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GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 2019, VOL. 3, NO. 1, 14–21 INWASCON https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2018.1481654 Topographical distribution of cobalt in diﬀerent agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand state, India a b c Kishan Singh Rawat , Rakesh Kumar and Sudhir Kumar Singh a b Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics, Sathyabama University, Chennai, India; Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Bihar, India; K.Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric Ocean Studies, IIDS, Nehru Science Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 25 November 2017 The main aim of the study was to understand the present status of cobalt in diﬀerent agro- Accepted 22 May 2018 climatic zones. The soil samples were collected from diﬀerent locations and topo-sequences of three agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand, India, viz. zone-IV (Baliapur, Jharia, and Dhanbad), KEYWORDS zone-V (Bagru, Pakharpat, Kisko, and Lohardaga), and zone-VI (Moshabani, Jadugonda, and Clay; extractable cobalt; Chandil). The soil samples were analyzed in a laboratory to estimate the total cobalt and multiple regression; organic Diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable cobalt. Results show mean concen- carbon; total cobalt tration of DTPA extractable cobalt in zones-IV, V, and VI have been determined as 0.65, 0.5, −1 and 1.03 mg kg , whereas the mean total cobalt content in diﬀerent agro-climatic zones was −1 109.17, 107.58, and 102.58 mg kg , respectively. The work highlights the higher amount of DTPA-extractable and the total content of cobalt was observed in lowland against the diﬀerent topo-sequences. Further, the results of multiple regression equations have revealed that the distribution of extractable cobalt is primarily controlled by pH, clay, and organic carbon. Whereas, organic carbon controls the distribution of total cobalt content hence, the organic carbon plays a critical role in the distribution of cobalt in the soil. Introduction mobile than lithogenic metals (Burt, Wilson, Mays, & Lee, 2003). The Jharkhand state of India ranks as 3rd in terms of In the natural environment, the distribution of mineral production in the country and holds 40% of cobalt has many adverse eﬀects on plants and India’s mineral wealth. It accounts for 27% coal, 26% human. However, due to pedogenic and biogeochem- iron ore (haematite), 27% apatite rock phosphate, 20% ical process and anthropogenic inputs, the concentra- cobalt, and 18% copper ore as a resource of the country. tion of heavy metals continuously rises to such an Soil is a natural resource (Paudel, Thakur, Singh, & elevated level that it becomes phytotoxic (Kirkham, Srivastava, 2015). Cobalt is a widely distributed element 1983). Surface soils with higher cobalt content are and is essential for animals and plants (Kabata-Pendias, found in arid and semi-arid regions. The previous 2011). Literature indicates many researchers around the works show that the Egyptian soils have cobalt content globe have assessed both for diethylene-triamine pen- as 16.5–26.8 mg/kg (Nasseem & Abdalla, 2003), taacetic acid (DTPA) extractable cobalt and total cobalt Australian ferralsols (122 mg/kg) and Japanese soils in soil (Davies & White, 1981; Chen, Ma, & Harris, (116 mg/kg). It may be attributed to either pollution or 1999; Collins & Kinsela, 2010; Ewetola, Oyediran, speciﬁc enrichment process (Kabata-Pendias, 2011). Owoade, & Ojo, 2010; Huwait, Kumosani, Moselhy, Mico´, Recatala´, Peris, and Sa´nchez (2006)have Mosaoa, & Yaghmoor, 2015; Kayika, Siachoono, assessed heavy metals sources in agricultural soils of Kalinda, & Kwenye, 2017). The DTPA extractable a European Mediterranean area, and they found that cobalt is available to plants, whereas total cobalt is the cobalt content is associated with the parent rocks. exchangeable and ﬁxed fraction, with time the ﬁxed Levels of cobalt in soils were found to be as high as portion is available to plants. The parent rocks as a −1 12,700 mg kg in the Vicinity of a Cemented lithogenic control (higher correlation with soil proper- Tungsten Carbide Tool Grinding Plant in the United ties), chemical industries, mineral fertilizers, untreated States (Abraham & Hunt, 1995). Researchers have also industrial eﬄuents, sewage, and mine wastewater are investigated the environmental eﬀects of mining and the major sources of cobalt and other minerals in soil related industries of Jharkhand on soil, sediment, and and water (Gautam et al., 2015). In addition, to heavy water (Singh, Maiti, & Ghosh, 2009; Singh et al., 2012; metals that come from anthropogenic sources are more Tiwari, Singh, Singh, & Marina, 2016). A systematic CONTACT Kishan Singh Rawat email@example.com Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics, Sathyabama University, Chennai, India; Sudhir Kumar Singh firstname.lastname@example.org K.Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric Ocean Studies, IIDS, Nehru Science Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 15 survey for delineation of cobalt from soil was initiated 1986). Altitude has had a major eﬀect on the overall by a few workers in India to understand the sources, pattern of Co and the distribution of these elements levels, and enrichment processes (Kumar & Kumar, down the proﬁle; parent material and drainage have 2010b; Kumar, Kumar, Karmakar, & Agarwal, 2010a; clearly had an inﬂuence (Lago-Vila, Arenas-Lago, Kumar, Kumar, Rawat, & Yadav, 2012a). Rodríguez-Seijo, Andrade Couce, & Vega, 2015). Cobalt toxicity is aﬀected by the physicochemical Soil management problems in India and around the properties of the soil environment such as structure, world are a thrust area of research in the ﬁeld of soil organic matter, pH, and complex compounds (Luo, resource management. The major soil degradation pro- Zheng, Chen, Wang, & Fenghua, 2010). Soil quality blems in India are: soil erosion, salinization, alkaliniza- criteria must consider the bioavailability of metals tion and waterlogging, land degradation, loss of (Peijnenburg, Posthuma, Eijsackers, & Allen, 1997); nutrients, soil moisture deﬁcits, soil fertility depletion, these criteria can be used to establish maximum toler- and soil compaction. These problems are stratiﬁed able levels of metals that can be accommodated in soils. according to slope, agro-climatic zones, soil types, and 2+, 2+ 2+ 2 Many divalent metal cations (e.g., Mn Fe ,Co ,Ni land use. The Planning Commission of India has deli- + 2+ 2+ ,Cu and Zn ) are structurally very similar and neated 15 agro-climatic regions to form the basis for substitute for each other and create disorder in soil agricultural planning in the Eighth Plan (Bhattacharyya (Bruins, Kapil, & Oehme, 2000; Kumar, Kumar, et al., 2015). The review of Bhattacharyya et al. (2015) Rawat, & Yadav, 2012b;Nies, 1999). The elevated con- discussed the salient mitigation techniques for reversing centration of heavy metals in soil could constitute a land degradation in India and their applicability in threat to human health and wildlife through the food major agro-climates such as soil erosion control, water web and should be investigated in the agricultural soils harvesting, terracing and other engineering structures, (Kayika et al., 2017; Krishna & Govil, 2007; Reimann, bank erosion control, intercropping and, contour farm- Demetriades, Eggen, & Filzmoser, 2009, 2011). This ing, subsoiling, watershed approach, participatory would require analysis of the extractable cobalt contents resource, conservation and management, integrated in soils or heavy metal contents in vegetables and crops, nutrient management and organic manuring, reclama- especially where high levels were found in soils and in tion of salt aﬀected soils, water management and pollu- urban areas the vegetables are irrigated by untreated tion control, irrigation management for improving sewage wastewater (Bharose, Singh, & Srivastava, 2013; input use eﬃciency, and intensive cropping and inte- Gautam, Sharma, Tripathi, Ahirwar, & Singh, 2013). grated farming systems. Richardson, George, Hens, and Simpson (2005) The main aim of the present study was to assess the observed that the root elongation of plants was reduced topographical distribution of cobalt in the soil of diﬀer- by 30% when they were exposed for 3 days to 10 ppm ent agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. The speciﬁc cobalt concentration. Further, they found that the local objectives of the work were as follows: (i) to understand environment contamination with cobalt as a result of the distribution and extent of cobalt in diﬀerent agro- re-suspended dust resulting from an uncontrolled climatic zones, (ii) to ﬁnd out factors responsible for the mound of debris or emitted from the factory vents large-scale variability in cobalt distribution, and (iii) to was considerable. develop regression model and ﬁnally prepare cobalt The cobalt distribution in soil depends on geo- distribution maps. genic, anthropogenic, and climate. The diﬀerent agro-climatic zones refer land unit in terms of its major climate and growing period which is climati- Material and methods cally suitable for a certain range of crops and culti- Study area vars. The highlands are generally devoid of dense vegetation and have less inﬁltration, hence the soil The Jharkhand state of India has been divided into three of these areas have less concentration of cobalt in soil agro-climatic zones or regions viz. Central north-east- compared to lowlands. Upland soils had less total ern plateau (Region-I), Western plateau (Region-II), cobalt in upper horizons than in lower horizons and South-eastern plateau (Region-III) (Figure1). (Mcintosh, Sherrell, & Prema, 1986). The upland Dhanbad, Jharia, and Baliapur (zone-IV) areas are geo- soils are known to be more leached than the lowland logically comprised of Archean granites and gneisses. soils (Mcintosh et al., 1986), due to higher rainfall Soil orders namely Entisols, Inceptisols, and Alﬁsols are and probably overall moisture conditions. The eﬀect present in these areas. The temperature shows varia- of leaching is most obvious in the case of upland soils tions as winter temperature (8.4–34°C) and summer with an iron pan. In these soils, cobalt has accumu- (13.3–45.5°C), respectively. The annual average rainfall lated in the zone of maximum iron accumulation. is 1270 mm. Because the altitude eﬀect is probably largely a leach- Bagru, Kisko, Pakharpat, and Lohardaga (zone-V) ing eﬀect, and aspect is probably another topographic areas are geologically comprised of Archean granites factor aﬀecting Co extractability (Mcintosh et al., and gneisses. In the uplands, considerable thickness of 16 K. S. RAWAT ET AL. Figure 1. Location map of study area. laterite of Pleistocene age is found in the granite and laboratory procedures. The available cobalt in soil sam- gneisses tracts. Alluvium of the recent to sub-recent age ples, was extracted with a solution of 0.005 M DTPA- is reported in the river valley. The mineral bauxite, 0.01 M CaCl − 0.1 M tri-ethanolamine (adjusted to pH feldspar, ﬁre clay and china clay are present in the region. 7.3) as outlined by Lindsay and Norvell (1978). Total The annual average temperature is 23°C; the temperature cobalt content was determined after digestion of soil with goes to 36°C in summer and 10°C in winter seasons, perchloric-hydroﬂuoric acid (Hesse, 1994). The concen- respectively. The district receives annual average rainfall tration of metal was measured through atomic absorp- as 1000–1600 mm and it increases from west to east, and tion spectrophotometer (AAS) (Analyst-2000, Perkin majority of rainfall during the southwest monsoon Elmer). period. Mosabani, Jandugonda, and Chandil (zone-VI) areas Regression analysis are geologically comprised of granites gneiss and schist. Multiple regression analysis was performed through Formations of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic stepwise method to analyze the relative impacts of dif- rocks of the Dharwarian period are reported in these ferent factors that control the distribution of cobalt in areas. Three soil orders namely Entisols, Inceptisols, soils of diﬀerent zones. In the process of regression and Alﬁsols are present in these areas. The Jamshedpur analysis, the dependent variables were categorized as receives an annual rainfall of 1500 mm, and maximum in available cobalt, and total cobalt whereas the indepen- the four months (June–September). The temperature dent variables or the explanatory variables as X (pH), ranges from 16°C (in winter) to 44°C (in summer 1 X (EC), X (Organic carbon), X (CaCO ), X (Silt), months). 2 3 4 3 5 X (Clay), and X (CEC) (Panse & Sukhatme, 1961). 6 7 Sampling and samples analysis Results and discussions From each zone, 75 soil samples were collected (0–20 cm depth) from topo-sequence namely Upland, Midland, DTPA-extractable cobalt in upland soils has very low and Lowland from three agro-climatic zones namely (i) mean value in all studied zones with low standard devia- Central and north-eastern plateau i.e. zone-IV tion. The upland of the diﬀerent agro-climatic zone has −1 (Baliapur), (ii) Western plateau i.e. zone-V (Bagru) and the mean value of cobalt as 0.52, 0.27, and 0.77 mg kg , (iii) South-eastern plateau i.e. zone-VI (Moshabani). The respectively (Table 1 and Figure 2 A and B). Midland soils soil samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical of areas of zone IV, V, and VI, ranges from 0.32 to −1 −1 properties, viz. organic carbon, pH, electrical conductiv- 1.94 mg kg , 0.12 to 1.08 mg kg and below detection −1 ity (EC) (1:2.5: soil: water), cation-exchange capacity limit (bdl) to 3.72 mg kg with a mean value of 0.84, 0.37, −1 (CEC), CaCO , clay, and silt content, by using standard and 0.98 mg kg , respectively. Whereas in lowland soils 3 GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 17 −1 −1 ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 mg kg ,0.28to1.3 mg kg and street dust) enriched heavy metals (cobalt and others) in −1 0.32 to 3.04 mg kg with a mean value of 0.59, 0.87, and soils (Chen et al., 1999; Collins & Kinsela, 2010;De −1 1.35 mg kg , respectively. The content and distribution Miguel, Llamas, Chacón, & Mazadiego, 1999;Krishna of cobalt in soil proﬁles are dependent on soil-forming &Govil, 2007). There is a growing potential public health processes and therefore diﬀer for soils of various climatic risk over the consumption of food crops growing on the zones (Kabata-Pendias, 2011). Usually, higher cobalt con- miningwastedisposalsites on theCopperbeltinZambia tents of surface soils are observed for arid and semi-arid (Kayika et al., 2017). The cobalt concentration in mango regions. Signiﬁcant sources of cobalt pollution are related fruit was less compared to soil it may be attributed to to nonferrous metal smelters, whereas coal and other fuel reduction in the translocation of the metal from the roots combustions are of considerably less importance. to the plant (Davies and White, 1981). Huwait et al. (2015) results indicated that the levels of The upland soils hold the low concentration of cobalt Co in surface soil (0–15cm)werehigherthaninsub- and the main source is lithogenic because the upland area surface soil (>15-45 cm). The contribution of anthropo- is less aﬀected by the enrichment of cobalt and anthro- genic deposition of particles from urban sources (indus- pogenic source. Lowland proﬁlesshowavery lowrange trial emission, traﬃc, waste disposal; roadside soils and of variation of soil pH as compared to upland and mid- land whereas upland proﬁles show more variation of CaCO and less variation of electrical conductivity −1 3 Table 1. DTPA-extractable cobalt contents (mg kg ) in soils (Kabata-Pendias, 2011). Overall, DTPA-extractable of diﬀerent topo-sequences (agro-climatic zones) of cobalt under areas of zone IV, V, and VI ranged from Jharkhand state, India. −1 −1 bdl to 2.08 mg kg ,bdlto1.3mgkg ,andbdlto3.72mg Cobalt −1 kg , respectively. The decreasing order of cobalt was as Land Locations Range Mean Standard Deviation IV Zone follows zone VI (Lowland)>zone V (Lowland)>zone IV Upland bdl*-2.08 0.52 0.46 (Midland). The higher amount of available cobalt attrib- Midland 0.32–1.94 0.84 0.53 uted to soil reaction. A similar observation was also Lowland 0.3–0.90 0.59 0.18 V Zone reported by Roy, Acharya, Roy, Lahiri, and Sen (1988). Upland bdl-0.76 0.27 0.22 The mean value of DTPA-extractable cobalt in Lowland Midland 0.12–1.08 0.37 0.23 Lowland 0.28–1.30 0.87 0.27 was higher than Midland followed by Upland except zone VI Zone IV soils due to drainage. In poorly drained soils, amount Upland 0.1–2.86 0.77 0.84 Midland bdl.-3.72 0.98 0.90 of DTPA-extractable cobalt was greater than adjoining Lowland 0.32–3.04 1.35 0.71 midland and upland which were comparatively well *bdl, Below detection limit (0.15 mg/kg) Figure 2. A, B, C, D, E and F 3D representation of total and available cobalt content in agro-climatic zones IV, V and VI, respectively. 18 K. S. RAWAT ET AL. drained (Adams & Honeysett, 1964; Berrow & Mitchell, zone IV have the higher amount of total cobalt content 1980; Mitchell, Reith, & Johnston, 1957;Walsh,Vessey,& than zone V and VI while upland soils of zone V con- Layzell, 1987). Mitchell et al. (1957) attributed these tained the maximum amount of total cobalt. With the eﬀects due to the diﬀerence in the type of clay mineral perusal of data, it showed that mean value of total cobalt and organic complexes formed under the diﬀerent drai- in lowland soils was higher than midland followed by nage conditions. In zone IV (Lowland), soil contained the upland which might be due to higher content of organic lower value of DTPA-extractable cobalt than zone V matter and clay content (Aubert and Pinta 1977). (Midland), probably it might be due to more increase of Organic matter and clay percentage were generally soil pH because cobalt adsorption increased as soil pH more in lowland in comparison to midland and upland increased (Baddesha, Chhabra, & Ghuman, 1997). (Khan & Kamalakar, 2012) due to gentle slope, high Mcintosh et al. (1986) study suggested that the evidence inﬁltration rate and low run-oﬀ and forests. for altitude-related factors being a major inﬂuence on In upland soils, according to Ewetola et al. (2010), a EDTA-extractable Co. relationship between slope position and soil properties Total cobalt content in upland soils of zone IV, V, and wheremiddleslopeshowed thehighest clay contentand VI ranges from 72 to 113, 61 to 131, and 65 to 142 mg the major pedogenic processes inﬂuenced the relation- −1 −1 kg with a mean value of 94.76, 103, and 93.8 mg kg , ship between slope position and soil properties were respectively (Table 2). Midland soils of areas under zone mineral weathering erosion and eluvation-illuvation IV,V,and VI,total cobalt contentrangedfrom83to146, processes. −1 71 to 132, and 66 to 152 mg kg with ameanvalue of The 3D representation and contour plots of available −1 110.04, 106.4, and 102.84 mg kg , respectively, whereas cobalt and total cobalt in zone IV has been evidently in lowland soils, ranges from 91 to 163, 80 to 141, and identiﬁed, categorize, and quantify the speciﬁcareas −1 68–155 mg kg with a mean value of 122.72, 113.36, and where the enrichment of cobalt is higher. The available −1 −1 111.12 mg kg , respectively. Overall, total cobalt content cobalt was observed low in the center as 30 mg kg in areas of zone IV, V, and VI range from 72 to 163, (Figure 2 C and D). The total cobalt concentration was −1 61–141, and 65–155 mg kg , respectively. The upland observed very low in those regions. In the zone V, it was soils exhibited higher bulk density, particle density and observed that in the majority of areas, soils have low lower water holding capacity; midland and lowland soils available cobalt whereas the total cobalt has slightly were recorded higher inﬁltration rate and clay percentage fewervaluesascomparedtozoneIV.In theagro-climatic (Khan & Kamalakar, 2012). In allsoils,pH, OC,andCEC zones, VI the total and available cobalt content is illu- consistently increased with depth. A similar observation strated in Figure 2 (E and F) which shows similar pat- was reported by Khan and Kamalakar (2012)duringthe terns as zone V. soil analysis of newly established Agro-biodiversity Park Table 3 has the result of stepwise multiple regres- of Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, sion and enabled us to choose the statistically most Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. The organic carbon con- relevant equation stating the relationship between tent and CEC were higher in lowland soils which might cobalt and the factors determining them. Coeﬃcient be due to the clay translocation and organic carbon con- of determination (R ) suggest that DTPA extractable tent accumulation. In all the pedons, calcium was most cobalt (available cobalt) has 0.42; it is relatively deter- dominant cation followed by magnesium, sodium, and mined by pH and clay. In case of total cobalt content, potassium throughout the proﬁle. The upland pedons has it was determined by organic carbon up to 0.38. The low exchangeable cations than lowland soils because of pH and clay are the dominant factors in controlling excessive drainage from uplands (Khan and Kamlakar the distribution of cobalt in the soil. Soil texture and 2012). Data showed that midland and lowland soils of soil organic matter play an important role in the cobalt behavior in soils. The impact of soil organic matter is variable and depends on the kind of organic −1 Table 2. Total cobalt contents (mg kg ) in soils of diﬀerent matter and pH. Although, soils rich in organic matter topo-sequences (agro-climatic zones) of Jharkhand state, usually have low cobalt contents (Kabata-Pendias, India. 2011). The mobility of cobalt is strongly related to Cobalt Land Locations Range Mean Standard Deviation IV Zone Table 3. Predictability of available and total content of cobalt Upland 72–113 94.76 11.21 with relation to soil characteristics ﬁgure in parenthesis indi- Midland 83–146 110.04 20.46 Lowland 91–163 122.72 23.78 cates standard error of coeﬃcient. V Zone 2 Stepwise multiple regression equation R Upland 61–131 103.00 21.61 Available Y = 0.9025–0.1209 X ** + 0.0103X ** (0.0363) 0.42 1 6 Midland 71–132 106.40 19.39 Co (0.0038) Lowland 80–141 113.36 18.77 Total Co Y = 70.627+10.67X ** (1.901) 0.38 VI Zone Upland 65–142 93.80 21.36 ** level of signiﬁcance at p = 0.01% and X ,X ,X X ,X ,X and 1 2 3, 4 5 6 Midland 66–152 102.84 25.22 X indicate pH, EC, Organic carbon, CaCO , silt, clay and CEC 7 3 Lowland 68–155 111.12 27.8 respectively GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 19 kind of soil organic matter. A signiﬁcant correlation information, etc. All help and information received from known and unknown sources is also duly acknowledged. was found between lithogenic metals and some soil properties such as soil organic matter, clay content, and carbonates, indicating an important interaction Disclosure statement among them (Mico´ et al., 2006; Naidu et al., 2008). No potential conﬂict of interest was reported by the The prediction equation for total cobalt content has authors. revealed that it can be determined by organic car- bon which has the positive impact on the total cobalt content. In the lowland presence of a large amount of ORCID organic carbon controls the distribution total cobalt Sudhir Kumar Singh http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8465- content. The metal concentration and soil properties are known to inﬂuence metal bioavailability (pH, organic carbon, clay content, and eﬀective CEC) in agricultural References and grazing land soil in Europe (Reimann et al., 2009, Abraham, J. L., & Hunt, A. (1995). Environmental contam- 2011). ination by cobalt in the vicinity of a cemented tungsten carbide tool grinding plant. Environmental Research, 69 (1), 67–74. Conclusion Adams, S. N., & Honeysett, J. L. (1964). 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Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 2, 2019
Keywords: Clay; extractable cobalt; multiple regression; organic carbon; total cobalt
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