from the FAO Global Forest associated with overall diversity in tree species. Resources Assessment 2015. For Ecol Manage. Economic considerations also affect management that 352:9–20. combines both timber production and biodiversity con- Köhl M, Lasco R, Cifuentes M, Jonsson O, Korhonen KT, Mundhenk P, Navar JDJ, Stinson G. 2015. Changes in servation. Löf et al. (2016) assessed economic returns for forest production, biomass and carbon: results from the management focused on production in oak forests, but 2015 UN FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment. For concluded that more information is needed for a com- Ecol Manage. 352:21–34. plete economic analysis of management that incorporates Löf M, Brunet J, Filyushkina A, Lindbladh M, Skovsgaard both production and biodiversity. Owari et al. (2016) JP, Felton A. 2016. Restoration of high-value broadleaved forests in southern Sweden: synergistic effects on biodi- point out that the single-tree management model may versity and economy. Int J Biodivers Sci Manage. only be cost-effective for extremely high-value species. 12:59–73. Doucet et al. (2016) found that the cost of restoration Merganic J, Merganicova K, Marusak R, Tipmann L, planting challenges profitability even for fast-growing Salek L, Dragoun L, Stolarikova R. 2016.Relation species so that regeneration planting requires both incen- between selected indicators of forest stand diversity tives and a regulatory structure that promotes attention to and quality of timber production in even-aged and uneven-aged stands. Int J Biodivers Sci Manage. regeneration. Although investment in incentives, regula- 12:128–138. tions, and oversight are required, can we afford to do less? Onyakwelu J, Olabiwonnu A. 2016. Can monoculture for- We hope that these interesting papers stimulate more est plantation harbor biodiversity similar to naturally research into how a biodiverse environment can posi- regenerated tropical rainforest ecosystems over time? tively impact timber management and, conversely, how Int J Biodivers Sci Manage. 12:108–115. Owari T, Okamura K, Fukushi K, Kasahara H, Tatsumi S. timber management, especially of high-value species, can 2016. Single-tree management for high-value timber help conserve biodiversity, for the end result of main- species in a cool-temperate mixed forest in northern taining both resources. Japan. Int J Biodivers Sci Manage. 12:1–9. Stephens S, Bosu P, Wagner M. 2016. Effects of overstory species diversity and composition on pest damage to Disclosure statement high value species and understory ant diversity in No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Ghana. Int J Biodivers Sci Manage. 12:96–107.
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 2, 2016
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