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The purpose of this study is to look into the awareness and environmentally friendly elements reflected in traditional villages in Gangneung, Korea. This study was conducted through a field study on traditional villages as well as interviews and questionnaire with experts in urban architecture and with village residents. The environmentally friendly elements of traditional villages are classified into the traditional environment, building environment, street environment and living environment. Among them, the traditional environment itself is considered as an element favorable to the ecological environment. The villages on the outskirts of the city center show ecologically damaging features, since land prices there are relatively low and the number of warehouses is growing due to their proximity to the city center. As the street environment tends to be evaluated from a public viewpoint, it is viewed as ecologically detrimental when it is not properly managed or harmonized, regardless of its being natural or traditional. The most serious problem in the living environment is waste disposal. Based on the village residents' perception of modernity, the residents of Yeochan-ri, where neighboring welfare facilities are focused, value conservation more than development, while their counterparts in Unjeong-dong, which has various tourist attractions, opt for development. Furthermore, the residents who realize their villages are friendly to the environment are trying to address the problem of waste disposal in a relatively greener way. Keywords: environmental friendliness; environmental unfriendliness; traditional village; traditional element 1. Introduction Therefore, to ensure a green transformation, the focus of the current certification system needs to be expanded With growing awareness of the importance of the global environment, environmentally friendly building from individual buildings to environmentally friendly municipal units such as villages or cities. has been embraced as a crucial paradigm in society. To reflect the change, many countries around the world Country villages or traditional villages in Korea have survived, retaining their green characteristics have set their own standards and implemented a system whereby they can evaluate the greenness of buildings over the years. The traditional villages that have been settled around the city, in particular, retain green before granting approval. Korea also applied the Green Building Certification Criteria (GBCC) to facilities characteristics thanks to their spatial structures and conditions of their locations, and, at the same time, classified into six building uses in order to keep pace with the green paradigm before the GBCC changed they have modern urban characteristics because of their proximity to the city core <Fig.1.>. to the Green Standard for Energy and Environmental Design (G-SEED) in 2013, when the country created certification criteria for structures of all uses and applied it to all uses of buildings starting from the first design step. This current certification criteria, however, is focused on each structure, so it has limitations in that it fails to direct the whole village–a basic unit of community–toward environmental friendliness. Fig.1. Concept of a Traditional Village Located in an Urban Space *Contact Author: Kyeong-Hwa Byun, Assistant Professor, Waterfront and Coastal Research Center, The environmentally friendly characteristics of these Catholic Kwandong University, 579 Bumil Road, traditional villages mean that they have responded Gangneung, Gangwon-do, Korea to changes due to urbanization, while transforming Tel: +82-33-649-7423 Fax: +82-33-647-3436 themselves suitably for modern life. On the other E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org hand, as they are close to cities, the villages can be ( Received April 8, 2014 ; accepted October 27, 2014 ) Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/January 2015/144 137 developed at any time, so they are in danger of having The existence of traditional structures for tourists in their ecosystems compromised by development. As the village has led it to being open to outsiders and a result, to expand the current certification system to external influences, which has contributed to shaping the range of "village" or "city," the environmentally its distinct characteristics. friendly elements of traditional villages close to cities Finally, interviews and surveys were conducted on the are in need of review. traditional, environmentally friendly, and environmentally Traditional villages near the center of urban unfriendly elements of the two chosen villages. spaces, having both characteristics of rural areas and modern urban space, belong to townships in a range 2. Traditional Villages used in the Research of administrative districts, or people frequently pass 2.1 Gangneung through such villages because they are near to cities. Gangneung is a small city facing the sea, to the Public facilities and welfare centers for residents have east of Seoul. It has a long history evidenced by been constructed in the village. In addition, visitors prehistoric remains, which show villages or residential are more frequent in the villages which have become communities having a very early establishment. The tourist attractions because of their traditional structures. Namdaecheon stream, which runs through the center of Yeochan-ri is an example of a traditional village Gangneung, helped to create conditions for developing township and Unjeong-dong is home to traditional cities in ancient times. It has an area of 1,040 km , the buildings that have become a tourist attraction near the seventh largest in Gangwon-do, but the population has center of Gangneung. been shrinking for the past few years. This study analyzes local awareness regarding elements of environmental friendliness reflected in traditional villages in Gangneung, Korea. This study has three main sections: a. Evaluation concerning environmental friendliness in traditional villages near the center of Gangneung by experts related to architecture and urban design b. Classification of traditional and environmentally friendly elements of two traditional villages that differ in their modern features through a field survey c. The awareness and attitude of residents toward two traditional villages that differ in their modern features Fig.3. Research Area 1.2 Research Method To evaluate awareness about environmental It features geographical conditions of both coastal friendliness, this study employs a field survey, cities and inland cities since it faces the East Sea of the questionnaire, and interview <Fig.2.>. Korean peninsula to its east and Taebaek Mountains to its west. Due to such geographical conditions, its Questionnaire by Experts ancient importance was military rather than political • Experts related to architecture and urban design and administrative. After the center of military • Evaluation of environmental friendliness of villages near Gangneung City, Korea and political power was fixed west of the Taebaek Mountains, its importance decreased in the late Joseon Selection of Research Area Dynasty. Gangneung has had the same experience as • Yeochan-ri: the seat of a township office, a village built public other Korean provincial cities after being given the facilities and a welfare center for residents status of a city in 1955. • Unjeong-dong: a village famous as a tourist attraction for its traditional structures It was chosen as a green city in 2010 because it is ↓ rich in resources for tourism and history including Field Study and Residents Interview Gaeksamun , a traditional office building and the oldest • The traditional, environmentally friendly, and environmentally wooden structure with the exception of temples. unfriendly features of villages Yeochan-ri is located about 3.8 km southeast and • Resident surveys of Yeochan-ri and Unjeong-dong Unjeong-dong is 3.5 km north of the City Hall of Gangneung. The two villages are located within the Fig.2. Study Organization administrative district of the city, but actually located A questionnaire was conducted by experts on on its outskirts <Fig.3.>. urban architecture in order to assess environmental 2.2 Yeochan-ri friendliness in traditional villages near urban areas. Called Bongyang-dong until the late Joseon Dynasty Next, based on expert evaluation, two traditional before being renamed as Yeochan-ri in the Japanese villages with different modern characteristics were colonial period, it is a traditional village with a long chosen. One is Yeochan-ri, the seat of a myeon history. In 1995, it was integrated into Gangneung City. (township) office, where public facilities and Its location is based on the principle of baesanimsu (a neighborhood living facilities are centered. The mountain behind and a river in front), a typical element of other is Unjeong-dong, a tourist destination with the traditional Korean villages, with Gujeong-cheon stream oldest ruling-class houses of the Joseon Dynasty. running to its south. This village shows a typical example 138 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Kyeong-Hwa Byun with the township office being in the center of the village. and urban design in the city. Sixty-six questionnaires Taking a closer look at the buildings, 60 out of the were collected from a total of 33 offices and research total of 104 are houses, accounting for 57.7%. Public centers. The questionnaire was evaluated with the five- facilities that are common in the seat of a township point Likert scale ("strongly agree" 5, "agree" 4, "fair" 3, such as resident welfare centers, health center branches, "don't agree" 2, "don't agree at all" 1) <Fig.4.>. National Agricultural Cooperative Federation branches, Regarding the question of whether farming and community centers, police stations, voluntary crime fishing villages are environmentally favorable, prevention guard branches, and neighboring living the average answer score is 2.75 which indicates facilities for residents converge. Furthermore, due to low that the villages near Gangneung are not seen as land prices compared to those of more urbanized areas, environmentally friendly. Overall, the percentage open spaces and parks are planned. For example, sports of negative responses concerning environmental parks, rest parks, village-entrance parks, waterfront parks, friendliness is higher than that of positive responses. and forested parks are constructed as small sized parks. To assess the low evaluation on environmental 2.3 Unjeong-dong friendliness for those villages, though they were areas designated as a green city in 2009, respondents were Unjeong-dong was named around 1530. In 1913, it merged with Seongyo-ri of the neighboring village and asked to choose the most important factors of green policies and development <Fig.5.>. became Unjeong-ri. It was integrated into Gangneung City in 1955 when Gangneung was upgraded to The high score for environmental pollution shows that respondents view the issue as the most important, though the status of a city. Therefore, it became a part of Gangneung 40 years before Yeachan-ri. they live near small and medium-sized cities. And despite their proximity to the city center, they see the Unjeong-dong village is designated as a Nature Village District which is in the suburbs, northeast transportation system including narrow streets, public parking lot shortages, and walking safety as crucial of the core of Gangneung, boasting a well-preserved traditional culture and natural view. It was designated factors. However, they think little of land usage in an evaluation of importance in the GBCC. Therefore, when as a provincial park in 1982, and was included in development areas of the Low-Carbon Green City, the focus of the criteria expands to villages, the standards should be different depending on village features. designated first in Korea, in 2009. At the center are Seongyojang , the oldest ruling-class house of the 6 7 Joseon Dynasty , Ojukheon , Gyeongpodae and Gyeongpoho within 1 km of the village, illustrating the distinct features of the traditional village district. A close look at the buildings shows that 49 out of a total of 69 structures are houses, accounting for 71%. This is because the village is in a cultural properties protection zone and a natural environment conservation Fig.4. Evaluation on Environmental Friendliness of Villages zone, resulting in rigid regulations for the new building Located in Surrounding Gangneung of structures other than houses. The two traditional villages have the following in common. First, they are located in the city's administrative district, but actually are on the outskirts, so that they have developed into natural settlements where tradition and modernity coexist. Second, as they are close to the city, they can be developed at any time, leading to the coexistence of environmentally friendly and environmentally unfriendly aspects at the crossroads between development and conservation. Third, public awareness of green policies is heightened Fig.5. Evaluation of Importance of Development on the because of two Baugils running through the villages, Environmental Friendliness of Villages which are human-friendly tracking courses developed 4. The Environmentally Friendly Elements of by municipal Gangneung and civic groups together. Traditional Villages However, the two villages differ in their modern incarnations. Since the seat of the township office is 4.1 Yeochan-ri in Yeochan-ri, public facilities and welfare centers for Based on the field research on the village and residents have been built and Unjeong-dong has become interviews of its residents, researchers analyzed famous as a tourist attraction for its traditional structures. traditional and environmentally friendly elements <Fig.6.>, and then classified them into traditional, 3. Evaluation of Environmental Friendliness of building, street and living environments <Table 1.>. (1) Traditional Environmental Element Villages near Gangneung The existing wells of the traditional environment To evaluate the environmental friendliness of villages near Gangneung, researchers surveyed experts who work are left unused, but they are not considered as environmentally unfriendly. In addition, Seongwhang- in offices and research centers related to architecture JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Kyeong-Hwa Byun 139 dang (shrines to the village deity) is used for This residents' perception that environmental religious community space. Due to the low heights pollution is ranked with the highest importance is of stone walls around housing residents feel positive the same result as in <Fig.5.>, in which experts of community connections. They consider these elements architecture and urban design responded similarly in to be environmentally friendly because they help relation to the environmental friendliness of villages. facilitate community bonds in the village. Residents are aware that traditional elements are its (2) Building Environmental Element environmentally friendly elements but living materials Many factors are unfavorable to the environment. do not benefit the ecological environment when they These would particularly include facilities such as are not managed properly. abandoned houses, containers, and storage structures. 4.2 Unjeong-dong The village is near the city center so that the number Based on the field study on the village and of warehouses is growing due to the lower land prices interviews of its residents, researchers analyzed than those of more urbanized areas. The warehouses, traditional elements and green elements <Fig.7.>, and over ten times the size of houses by volume, in areas classified them into traditional, building, street and close to single-story houses act as a distracting factor living environments <Table 2.>. to residents in terms of psychology and view. (1) Traditional Environmental Element Walls, which are the boundary between structures As it is designated and managed as a traditional and external space, show traditional, environmentally village district, there are many traditional structures. friendly, and environmentally unfriendly elements. The L i k e t h e a wa r e n e ss o f Ye o c h a n - r i r e si de n t s, walls made of traditional tiles and other green materials traditional elements themselves are generally seen as are low and help residents to create communities, but environmentally friendly. However, the perception the cement walls are viewed as not supporting the about wells is different between the two villages. ecological environment. In Unjeong-dong, traditional houses for the ruling- (3) Street Environmental Element class were built so that the relatively large number of The street environment is evaluated from the public wells was also made as a water source for drinking and viewpoint. Residents realized that parks and timber living unlike in Yeochan-ri. piles are environmentally unfriendly even though they Residents in Unjeong-dong feel that mismanaged could be an element of the natural environment when wells are damaging to the ecological environment. they are not properly managed. Still, they are seen However, residents in Yeochan-ri do not see them as as favorable to the environment when they are well environmentally unfriendly even though the existing managed. The use of traditional materials and old inner wells are left unused. roads– created from the spatial structure of the village– (2) Building Environmental Element are seen as traditional elements by residents. Residents' perception of the building environment (4) Living Environmental Element is generally the same as that of Yeochan-ri residents. In the living environment, solar heat facilities for Facilities like warehouses are properly managed green energy sources are the only element favorable to because of their proximity to the city center. the environment. Residents are aware that incinerators, The building of non-housing structures is regulated food waste, clothes collection boxes, and others are in the cultural properties protection zone and natural environmentally unfriendly elements. environment conservation zone, causing problems Fig.6. Traditional, Environmental Friendliness and Unfriendliness of Yeochan-ri Village 140 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Kyeong-Hwa Byun Table 1. The Traditional and Environmentally Friendly Elements of Yeochan-ri Environmentally Elements Traditional Reason Friendly Unfriendly Seongwhang- Shrine to the village deity. Residents still perform ancestral rites at this place dang surrounded by trees. Traditional Old wells Used to be wells, now left neglected. Environment Tiles and walls ¤ Made of traditional materials which are low so that they help to form the community. Element Traditional tiles They keep the form and materials of traditional Korean houses. and roofs Improved model Its structure is tradition but the interior is improved into the modern style. of Hanok Modern-style ¤ The living environment is good due to modern devices. houses Containers They are used as warehouses and left neglected all over the village. Greenhouses ○ Torn sheets of plastic are neglected and spread all over. Abandoned Left to be abandoned all over the village houses Hedge p Made of green planting materials, and low enough for residents to form a community Walls Cement They are tall and made of cement blocks which creates a desolate environment. walls Mobile lavatories They are neglected at vacant lots around Baugil. Building Animal breeding Environment They spoil the beauty of villages. houses Element Large warehouses Large trucks visiting large warehouses hurt the pedestrian environment and spoil the beauty. Poor living Old single-story houses are used without renovation. accommodations Use of living accommodations Abandoned old buildings are used as warehouses as warehouses Traditional houses with stone walls, tiles and roofs, mud walls, traditional Traditional hanok ¤ windows and doors and are located all over the village. Slate roofs Old slate roofs of renovated houses have unmatched colors and forms. Barns in inner As barns are in inner roads, they hurt the street environment. roads Planting trees Ivy-covered buildings are along the streets. around walls They have heavy traffic, and the boundary between pedestrians and vehicles is Main roads small, which creates a poor pedestrian environment. Inner roads p They are narrow but flower beds and fields along them create a good street environment. Baugil ¤ Baugil is built along Seomseokcheon, but is not properly managed. Bus stops They are out of date. A stone monument ■ ¤ It bears the village name and is made of materials suitable for the environment. Street Flower beds Flower beds around residential facilities have a good effect on the street environment. Environment Wall painting The walls of main roads are painted but are not properly managed. Element Neighborhood Small neighborhood sports facilities near Baugil are not managed well. parks Sotdae signposts ¤ The traditional Sotdae-type milestone is built at Baugil. Plants along Fields and big trees along roads create a good street environment. roads Seomseokcheon ¤ Seomseokcheon running through the village needs improvement. Timber piles Timber piles in front of residential facilities hurt the street environment. Incinerators Rusty incinerators made of drums are built everywhere. Solar heat facilities They utilize green energy sources. Collection box They need to be organized because of their location along main roads. Living for food waste Environment Collection box They need to be organized because of their location along main roads. Element ○ for clothes Chimneys There are houses using wood-burning boilers and construction waste as fuel. Agricultural waste including plastic and bottles of agricultural chemicals are Waste piles stacked and neglected as there is a lack of space. 1) ■ : Very traditional p : Traditional features are remaining 2) ● : Very friendly to the environment ¤ : Environmentally friendly features are shown 3) ○ : Not friendly to the environment in three aspects. First, the regulation on structures facilities. The only community building is a senior with non-housing uses provides no alternatives for citizens' center, but it is temporary. unoccupied or abandoned houses. In particular, cement Finally, the regulations designed to improve garages and warehouses built before the introduction signboards make it difficult to fix signboards unsuitable of the regulations have been left neglected, requiring to the image of traditional villages. measures to deal with them. (3) Street Environmental Element Second, the regulation even on public welfare Unjeong-dong residents have the same perception facilities in villages leads to a lack of community as Yeochan-ri residents have concerning the street JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Kyeong-Hwa Byun 141 Table 3. Information of Resident Respondents environment. The street environment is formed in Yeochan-ri Unjeong-dong a traditional way, but when it is larger compared to Value Village surrounding structures, it is seen as unfavorable to the N (%) N (%) Male 42 (46.2) 50 (53.8) environment. Sex Female 49 (53.8) 43 (46.2) (4) Living Environmental Element Under 20s 3 ( 3.3) 18 (19.4) The most striking element of environmental 30s~40s 23 (25.3) 23 (24.7) unfriendliness in this village is the disorganized Age 50s~60s 31 (34.1) 19 (20.4) building of waste incinerators. Almost all individual Over 70s 34 (37.4) 33 (35.5) houses behind the main road have in place incinerators Total 91 (100.0) 93 (100.0) made of steel and cement in their yards or beside inner roads, polluting the air, soil, and water. As these The Yeochan-ri residents, however, see the incinerators are not directly regulated thanks to their indiscriminate development launched by outsiders as a proximity to the city center, pollution problems are not more serious problem. The Yeochan-ri residents value being addressed. conservation over development, while the Unjeong- 4.3 Residents' Awareness according to Modern dong residents favor development. Adjustments to Traditional Villages Table 4. Problems of Villages In Yeochan-ri, many public facilities such as welfare Unjeong- centers have been built for residents because it is Yeochan-ri Village dong χ the seat of a township. Unjeong-dong is famous for N (%) N (%) traditional Korean buildings for tourists. A survey Slow Development 31 (34.1) 59 (63.4) was conducted to find out the residents' perception Indiscriminate regarding conservation, development, and green Development by 37 (40.7) 13 (14.0) villages on the basis of this difference of modern Outsiders 29.238*** features in traditional villages. Harmony Among 1 (1.1) 8 (8.6) Neighbors The responses show similar proportions for two Waste Disposal 19 (20.9) 12 (12.9) villages in terms of gender, but they vary by age Others 3 (3.3) 1 (1.1) groups. In the case of Unjeong-dong, the proportion Total 91 (100.0) 93 (100.0) of respondents under twenty is high, while that ***p<.001 of respondents in their 50s and 60s are high for Yeochan-ri. This suggests that Unjeong-dong, where Regarding the question of whether the village is tourist destinations are concentrated, has a high rate friendly to the environment, there are differences of younger residents, while Yeochan-ri with many between the two villages<Table 5.>. The questionnaire neighboring welfare facilities has a relatively large was evaluated with the five-point Likert scale ("strongly number of seniors in their 50s and 60s <Table 3.>. agree" 5, "agree" 4, "fair" 3, "don't agree" 2, "don't The significant difference in the above statistics agree at all" 1). lies in the awareness of problems with their village, The respondents from both villages mostly perceive and of green villages. First, a look at the perception that their village is friendly to the environment, scoring of problems with their village <Table 4.> illustrates over 3, the medium point. More specifically, Yeochan- that residents think rigid regulations resulting from the ri scored 4.23 and Unjeong-dong 3.98, showing designation of Unjeong-dong as a traditional village that Yeochan-ri residents see their village as more district prevent it from developing. Fig.7. Traditional, Environmental Friendliness and Unfriendliness of Unjeong-dong 142 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Kyeong-Hwa Byun Table 2. The Traditional and Environmentally Friendly Elements of Unjeong-dong Environmentally Elements Traditional Reason Friendly Unfriendly Location condition ¤ Having a traditional condition with mountains behind and a river in front. Seongyojang ¤ The ruling-class house was built before the 1700s in the Joseon Dynasty. Haeunjeong ¤ A separate house built in the 25th year of King Jungjong's reign (1530). Built in the late Joseon Dynasty and today operated as a restaurant and Simsangjingaok ¤ tourist home. Maewoldang ¤ Memorial hall for Kim, Si-seup offering free admission. Seungjeolsa ¤ Shrine with a portrait of Kim, Si-seup. Traditional ■ Environment Changdeoksa ¤ Shrine to the Gangneung Kim family Element Whangsansa ¤ Shrine to the founder of the Gangneung Choi family. Hanok experience center p ¤ Hanok experience available together with Seongyojang. Seonangmok ¤ Ancestral rites have been held every year since many years ago. Restored wells p They are not currently used though their structure is being restored. Wells Managed well lots p They are located just below houses and are well managed. Neglected well lots They are located beside Simsangjingaok and are unnoticeable and poorly managed. Houses There is no consistency in roofs, materials of outer walls and forms. It is at the parking lot in front of Seongyojang, but it is poorly managed, Unmanaged and unnoticeable because it is attached to the building. Public restroom It is in front of Maewoldang and has the same roof materials and traditional Traditional type ¤ ■ ○ form as Maewoldang. A snack bar It is at the parking lot in front of Seongyojang so it is small and out of date. They are traditional, but as their owners live in a newly built house just Vacant houses beside them, they are now neglected. Abandoned houses They are neglected on the hills and overgrown with weeds, so they become unsightly. Concrete garages and Building They are not managed and garbage is spread around them. warehouses Environment Element A temporary house for As there is no senior center, the elderly in their 60s and 70s spend their seniors (greenhouse) time in the greenhouse beside the building. Cement-block Most vary in height and form, resulting in no consistency. Walls Traditional ¤ Use of traditional patterns and tiles Hedge Proper maintenance and a good view. It is just beside Hanok experience center and its big signboard for selling A container strawberries is irritating to look at. A building for firefighting It is used in case of a fire at Hanunjeong and it was built in a traditional equipment style. Hanok houses They are well matched with surrounding historical structures. Gates of restaurants p Their form is traditional, but is too big compared with the size of their buildings. Newly built ¤ One of the total three bus stops is newly built and clean. Bus stops The bus stop in front of Seongyojang has no bench to sit on, and the Unmanaged remaining one needs management. There are many restaurants, so many signboards are seen but are not Signboards Street ○ consistent. Environment Flower beds There are seven places decorated with flower beds except for hedges. Element As there is a guide map structure in front of Seongyojang, it is possible to Guide-map structures ¤ look at other tourist attractions at Gangneung. There are no stone monuments to mark villages, while there are stone monuments Stone monuments ¤ for Seongyojang, Maewoldang, Changdeoksa and Whangsansa. Baugil and its milestone Baugil runs through the village and there is a milestone. Street lights They are made in a traditional form and design. Incineration facilities Each of the total 11 facilities is used for a different purpose. Collection box for clothes, The only two collection boxes for clothes and recycling are insufficient and recycling boxes not managed well. Living Aquatic biotope It is in front of Haeunjeong. Environment Open storage yard for scrap All of it is piled up in the inner yard. Element metal One of the total three boxes is at a place concentrated with restaurants and Food garbage boxes the other two are at the parking lot in front of Seongyojang, so they are far and inconvenient for village residents to use. Agricultural products A total of two drying facilities are big and tall, and noticeable directly from drying facilities roads, so they are not well matched with the surroundings. 1) ■ : Very traditional p : Traditional features are remaining 2) ● : Very friendly to the environment ¤ : Environmentally friendly features are shown 3) ○ : Not friendly to the environment friendly to the environment than their Unjeong-dong waste disposal as unfavorable to the environment, counterparts see their own village. while Unjeong-dong residents incinerate waste, As they have dif ferent views concerning showing distinct detriment to the environment. environmental friendliness, Yeochan-ri residents see JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Kyeong-Hwa Byun 143 Table 5. Residents' Evaluation of Environmental Friendliness of Acknowledgement their Villages This research was supported by the Basic Science Villages N M MD df T Sig. Research Program through the National Research Yeochan-ri 91 4.23 Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of .252 183 2.883** .004 Unjeong-dong 93 3.98 Science, ICT & Future Planning (2012R1A1A3003275). **p<.01 This study was supported partly by the RIC program of the MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy 5. Conclusion Republic of Korea). This research assesses the environmentally friendly elements and environmental awareness in traditional Notes villages in Gangneung, Korea, on the basis of surveys This is the oldest of government office buildings in Korea and of experts of urban architecture, field research on one of the most typical Korean structures, designated as a national traditional villages, and surveys and interviews with treasure due to its remarkable construction techniques. village residents. The results are as follows: This is translated into Korean from the Chinese phrase meaning that there used to be many catalpa trees near a stream so that First, experts related to architecture and urban design phoenixes visited there. working in Gangneung evaluated villages near the 3 Shim, Eon-gwang, who was Minister of the Interior during the city mostly as "not friendly to the environment". The reign of King Jungjong in the Joseon Dynasty, built Haeunjeong. The name of the building came from the meaning that the sea and residents of the two researched villages are inclined sky met together and got along in 1530, from which Unjeong-ri to see their villages as favorable to the environment, originated. which shows the difference in results due to residence. Korea has sorted villages into a total of five types aiming at The difference might be shown because experts developing and conserving them: nature preservation district, nature environment district, nature village district, dense village evaluate the environmental friendliness of villages district, and collective facility district. from the perspective of the city as a whole rather than Important Folklore Cultural Properties No. 5, built by Yi, Nae- the individual villages, as they point out environmental beon, 11th generation an 11th generation descendant of Prince pollution, transportation systems, and ecosystem Hyoryeongdaegun (elder brother of King Sejong). It is a typical example of the upper-class houses in the Joseon Dynasty and as the most important factors in green policies and a national treasure with private ownership. Its name means development. Gyeongpo Lake was crossed by ship. Second, the environmentally friendly elements of The birthplace of Yi I. Its name came from the fact that black bamboos grow in the backyard. traditional villages are classified into the traditional A lookout tower on the hill, famous for a magnificent view, about environment, building environment, street environment 7 km northeast of Gangneung. and living environment. The traditional environment A lake, north of Gangneung, designated as Gyeongpo Provincial itself is considered as an element friendly to the Park and a famous tourist attraction for its beautiful scenery and traditional structures. environment. Villages located outside the city center Baugil consists of 16 sections as a tracking course developed by show features of not supporting the ecological Gangneung. Bau means a rock in the Gangwon-do dialect, and it environment in the building environment because of is also the name of the Greek goddess of health who saved a dying person with a touch. the low land prices and proximity to cities leading to a Each office was asked to submit three questionnaires in order to growing number of warehouses. Walls, which are the prevent excessive influence from the office. Respondents were boundary between structures and external space, have limited to people working for more than 5 years at Gangneung, three characteristics–the traditional, environmentally with 52 males amounting to 82.5%, and 12 females. friendly, and environmentally unfriendly elements depending on material and height of walls. References 1) Byun, K. H. and Kim, H. G. (2014) A Study on the Research Third, the street environment is often evaluated from for the Planning of Environmental Friendly Village-Focused on the public viewpoint. Though it is a natural element, Yeochan-ri and Unjeong-dong, Gangneung City. Journal of Korean it could be seen as environmentally harmful if it is Society of Rural Planning, 16(1), pp.79-86. not properly managed. Additionally, elements with 2) Chae, S. M., Byun, K. H. and Kim, T. Y. (2012) Derivation and Application of the Green Plan Factors Inherent in the Existing traditional forms are viewed as unfavorable to the Old Settlements in Local City-Focused on Topdong 'Yandalmal. environment when they are not in harmony with the Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, 14(1), pp.115-124. street environment. The living environment shows that 3) Go, S. S., Song, H. and Lee, H. C. (2007) A Study on the Improvements waste disposal is the most serious problem. Villages of Environment-friendly Performance of Apartment Houses through Case Analysis-Focused on Apartment Houses in Gwangju outside the center of a city do not dispose of waste City. Journal of the Architecture Institute of Korea, 23(9), pp.201- properly and houses individually incinerate waste, but there is no regulation concerning them, leading to no 4) Jang, D. H. and Park, S. B (2013) Structural Equation Modeling of Relationship among Apartment Residents' Outdoor Space improvement in waste disposal issues. Use, Neighborhoodship, and Sense of Community. Journal of the Finally, a look at the perception of residents on the Architecture Institute of Korea, 29(12), pp.123-130. modern features of traditional villages explains that 5) Park, W. K. and Im, S. H. (2009) A Comparative Study on the Yeochan-ri residents value conservation more than Residential Satisfaction and Environment-friendly Awareness depending on the Environment-friendly Level on the Outdoor development, while Unjeong-dong residents desire Space of the Apartment Complex-In Case of Apartment Complex development more. In addition, Yeochan-ri residents, in Gwangju Metropolitan City. Journal of the Korean Housing who think their village is friendly to the environment, Association, 20(6), pp.119-126. try to dispose of waste in a more environmentally friendly way. 144 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Kyeong-Hwa Byun
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 1, 2015
Keywords: environmental friendliness; environmental unfriendliness; traditional village; traditional element
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