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홍성언, 박수홍 (2003)Analyzing the Location of Urban Neighborhood Parks Using GIS and AHP Techniques
(2002)A Study on the Resident's Satisfaction with configuration of spatial Structure for Outdoor Space in Urban Apartment complex
F. Brown (1997)Space is the machine
Design Studies, 18
Jong-Pyo Kim, Yongsoon Kim, Won-hyeon Lim (2007)An Analytical Study of the Design and Characteristics of Water Bodies in Urban Parks - A Case Study of Urban Parks in Gyeong-nam -
Joon-Young Shim, Jong-sung Lee, Shi-Young Lee (2006)An Comparison to the Importance Evaluation of an Urban Natural Parks and Neighborhood Parks
Journal of Environmental Sciences-china, 15
(2009)Do highly mixed-use parks attract more people?: Evidence from the large-scale parks in Seoul
A. Chiesura (2004)The role of urban parks for the sustainable city.
Landscape and Urban Planning, 68
Hyunwook Lee (2009)A Study on the Distributional Property and Utilizing Behaviour of City Parks in Gwangju
(2006)Study on the Existence Effect of the Urban Neighborhood Park through the Apartment House Residents' Cognitive Evaluation -The Neighborhood Park of Daegu Metropolitan City to
(2009)Statistical analysis methods for paper Appendix 1. Data of target parks and variables writing, 21 Centry Ltd
Anna Costello, J. Osborne (2005)Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis.
Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 10
(1999)A study on development of plain parks
N. MiahMd (2015)Master's Theses
(2005)A Study of Cheonggyecheon City Park Design through Fusion of other Culture
K. Gallo, Alan Mcnab, T. Karl, Jesslyn Brown, J. Hood, J. Tarpley (1993)The use of a vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect
International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14
J. Chiara, L. Koppelman (1982)Urban planning and design criteria
손상락, 윤병구 (2002)A Study on Open Space Policy Based on Urban Residents' Values of Open Space
Journal of Korea Planning Association, 37
Peralta Court (2008)EAST BAY REGIONAL PARK DISTRICT
(2008)A study on the characteristics in children parks of Housing redevelopment in Seoul
A. Herzele, Torsten Wiedemann (2003)A monitoring tool for the provision of accessible and attractive urban green spaces
Landscape and Urban Planning, 63
A. Makhelouf (2008)The Role of Parklands in Improving Urban Microclimates to Combat Pollution
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 7
Tae-Ho Lee, Y. Ban, Nam-Hoon Yoo (2011)Visual Access Opportunity Analysis of Neighborhood Park Users using Space Syntax Theory - Focused on Cheongju City -
Abhijit Paul (2013)A syntactic approach to identifying land-use influence on vehicular movement: the case of Lubbock
International Journal of Urban Sciences, 17
K. Hass (2009)Measuring accessibility of regional parks: A comparison of three GIS techniques
편집실 (2013)THE JOURNAL OF KOREA PLANNERS ASSOCIATION
In a contemporary city, the importance of urban green space is consistently increasing, and there are growing demands to evaluate the present condition of urban parks and prepare a suitable provision policy for a green environment based on several standards. A number of researchers have measured the amenity properties of urban parks and identified several relationships between urban park user satisfaction and internal facilities. However, most existing studies have considered only the spatial properties or internal facility status as measurement standards to calculate the quantitative adequacy or satisfaction of park use but have not considered a number of diverse criteria. Therefore, in this study, the authors determine the main factors affecting the usage of urban parks by considering more diverse variables through statistical analysis. The multiple regression analyses show that some factors have significant effects on the number of annual visitors. This implies that well-constructed park facilities with decent quality, high accessibility and precision of spatial recognition affect the degree of use in addition to the quantitative elements and the surrounding environment, although social factors and environmental factors rarely affect the usage of regional parks. Keywords: accessibility; urban parks; GIS; spatial structures; space syntax 1. Introduction palaces). Additionally, only the parks with no entry fee Urban green space is an important aspect of citizen are considered. leisure and recreation and functions as a critical Second, previous studies and relevant theories are indicator when evaluating a city's amenities and investigated. This step identifies the site selection quality. Green space in cities must be easily accessed, criteria of urban parks in Seoul as well as the legal and in addition must support and satisfy various citizen basis, while also reviewing previous research to form needs and activities. The present study evaluates the the theoretical basis and set out the arguments. variables that influence accessibility and selectivity Third, the data is collected and relevant variables of urban parks and determines that physical, space- determined. The number of annual visitors counted structural, and locational factors are the categories by the City of Seoul is the dependent variable. For the that affect accessibility and selectivity of urban green independent variables, the following three types of space. After determining several correlations between variable groups are used: (1) internal variables such as variables and the actual number of visitors, the area and the green coverage ratio of parks; (2) location authors suggest some ideas for future plans regarding variables such as the number of inhabitants and public provisions of urban green space. transport routes and (3) space syntactic variables, In order to achieve the aforementioned purposes, intelligibility, and global and local integration. To this study is conducted in specific steps. First, the study construct internal and location variables, numerous areas are defined. The 40 targeted areas are chosen statistical data are investigated, and field studies are from neighborhood parks in Seoul among parks sized performed. The space syntactic variables are structured 2 2 from 0.1 million m to 1 million m , excluding parks using Arc GIS 10.0 and Axwoman 6.0. with special purposes such as historical properties (e.g., Lastly, using the derived variables, the correlations between the variables and the number of visitors are determined by applying multiple regression analyses. *Contact Author: Heungsoon Kim, Professor, The analyses are used to understand the factors Department of Urban Planning, Hanyang University, affecting the number of park visitors in Seoul. All the 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea analyses are conducted using SPSS 9.0. Tel: +82-2-2220-4600 E-mail: email@example.com ( Received October 7, 2013 ; accepted February 28, 2014 ) Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/May 2014/522 515 Table 1. Function of Urban Parks 2. Legal Definition of Parks in Korea As open spaces located in urban areas, urban parks Function function as places for relaxation, amusement, and Relaxing and Providing relaxation, walking paths, various experiences. Additionally, as an active location entertaining and more recreational space for the housing environmental amenities of a city area, parks functions amusement of citizens, ultimately can improve the quality of an urban environment and maintaining and promoting people's health and providing an opportunity for function as a place for socialization (Oh, 2005). self-discovery According to Korean law, "urban natural park areas" refers to areas designated in Article 38-2 of the Social and Role as a place of festivals and rallies aesthetic functions or for friendly interactions among local National Land Planning and Utilization Act, which residents are designated according to the urban management plans with the purpose of improving the urban scenery Logical and Maintaining the equilibrium and environmental purification of the city's natural by preserving or improving the natural environment preservation ecosystems and improving the living and preventing environmental pollution and natural functions environment by preventing uncontrolled disasters in urban areas. development In addition, the Act on Urban Parks, Greenbelts, Safe retention Securing trees and idle land, enhancing etc. defines urban parks as areas which are built or and disaster the safety of public places, and promoting designated to contribute to the protection of natural prevention community safety through direct and scenery and to improve health, recreation and aesthetic functions indirect effects sentiments of citizens in urban areas. Urban parks Central Functions disseminating cultural are separated into theme parks and living-zone parks functions heritage with historical symbols and consisting of small parks, children's parks, and acting as a central location for meeting neighborhood parks based on function and theme. and public gathering The living zone parks are constructed and managed as parks, while considering the basic park characteristics required in an urban living zone. Theme parks consist of historical parks, cultural parks, waterside parks, cemeteries and sports parks which are built for various purposes, while meanwhile having the role of living- zone parks. 3. Functions and Components of Urban Parks Urban green space fulfills many social functions and psychological needs of citizens, making them valuable municipal resources that function as a key ingredient Source: Korean statistical information service (2011) influencing the sustainability of a city (Chiesura, 2004). Urban green spaces support people's active Fig.1. Trend of Urban Park Area in Seoul outdoor behaviors (Shim et al., 2006). Furthermore, due to increasing interest in environmental problems, Table 2. The Current Condition of Urban Parks in Seoul the role of parks in environmental stability such as Number Area per Area (ha) reducing urban temperatures has been considered (Gallo of parks person (m ) et al. 1993; Ali, 2008). In this context, Heo (2006) Total 1,422 8979.5 8.49 Natural green 12 4905.3 4.64 defines the function of urban parks as listed in Table 1. Neighborhood parks 274 3635.9 3.44 Vicinity parks 176 199.6 0.19 4. The Present Condition of Parks in Seoul Walking parks 34 195.5 0.18 Due to the population growth and increasing Living Regional area significance of green space in urban areas, the City 53 1643.5 1.55 -zone parks of Seoul has made consistent efforts to increase the parks Metropolitan area 11 1597.3 1.51 amount of green space. As a result, the area of urban parks parks in Seoul is steadily increasing, as shown in Fig.1. Children's parks 1,063 158.4 0.15 In Seoul, there are many urban, national, and other Small parks 51 5.3 0.00 parks. Table 2. shows the current condition of urban Sport parks 2 3.2 0.00 parks in Seoul. Cemeteries 3 225.0 0.21 As an indicator to measure the adequate number of Theme Cultural parks 12 25.1 0.02 parks in a city, the number of parks, park surface area parks Historical parks 4 16.2 0.02 Waterslide parks - - - and park area per person are usually considered. In Ecological parks 1 5.1 0.00 Seoul, the urban park area per person is approximately Source: Korean Statistical Information Service (2011) 8.49 m (Table 2.). Compared to several major cities 516 JAABE vol.13 no.2 May 2014 Jaehyeong Nam Urban parks in the world, this ratio is greater than in Peking (4.7 the reciprocal value of real relative asymmetry (RRA) 2 2 m ) and Tokyo (6.0 m ) but smaller than in New York and is a measure of relational asymmetry (RA). RA 2 2 2 (18.7 m ), Paris (11.6 m ), Toronto (29.7 m ), London and RRA are calculated as follows: 2 2 (24.2 m ) and Berlin (24.5 m ) (Korean Statistical Information Service, 2011). In terms of the quantitative indicators, Seoul appears to be a city with sufficient green space. In reality, more than 54% of the entire city is designated as natural green, although most urban parks have inadequate facilities. The numerical indicators mentioned above (n is the number of axial lines of an urban system, only represent quantitative terms but do not capture MD is mean depth) qualitative aspects. Integration is subcategorized into two types. One 5. Space Syntax Theory is global integration that considers the full range Space syntax is a methodology to quantitatively of analysis area, and the other is local integration analyze spatial structure allowing for the calculation of that considers only the inside area of depth 3 from a a city's physical structure. As a pioneer of the theory, benchmark generally. Hillier (1996) claims that socio-cultural elements are represented by the city structure morphology. 6. Study Areas Additionally, Abhijit (2013) reports movements The spatial scope of this study was limited to in urban scale have correlation with morphology regional neighborhood parks in Seoul. Theme by syntactic analysis. Kim (2003) reports a high parks were excluded because their functions and correlation between space use opportunities and characteristics are limited by their specific themes parameters representing spatial structure. Several or facilities. Additionally, childrens' parks and small studies consider spatial evaluation with space syntax living-zone parks were excluded, given their small theory in research related to urban park use (Lee et al., scale and insufficient size and influence. 2011; Kim et al., 2002). The following are the concepts As Table 3. shows, neighborhood parks in Seoul are employed in space syntax theory to analyze an urban classified into four groups based on class scale. The structure: present study focused on regional parks. Among the (1) Depth existing 55 regional parks, 40 are classified as target Depth is a basic unit of spatial syntax. The origin- areas based on scale criteria and characteristics. The destination (O-D) relationship represents the number remaining 15 parks with admission fees or parks which of space units passed in order to reach a destination. are defined as historic places such as palaces and Depth is a relative concept and is used as a basic unit cemeteries are excluded. to quantitatively calculate spatial structure. To fit the applied data criteria, the temporal scope of (2) Connectivity all used statistical and official data is limited to 2011. Connectivity indicates the number of spaces connected directly to a specific space. High 7. Data c o n n e c t i v i t y r e p r e se n t s e a sy a c c e ssi b i l i t y t o Many previous studies reviewed influential factors surrounding spaces. However, connectivity cannot affecting urban parks and accessibility. Ahn and Lee explain the relative importance of some spaces. (1999) report that access opportunity of urban parks (3) Control value is influenced by several conditions such as elevation, Control value is a factor that explains the degree slope, land use and distance from the nearest park. In of association between spaces. If a specific space the same context, accessibility is reported as one of is directly connected to some other 'n' places, that the most important factors that affects park use. Lee et specific space provides each connected space 1/n value al. (2011) evaluate regional park accessibility through of the control. The control value of specific spaces is space syntax theory. the sum of values of connected spaces. A high control Van Herzele and Wiedemann (2003) mention that value indicates that a space is more influential to the the accessibility and attractiveness of an urban green surrounded environment. space are determined by space, nature, culture and (4) Integration history, quietness, and facility attributes. In addition, If all movements are random and occur in every many existing studies regarding urban parks select and part of a space, some locations will be passed while consider various variables such as internal, external others will be visited. In this situation, the probability and socio-cultural characteristics. that people move to a specific space is known as Table 4. summarizes the variables used in previous 'integration'. High integration indicates easy access to a studies discussing characteristics of urban parks. To certain space. Additionally, that space plays a role as a determine the factors affecting park use, the present center of the topological area. The integration value is study selects three categories based on existing studies. JAABE vol.13 no.2 May 2014 Jaehyeong Nam 517 Table 3. Classification of Neighborhood Parks Influence Classification Definition Scale standard Main activities Number range Neighborhood park for the use of people Daily outdoor 500 m Vicinity parks Over 1 ha 176 living nearby activities radius Neighborhood park for the use of people Weekend outdoor 1000 m Walking parks Over 3 ha 33 living within walking distance activities radius Neighborhood park for wide-ranging use No Regional parks Over 10 ha Comprehensive use 55 of all people living in the regional area Limitation Metropolitan Neighborhood park for broad-based use Over 100 ha Regional use 9 parks over the city's regional area Source: 2011 Parks and Landscape Office Seoul metropolitan government First, internal variables concerning inner facilities location, defining the adequate range is necessary. Van and area factors including water facilities, parking Herzele & Wiedemann (2003) determine 1,600 m as lots, number of gates, facility types, and facility area the maximum useable distance in 10~60 ha of district and ratio are evaluated. Kim et al. (2007) report the green. The distance is equivalent to the regional park importance of water facilities in urban parks with described in Korean law, which is also the target of this regard to user psychological state and park amenities. study. In addition, there are significant factors that highlight Additionally, DiChiara & Koppelman (1982) report the park characteristics. The number of park gates that regional parks serve an area with a 10 mile radius. indicates a difference in accessibility between urban Accordingly, the spatial influence range of regional parks. More gates indicate better accessibility (Kim et parks in this study is set as a network range area of al., 2002; Yang, 2008; Lee et al., 2011). Inner facilities 1600 m identified by network analysis in ARC GIS are very effective in attracting people to parks. Ham 10.0 using the road centerline on the Seoul road (2009) clarifies the correlation among area, complexity network map, considering that a simple radius area of park facilities and park use. In regional parks, a cannot reflect the actual movement of park visitors. large portion of visitors drive to parks (Son and Yoon, The included variables are elevation, slope, residential 2002; Manross, 2008 ). As legally defined, regional population, number of public transportation stations parks are not limited to neighborhood residents. From (bus and metro), and total area and ratio of other parks, this perspective, parking areas for driving visitors are as referenced in previous studies (Table 4.). worth considering. Lastly, space syntactic variables such as control Second, external variables represent the condition value, global integration, and local integration drawn of parks' influence areas. As Table 3. shows, a regional from ArcGIS 10.0 and Axwoman 6.0 are included. park is not confined to a specific range of influence. To determine individual syntactic values of the target Therefore, to estimate the present condition of parks, defining measuring points is necessary. To Table 4. Variables Employed in Previous Studies Hong Lee et al. Kim et al. Yang Kim Lim et al. Ham Lee et al. Variable Lee (2009) and Park (2011) (2002) (2008) (2001) (2012) (2009) (2000) (2003) Total area v v v v v v v v v Space syntactic variables v v Number of facilities v v (facility types) Facility area v Number of metro stations v Distance to nearest park v v v Number of bus stations v Number of gates v v v Satisfaction level v v Distance to nearest public v v transportation facility Number of adjacent roads v v Population v v v Slope v v v Area of urbanization district Elevation v Shape of target park v v 518 JAABE vol.13 no.2 May 2014 Jaehyeong Nam Table 5. Selected Variables Category Variable Unit Method Source Internal Facility area and Total area except green space (i.e., buildings, Parks and Landscape variables ratio m /% amenities, sport facilities) office Seoul Metropolitan Government data (2011) Gate Unit Number of entrances Direct survey Type of facilities Unit Number of facility types (exercise, selling, Parks and Landscape amusements, accomplishments, others) office Seoul Metropolitan Government data (2011) Parking lot Unit Number of parking lots Water facility Exist/not Presence of water facility (fountain, pond, creek) External Elevation M (sea Mean elevation of influence area Ministry of Land, variables level) Infrastructure and Transport GIS data (2011) Slope Degree Mean degree of influence area Green area m2 Total green area surface excluding target park Green coverage ratio % Green coverage ratio of influence area Population Persons Total number of people living in the influence area Spatial data of BIZ-GIS Corp. Bus station Unit Number of bus stations in the influence area (http://www.biz-gis.com/ Metro station Unit Number of metro stations in the influence area GU_XsDB) Space Global integration - Using AXWOMAN 6.0 & Arc GIS 10.0 Ministry of Land, syntactic Infrastructure and Transport Local integration - Using AXWOMAN 6.0 & Arc GIS 10.0 (Calculate variables GIS data (2011) in depth 3) Control value - Using AXWOMAN 6.0 & Arc GIS 10.0 reflect visitor access, all syntactic variables are set as power is selected. Correlation between independent the mean value of each park entrance. Table 5. shows variables and dependent variables appears to be the selected variables. acceptable in that the explanatory power is .567, the R square value, and .439, the adjusted R square value. 8. Multiple Regression Analysis Table 7. is the result of ANOVA (Analysis of To determine exact variables that actually have Va ri a nc e ). F va l ue i s 4.419 wi t h si gni fi c a nc e of effects on dependent variable, multiple regression .002(p< .01). It shows that the observed regression line analysis, using some variables, was performed. is appropriate and the model is ultimately significant. I nd e pe nd e n t va r i a b l e s, suc h a s; Fa c i l i t y a r e a , As shown in Table 8., some variables extracted Number of gates, Types of facilities, Slope, Elevation, as significant factors affect dependent variables. Number of bus stations, number of metro stations, Considering additional analysis results, 2 variables Population, Green area, Green coverage percentage, including population and number of gates are derived Facility area percentage, Parking lots, Water facility, as significant variables that affect dependent variables Local integration, Global integration and Control are at a 95% confidence level. And 3 variables including used in the analysis. And as a criterion of extraction, Facility area, Global integration and Green area are the backward method is performed to find an optimized derived as significant variables that affect dependent model. variables at a 90% confidence level. Each variable with Before the analysis is performed, 4 cases of target its obtained values is shown in Table 8. parks: Boramae Park, Seoul Forest, Yoido Park and According to analysis results, facility area, global Children's Grand Park are excluded from the analysis integration, green area and number of gates have as outliers because these parks have unusually large positive effects on dependent variable; population has values, which are not included in the 95% normal a negative effect. distribution. Table 6., Table 7. and Table 8. show the results of this analysis. 9. Interpretation of Analysis Results Table 6. sums up the analysis model. Among some As a result of multiple regression analysis using derived models, the one having the largest explanatory whole variables, 5 variables are determined as significant variables; facility area, global integration, Table 6. Model Summary green area, population and number of gates. Std. Error Adjusted R The greater the facility area of a park, the greater the Model R R Square of the square positive effect regarding the amount of people's use of estimate the target park. This means, a park's functional side is 1 .753 .567 .439 434.492 significantly important in making people choose the a. Predictors: (Constant), Facility Area, Number of Gates, Types of Facilities, Slope, Elevation, Bus Stations, Metro park they would visit. It seems that regional parks play Stations, Population, Green Area, Green Coverage Percentage, a role as places for leisure and activity, not only for rest. Facility Area Percentage, Parking Lots, Water Facility, Local Ham (2009) also reported the significant coefficients Integration, Global Integration, Control between the number of users and facility area. b. Dependent Variable: Number of Annual Visitors JAABE vol.13 no.2 May 2014 Jaehyeong Nam 519 b Table 7. ANOVA Model Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. Regression 6,674,265.556 8 834,283.194 4.419 .002a Residual 5,097,156.333 27 188,783.568 Total 11,771,421.889 35 a. Predictors: (Constant), Facility area, Number of gates, Types of facilities, Slope, Elevation, Bus stations, Metro stations, Population, Green area, Green coverage percentage, Facility area percentage, Parking lots, Water facility, Local integration, Global integration, Control. b. Dependent Variable: Number of annual visitors Table 8. Regression Results Unstandardized Model Standardized coefficients t Sig. Collinearity statistics coefficients B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF (Constant) -312.072 943.412 -.331 .743 Facility area -2,417.685 1,783.204 -.426 -1.391 .176 .171 5.846 percentage Facility area .018 .009 .563 1.923 .065* .187 5.343 Number of gate 74.085 30.541 .453 2.426 .022** .460 2.172 Number of -78.667 49.318 -.282 -1.595 .122 .515 1.942 metro station Population -.007 .003 -.901 -2.454 .021** .119 8.413 Green coverage -5,925.772 1,375.494 -.567 -1.354 .187 .091 1.939 percentage Global 2,012.985 1,034.616 .349 1.946 .062* .499 2.002 integration Green area .001 .001 .744 1.941 .063* .109 9.158 Global integration and number of gates also have is required, besides the quantitative supply of urban positive effects on the annual number of people parks. using the park. More gates to the park offer more In this study, sixteen variables are constructed as the opportunities to access the target park; and means factors that influence park usage based on literature increased accessibility, while global integration review and field survey. Also, the data are constructed represents the target place's spatial phases (Hillier et based on three categories: internal variables, external al. 1993; Kim 2000; Seok 2011). In this connection, variables, and space syntactic variables. The correlation spatial values from space syntax theory affect people's between factors and number of annual visitors spatial cognition and traffic level as well (Penn et al. is analyzed through factor analysis and multiple 1998; Kim 2003; Lee et al. 2011). As a result, the high regression analysis. values of these indicators lead to higher numbers of The analysis results are as follows. Multiple visitors and in addition to easy recognition by them. regression analysis was performed to determine The populations of areas adjacent to the target parks accurate variables that affect dependent variables. As have negative effects. On the other hand, the sum of a result, 5 variables: facility area, global integration, green area in the influence area except target parks green area, population and number of gates are has a positive effect. This seems to have derived from determined as significant factors. In sum, the values of people's cognizance preferring secluded space more facility area, number of gates, green area of influence than places with complexity (Shim et al. 2006). In area and value of global integration affects the other words, a park that is placed in a less complex and number of annual visitors to target parks positively, less busy area is preferred. but population of influence area of target parks has a negative correlation between dependent variables and 10. Conclusion number of annual visitors. This study has analyzed forty city parks in order to This study has analyzed the factors that contribute identify the present use of and the inter-relationship to the usage of urban parks, using the actual number of between neighborhood parks in Seoul. visitors and other components. As the expectation concerning livability and leisure However, this study is limited to examining the time of citizens has increased, green space and parks current problems of city parks and sets plans only in are considered to be of high importance in urban areas. terms of population and administrative districts. The Seoul currently possesses some amount of green space factors such as internal factors, relationships among and parks at least in terms of quantitative aspects. the surrounding spaces and appropriate selection of However, the adequate use of parks is limited due to location, in addition to the quantitative area when the restricted range of use and qualitatively insufficient planning and providing urban parks, have been facilities. Therefore, a practical and effective policy considered. 520 JAABE vol.13 no.2 May 2014 Jaehyeong Nam 15) Kim, J.P., et al, 2007, An Analytical Study of the Design and Hence, the results of this study may be applicable as Characteristics of Water Bodies in Urban Parks - A Case Study the policy data for park management and provision in of Urban Parks in Gyeong-nam, - Journal of Korean institute of the future. landscape architecture, Vol. 35 (2), pp.25-36. 16) Kim, Y.W., 2003. A Study on the Relationship between Properties Notes of Spatial Configuration and Patterns of Space Use Using Space National Land Planning and Utilization Act; Article 38-2 Syntax, The journal of Korea planners association, 38 (4), pp.7-17. (Designation of Urban Natural Park Zones). 17) Lee, H.W., 2009. A Study on the Distributional Property and (1) Where a Mayor/Governor of a large city deems necessary to Utilizing Behavior of City Parks in Gwangju, Korean urban place restrictions on the development of natural areas of vegetation geographical society, 12 (3), pp.27-40. within the city in order to protect the natural environment and 18) Lee, T.H., et al., 2011. Visual access opportunity analysis of scenic beauty and to provide wholesome leisure and rest areas neighborhood park users using space syntax theory, Journal of the to citizens, he/she may make decisions on the designation or Korean institute of landscape architecture, 39 (4), pp.28-38. alteration of an urban natural park zone by an urban management 19) Manross, G., 2008. East Bay Regional Park District 2007-2008 plan. Community Survey: Benchmark Scientific Survey, Unpublished (2) Necessary matters concerning designation or alteration of an survey. urban natural park zone shall be separately prescribed by other 20) Oh, H., 2005. A Study of Cheonggyecheon City Park Design Acts. through Fusion of other Culture. Proceedings of the Korea society Act on Urban Parks, Greenbelts, etc.; Articles 2-3. of design studies conference, pp.332-333. Act on Urban Parks, Greenbelts, etc.; Article 15 (Subdivision and 21) Shim, J.Y., et al., 2006. A Comparison to the Importance Scale of Urban Parks). 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A Study on the Resident's Satisfaction with configuration of spatial Structure for Outdoor Space in Urban Apartment complex, Architectural research, Vol. 18 (11), pp.37- JAABE vol.13 no.2 May 2014 Jaehyeong Nam 521 Appendix 1. Data of Target Parks and Variables number of Facilit ie Facilit y Facilit y W at er parking Elevat io Met ro Bus P opulat i Green Green Global Local gat es Slope Cont rol users t ypes area % area facilit y area lot s n st at ions st at ions on area coverage int egrat ion int egrat ion 7730 5 33% 140023 14154 152 3 3.24 24.56 5 143 181032 176822 9% 0.41 0.67 1.33 Boramae park 7580 5 23% 54237 19099 172 16 3.45 14.87 5 67 74125 664426 17% 4.04 0.89 4.91 Seoul fores t 2500 3 15% 37792 2600 54 2 2.92 24.32 1 88 36401 633189 19% 0.25 0.77 1.61 Citizen's fores t 693 5 38% 68169 0 68 12 6.98 46.49 1 78 33410 469867 27% 1.28 0.61 1.88 Joonglang camping 1400 2 4% 7572 0 30 5 7.18 43.07 8 117 138918 605468 11% 1.33 0.7 2.62 Naks an park 11800 3 23% 51682 4848 0 12 1.5 13.16 8 151 65512 353922 9% 3 0.87 4.8 Youido park 2290 2 24% 27021 185 107 15 10 64.97 4 107 64043 850350 24% 3.47 0.87 4.16 Independent park 12922 5 26% 143048 14383 720 7 3.46 26.28 5 214 208481 462014 11% 2.57 0.86 4.34 Children's Grand pa r 920 2 7% 7757 0 70 2 2.43 10.66 3 60 43017 432000 14% 3.01 0.77 5.13 Seonyudo park 200 0 0% 596 0 0 2 11.05 81.12 2 28 50730 510676 18% 0.82 0.53 1.6 Waryong park 400 2 15% 25471 0 0 4 7.68 57.87 4 88 48949 956574 27% 1.28 0.73 2.32 Sajik park 330 4 33% 55863 1021 120 6 5.63 30.46 6 163 128480 234571 7% 1.34 0.8 3.1 Hyochang park 400 2 2% 5645 180 20 5 3.37 21.12 4 171 199980 410501 8% 0.45 0.73 1.76 Baebongs an park 30 1 16% 16201 0 30 4 3.14 24.92 4 132 109092 149315 5% 2.01 0.75 3.16 Hongneung park 150 2 7% 10504 0 112 4 2.77 17.98 3 120 135950 178913 6% 1.6 0.82 3.61 Daps ipli park 50 4 15% 20519 1076 32 3 11.35 83.17 1 41 63907 222082 15% 1.22 0.54 2.07 Sungbuk park 200 3 15% 27276 0 50 3 4.73 36.3 5 156 169617 613184 14% 1.49 0.64 2.82 Odong park 300 1 0% 426 0 0 2 7.26 47.83 4 85 137184 4274 7% 0.88 0.63 1.27 Gaeuns an park 80 3 4% 11736 0 0 5 4.02 44.46 2 138 206824 440636 11% 1.3 0.59 3.34 Ss angmun park 120 3 9% 12052 0 44 3 6.62 43.03 3 104 111079 360760 11% 0.58 0.54 1.56 Bulkwang park 550 1 0% 151 0 0 3 6.39 30.77 1 157 118957 426369 10% 1.07 0.69 3.42 Goongdong park 182 1 3% 6333 0 0 3 3.93 15.12 3 87 132934 354639 11% 0.81 0.62 2 Yongwangs an park 219 3 2% 11014 0 20 7 4.6 22.69 3 166 255040 935936 17% 2.4 0.58 2.82 Gyenam park 150 3 8% 11326 0 16 3 3.07 13.56 4 113 125711 308364 8% 0.59 0.63 1.4 Gals an park 650 2 16% 57610 0 100 3 3.69 20.36 3 223 160958 345376 12% 1.41 0.63 2.75 Woojang park 100 2 2% 2084 0 0 1 2.53 10.03 1 74 38364 322459 18% 1.28 0.6 2.07 Goongs an park 150 1 1% 666 0 0 3 2.7 14.06 3 120 116652 163956 7% 0.61 0.64 1.5 Yeomchang park 100 2 2% 3665 0 0 4 3.4 15.14 2 57 57090 252869 14% 1.1 0.55 1.97 Kkwonggogae park 300 3 34% 37217 0 32 3 4.77 21.99 1 82 119745 473004 13% 5.13 0.66 4.44 Gochuk park 150 1 0% 303 61 0 3 6.81 25.04 3 40 75151 204950 16% 0.89 0.53 1.5 Gaewoongs an park 91 2 1% 4050 0 0 6 7.99 57.84 5 147 214218 962681 20% 2.62 0.7 3.35 Ggachis an park 120 1 4% 5305 0 0 3 7.14 45.79 3 167 175900 618574 12% 3.23 0.66 3.79 Janggoonbong park 100 0 0% 0 0 0 4 6.21 35.93 7 88 108001 314216 13% 0.98 0.81 2.51 Seoripul park 392 1 0% 26 0 0 2 3.81 26.34 5 194 135768 478234 10% 4.66 0.92 5.39 Dogok park 1080 2 16% 46080 147400 66 18 1.35 16.19 6 159 255702 291540 7% 1.79 0.78 4.08 Songpanaru park 60 2 16% 34749 140 120 5 2.86 31.39 6 123 164834 410598 10% 3.01 0.68 4.83 Ogeum park 21 1 7% 12899 0 75 3 3.05 38.55 2 40 67220 184069 17% 0.89 0.53 1.79 Cheonma park 25 1 0% 1618 0 0 7 3.13 31.44 7 155 171476 444250 15% 1.59 0.66 3.2 Jangji park 522 JAABE vol.13 no.2 May 2014 Jaehyeong Nam
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: May 1, 2014
Keywords: accessibility; urban parks; GIS; spatial structures; space syntax
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