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S. Andrés, Laura Mir, J. Bergh, I. Ring, P. Verburg (2012)Ineffective Biodiversity Policy due to Five Rebound Effects
Ecosystem services, 1
B. Nautiyal, V. Prakash, R. Chauhan, H. Purohit, M. Nautiyal (2001)Assessment of germinability, productivity and cost benefit analysis of Picrorhiza kurrooa cultivated at lower altitudes
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The Indian Forester, 129
(2010)Ant diabetic and antioxidant
(2008)Demand and supply of medicinal plants in India
(2003)New Delhi: Publication and Information Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
(2009)Delhi: Regional economic development program, German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and Rawal Medherbs Consultants Pvt
Rupeshkumar Ghagi, S. Satpute, B. Chopade, A. Banpurkar (2011)Study of Functional Properties of Sapindus mukorossi as a Potential Bio-surfactant
Indian journal of science and technology, 4
(2005)Impact of Cultivation and Collection on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants : Global Trends and Issues
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Economic Botany, 52
A. Robinson, S. Yashvanth, S. Babu, and Madhavendra (2010)Isolation of α-amyrin eicosanoate , a triterpenoid from the roots of Saussurea lappa Clarke-Differential solubility as an aid
(2005)Kuth (Saussurea lappa) cultivation in the cold desert environment of Lahaul valley: arising threats and need to revive socio-economic values
(2000)Distribution pattern , population diversity and propagation of some high altitude medicinal herbs from Garhwal Himalaya : problems and prospects for conservation
U. Dhar, R. Rawal, S. Airi, I. Bhatt, S. Samant (2002)Promoting outreach through conservation education: Case study from Indian Himalayan Region
Current Science, 82
A. Hamilton (2004)Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods
Biodiversity & Conservation, 13
(2005)Important government orders for sustainable development of medicinal and aromatic plants (in Hindi)
(2005)Impact of cultivation and collection on the conservation of medicinal plants: In: Jatisatienr A, Paratasilpin T, Elliott S, Anusarnsunthorn V, Wedge D, Craker LE and Gardner ZE, editors
U. Dhar, R. Rawal, S. Airi, I. Bhatt, S. Samant (2002)Promoting outreach through conservation education programmes - Case study from Indian Himalayan Region
M. Gusain, Z. Sultan, C. Singh, N. Bisht (2009)Potential of marketing medicinal plants in Uttarakhand
Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products
H. Larsen, C. Olsen (2007)Unsustainable collection and unfair trade? Uncovering and assessing assumptions regarding Central Himalayan medicinal plant conservation
Biodiversity and Conservation, 16
C. Kuniyal, Y. Rawat, Santaram Oinam, J. Kuniyal, S. Vishvakarma (2005)Kuth (Saussurea lappa) cultivation in the cold desert environment of the Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India: arising threats and need to revive socio-economic values
Biodiversity & Conservation, 14
U. Chakraborty (2010)Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Cinnamomum tamala Leaf Extracts in Stz-Treated Diabetic Rats
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 2013 Vol. 9, No. 4, 324–329, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2013.819531 SHORT COMMUNICATION a, b a,c a,d Chandra P. Kuniyal *, Pramod C. Kuniyal , Jitendra S. Butola and Rakesh C. Sundriyal a b Herbal Research and Development Institute, Mandal, Gopeshwar, Chamoli 246 401, Uttarakhand, India; The Institute of Marketing and Management, Marketing Tower, B-11, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi 110016, India; College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Ranichauri, Tehri 249199, Uttarakhand, India; G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263643, Uttarakhand, India Cultivation of threatened medicinal plants and sustainable harvesting of minor forest products is important for conserva- tion of rare species and improvement of rural economies. An analysis of the trends in marketing of four medicinal plants, two cultivated (Saussurea lappa and Picrorhiza kurrooa) and two off-farm harvested medicinal plants (Sapindus muko- rossi and Cinnamomum tamala), was conducted in Uttarakhand, India from 2007 to 2011. Data on volumes harvested and marketed was obtained from the Herbal Research and Development Institute and the Herbal Pharmaceutical Development Unit. Despite the low volume produced from the two cultivated species (on average 4.19 MT/year) compared to over 600.00 MT/year for the two off-farm species, they were marketed at better prices as compared to the off-farm harvested species: about 3.0 US$/kg as opposed to almost 0.50 $/kg. The total annual value of the cultivated species was almost 11.000 $/year and 290.000 US$ for the off-farm harvested species (based on sustainable use levels). In general, harvesting rates of all selected species increased in the years studied. The cultivated Saussurea lappa and Picrorhiza kurrooa are among the rare but globally signiﬁcant medicinal plants, therefore, cultivation of these herbs is important for their conservation. Considerable quantities of Sapindus mukorossi and Cinnamomum tamala are marketed and these species seem to be pivotal for improvement of the rural economy. Little information is available on the policies for documentation of cultivation, sustainable harvesting, and trends in the marketing of medicinal plants from Indian Himalayan region (IHR). This communication is therefore important to understand the trends in the use of selected species in the Uttarakhand, IHR. Keywords: medicinal plants; CITES species; cultivation; marketing; registration; ecosystem services Introduction (Ved & Goraya 2008). Uttarakhand, India (53,485 km ) was founded as a small hill state on 9 November 2000. Medicinal plants are categorized as provisioning ecosys- Sustainable development of medicinal plants for regional tem services with direct economic value (Maestre Andrés socio-economic development is one of the policy-related et al. 2012). Still, global trade of medicinal plants priorities of the state. From 2001 to 2011, Herbal Research depends on the extensive collection from the wild (Olsen and Development Institute (HRDI) was designated as a 1998; Gusain et al. 2009). Unskilled collection and over- nodal agency and the ad-hoc State Medicinal Plants Board exploitation are key threats for extended dwindling sta- (SMPB) of the state for coordinating the developments in tus of important temperate medicinal plants (Bhadula medicinal plants sector. Later on, with the establishment of et al. 2000). Mountain agro-ecosystems also offer con- SMPB, HRDI is working as an associate of SMPB. In this venient ways for harvesting of minor forest products Indian hill state, the policies for conservation, develop- (having medicinal value) without transforming these well- ment and harvesting (CDH), documentation of cultivation, acclimatized ecosystems (Rao et al. 2004). Cultivation of and facilitation of marketing of medicinal plants are well medicinal plants is useful for reducing the pressures on developed (Important government ... 2005). In this short wild plants and improvement of rural economy (Hamilton paper, we discuss the trends in the marketing of the four 2004). However, problems arising from cultivation of species: Saussurea lappa syn. S. costus (costus roots or medicinal plants also need to be addressed to avoid a set- Kuth), Picrorhiza kurrooa (hellebore or Kutki), Sapindus back in such traditional practices (Kuniyal et al. 2005). mukorossi (soap nut or Reetha), and Cinnamomum tamala Also, the conservation and management plans for medic- (Indian bay leaf or Tejpat), and the intervention or poli- inal plants should be based on empirical data rather than cies for documentation of cultivation and facilitation for the estimates (Larsen & Olsen 2007). Meager informa- marketing. tion is available on the cultivation and trade of medicinal As per the policy of state government and on the basis plants in the Indian Himalaya (Kuniyal et al. 2005; Gusain of physical veriﬁcation of cultivation (area and crop) of et al. 2009). However, information is available on the esti- medicinal species, the medicinal plant growers of the state mated demands and supply of medicinal plants in India *Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org © 2013 Taylor & Francis International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 325 are registered by HRDI. Also, if naturally any plant species issued to the registered farmers or growers. None of the of medicinal value is growing within the surroundings of ‘Royalty’ (the nominal facilitation charges, as charged by legally owned agricultural and other lands of the farmers or Department of Forest for the material harvested from for- villagers (in this communication it is termed as off-farm); it est areas) is charged for obtaining the transits pass for is also registered under their ownership. Estimates for the registered material. Forest Development Corporation (FDC probable quantity of the material to be produced are made a department of state government) had established three on the basis of cultivation in the unit area and according Mandis (collection centers) at Rishikesh, Tanakpur, and to the gestation period. Estimates for minor forest pro- Ramnagar for buying cultivated and harvested materials duce (medicinal) that has to be harvested from off-farm through open auction. At the interval of 15 days, open auc- premises are made on approximately standing biomass and tion (buying from growers and further selling) is arranged material to be harvested through sustainable harvesting. at collection centers. The information about scheduled It may vary for different species and parts of the plants auction is regularly disseminated through open advertise- such as fruits or seeds and leaves. HRDI is also authorized ments. The prices for particular species are offered by for issuing a so-called ‘transit pass’ (ofﬁcial permission for participating traders. Only registered growers, ie those who marketing of cultivated or harvested medicinal plants pro- have valid transit pass with mentioned quantity of raw duce) to the growers. Transit pass is issued on the basis materials from either cultivated or off-farm sources, can of estimated production as mentioned in the registration. sell it. The rates for the selected species may vary at dif- However, in order to facilitate the farmers or growers and ferent Mandis, because the participating traders will be traders in the remote areas and in the entire state, HRDI had different or the demand of national level Mandis, where delegated this authorization to the Herbal Pharmaceutical this material will be sold further may vary. Open auction Development Unit or HPDU (also called as the Bhesaj is coordinated by the ofﬁcial of FDC, and quantities and Vikas Ikai, a cooperative department of state government). prices of all the materials auctioned are noted by the ofﬁ- On the other hand, transit pass for minor forest products cials of FDC and HPDU. Annual information on medicinal of medicinal utility that has to be collected from for- plants marketed through this procedure is documented by est areas is issued by the Department of Forest. Thus, in the HPDU. Uttarakhand, the dual transit pass issue procedure is in existence. In India, Uttarakhand is the pioneer state, where cultivation, sustainable collection, and marketing of medic- Marketing data inal plants are properly documented on prescribed formats. Information on the total quantity of Saussurea lappa Attempts for development of agro-techniques, addressing (roots), Picrorhiza kurrooa (stolons including roots), policy, and legal issues and evaluation of constraints in Sapindus mukorossi (fruits for fruits shell), and the cultivation of rare and endangered, and other medicinal Cinnamomum tamala (leaves) marketed from entire plants, has proven the effectiveness in the growth of herbal state, and the rates (Rs/kg) in the years 2007–08, 2008–09, sector (Nautiyal et al. 2001; Domestic Market Study ... 2009–10, and 2010–11 at different Mandis were obtained 2009). During 2006–07 to 2012–13 a total of 3419 transit from HPDU. Marketed quantity of selected species which passes were issued to the different growers for marketing was documented in kilogram (kg) was converted into of approximately 4939 MT, medicinal plants raw mate- metric ton (metric ton: MT = 1000 kg). The rates per rial belonging to almost 18 to 22 species. The value of kilogram for selected species in different Mandis and this material was almost Rs 92,625,000 or US$ 1,684,703 in different years were averaged. Obtained data were (ofﬁcial database of the HRDI). analyzed for comparative assessment of total monitory The four selected species are among the important value, i.e. multiplying total quantity marketed (in kg) temperate medicinal plants (Chakraborty & Das 2010; with the unit rates (in Rs). Variation in recent prices and Robinson et al. 2010; Ghagi et al. 2011). According to quantity was determined through dividing recent value an estimate (Ved & Goraya 2008; Domestic market ... (in 2010) by ﬁrst value (in 2007). A value of more than 2009), annual demand of these species in the Indian herbal 1.00 was considered as increment and less than 1.00 was pharmaceutical industry is around 250.00 to 1000.00 MT considered as reduction. For comparative purpose, the (Table 1). Information on marketing of selected species values in Rs were converted to US$. will be useful for understanding the current trends in avail- ability and prices. This information will also be useful in the development of appropriate value addition methods, Results setting of cultivation priorities and determining sustainable harvesting strategies. An average of 2.76 Metric ton (MT) roots of Saussurea lappa and 1.43 MT stolons and roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa were marketed each year from 2007 to 2010 (Table 2). The Materials and methods annual harvest from the off-farm species was much higher: Facilitation for marketing of medicinal plants on average 207.10 MT fruits of Sapindus mukorossi and In each of the districts of Uttarakhand, transit passes 407.17 MT leaves of Cinnamomum tamala were marketed for marketing of cultivated and harvested material are during these years (Table 2). 326 C.P. Kuniyal et al. Table 1. Overview of medicinal importance and other facts of selected plant species. Botanical name Parts in commerce (English name/trade and approximate Methods for name/vernacular Medicinal annual demand in Sources of raw cultivation or name and family) importance India material plantation Status Saussurea lappa Main ingredient of Roots, annually Cultivation at Propagated through Globally (Decne) Sch. Bip., the medicines 100.00– 2400–2800 m asl, seeds, 2–3 years endangered, Syn. S. costus prepared for skin 200.00 MT . on an average gestation period, it enlisted in C. B. Clarke) disease From 2007 to basis 3.50 MT may be cultivated Appendix I of (Costus roots, 2009, 132.50 MT roots may be in speciﬁc CITES, certiﬁcate Kuth, Asteraceae) material was produced in a locations only of cultivation is consumed by hectare required for domestic herbal marketing, mass market of India scale cultivation is useful for conservation and sustainable supply Picrorhiza kurrooa Well known Stolons and roots, Cultivation at Propagated through Globally Royle ex Benth. hepato-protective 200.00– 2400–2800 m asl, vegetative endangered, (Hellibore, Kutki, herbal drug and 500.00 MT, from on an average methods (through enlisted in Scrophulariaceae) also useful in the 2007 to 2009, basis 0.75 MT stolon cutting), Appendix II of cure of diabetes 650.46 MT stolons and roots 2–3 years CITES, mass material was may be produced gestation period, scale cultivation is consumed by in a hectare could be useful for domestic herbal cultivated in the conservation and market speciﬁc locations sustainable supply only Sapindus mukorossi Mostly used in Fruits, annual In majority it is Propagated through Mass scale Gaertn. (Soap nut, herbal shampoo demand 200.00– harvested from seeds, 1—2 year plantation needs Reetha or Ritha, and soaps due to 500.00 MT, the trees growing old seedlings are to be encouraged, Sapindaceae) antidandruff annual in off-farm planted, fruits may population status properties. It is consumption by premises (from be harvested from is not yet assessed also a Indian domestic 700 to 2000 m 8to10yearsold for determining psycho-medicinal herbal market was asl), some of the trees, production sustainable plant around current supply is per unit area/ harvesting 182.00 MT from existing trees is not plantation estimated Cinnamomum Mainly used as Leaves, annual Off-farm harvesting Propagated through Mass scale tamala Nees. spice, however, demand 500.00 to is in practice seeds, 2-3 years plantation needs (Indian Bay leaf, recently proved its 100.00 MT, data (along 1000 to old seedlings are to be encouraged, Tejpat, Lauraceae) utility in the cure on absolute supply 2000 m asl), planted, leaves population status diabetes. Also or consumption majority of may be harvested is yet not assessed useful in treating are not available. current supply is after 7 to 9 years for determining cold and cough from existing of plantation, sustainable trees and random production per harvesting plantation unit area/trees is not estimated Note: MT: Metric ton (1.00 MT = 1000.00 kg.) The marketed quantity of Saussurea lappa was tamala (Table 2). However, it is important to note that, 7.11 MT (max.) in 2008, while the quantity of Picrorhiza the price of Saussurea lappa was less in 2008 while the kurrooa was 0.44 MT (min.) in 2009. Also, in the year marketed quantity of this species was maximum in this 2009, the marketed quantity of Sapindus mukorossi was year. The quantity of Picrorhiza kurrooa was observed least (143.33) MT as compared to the other years. In the to have decreased (−0.38 times) in the year 2010 as years 2007, 2009, and 2010, marketed quantity of the compared to 2007 (Table 2). Generally, the marketed Cinnamomum tamala was comparable (Table 2). In gen- quantities of Saussurea lappa, Sapindus mukorossi, and eral, the marketed quantity of cultivated plants was much Cinnamomum tamala increased in 2010 as compared to less in these years compared to the materials harvested 2007 (Table 2). Average prices (per kg) of Saussurea lappa from off-farm plants (Table 2). and Picrorhiza kurrooa were Rs 85.10 (US$ 1.60) and The prices for cultivated material of Saussurea lappa 243.25 (4.57), respectively in these 4 years. However, the and Picrorhiza kurrooa were however much higher than average rates of Sapindus mukorossi and Cinnamomum for materials from Sapindus mukorossi and Cinnamomum tamala during 2007 to 2010 were Rs 26.02 and 24.25 (or International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 327 Table 2. Yearly trends in the marketing of two cultivated (1,2) and two off-farm medicinal plants (3,4) in Uttarakhand, India. Years 2007 2008 2009 2010 Average (2007 to 2010) Total Total Total Total Species (products quantity Average rates; quantity Average rates; quantity Average rates; quantity Average rates; Quantity of commercial marketed Rs/kg (total marketed Rs/kg (total marketed Rs/kg (total marketed Rs/kg (total marketed Rates; a c d S. No. utility) (MT) value; Rs) $ (MT) value; Rs) $ (MT) value; Rs) $ (MT) value; Rs) ($) (MT) Rs/kg ($) 1 Cultivated: 1.20 77.38 7.11 53.00 1.32 90.00 1.41 120.00 2.76 85.10) Saussurea (92,856.00) (37,68,630.00) (1,18,800.00) (+1.18) (1,69,200.00) (1.60) lappa (Roots) 1744.10 70,785.69 2231.40 3178.06 (+1.55) 2 Cultivated: 2.85 98.00 1.32 200.00 0.44 300.00 1.09 375.00 1.43 243.25 Picrorhiza kurrooa (2,79,300.00) (2,64,000.00) (1,32,000.00) (4,08,750.00) (4.57) (Stolons and 5246.06 4598.68 2479.34 (−.38) 7677.50 roots) (+3.83) 3 Off-farm: 154.30 14.50 311.99 14.59 143.33 30.00 218.79 45.00 207.10 26.02 Sapindus (22,37,350.00) (45,51,934.00) (42,99,900.00) (98,45,550.00) mukorossi 42,023.85 85,498.38 80,764.46 (+1.42) 1,84,927.69 (0.49) (Fruits) (+3.10) 4 Off-farm: 424.70 21.03 270.94 21.00 499.40 26.08 433.64 28.90 407.17 24.25 Cinnamomum (89,31,441.00) (56,89,740.00) (1,30,24,352.00) (1,25,32,196.00) tamala 167,758.10 106,869.65 244,634.71 (+1.02) 235,390.61 (0.46) (Leaves) (+1.37) Notes: MT: Metric ton (equal to 1000.00 kg). Rs / Kg: Rupees (Indian National Rupees) per Kilogram. Total value: Total quantity (in kg.) multiplied by rates per kg (Rs). $: US Dollar (1.00 US$ = Rs 53.24, as on 16 November 2012). Variations in the quantity marketed in 2010 as compared to 2007. Increments in the prices in 2010 as compared to 2007. 328 C.P. Kuniyal et al. less than 0.50 US$). It was also evaluated that the culti- Because of attractive returns provided by these species, vated and CITES listed species such as Saussurea lappa some farmers of remote villages of Uttarakhand had started and Picrorhiza kurrooa fetch on average between 2.76 and their cultivation (Figure 1A and B). Cultivation of CITES 7.73 times higher prices (per kg) as compared to the species, i.e. S. lappa and P. kurrooa is encouraging for the Sapindus mukorossi and Cinnamomum tamala (Table 2). conservation as well as it will be a valuable optional activ- However, a clear increment in the prices of all species was ity for improving rural livelihood. Constant supply of S. observed in 2010, if it is compared with the prices in 2007 lappa and P. kurrooa from cultivated sources has encour- (Table 2). Cultivation and marketing of Saussurea lappa aged the government of Uttarakhand for ﬁxing minimum provided between 1744 (2007) and 70,785 US$ (2010) in procurement prices for these species. In 2011, the buying these years, while cultivation and marketing of Picrorhiza prices for S. lappa and P. kurrooa have been ﬁxed to Rs kurrooa provided between 2479 (2009) and 7677 US$ 150.00/kg and Rs 425.00/kg, respectively. Low volume– (2010). Marketing of the harvested off-farm material from high value and export potential of these two species is Sapindus mukorossi and Cinnamomum tamala provided a considerable fact for their unique status of highly in much higher values: 42,023 (2007) to 244,634 US$ (2010). demand temperate medicinal plants in the herbal phar- The prices of all species increased nearly 1.37 to 3.83 times maceutical industry (Ved & Goraya 2008). Cultivation of from 2007 to 2010 (Table 2). The total annual value medicinal plants is anticipated as a useful tool for conser- of the cultivated species was almost 11.000 $/year and vation of germplasm of threatened, but potential species 290.000 US$ for the off-farm harvested species (based on (Dhar et al. 2002). Frequent availability of S. mukorossi the sustainable use levels). and C. tamala may be a reason for their consistently low prices. In addition, other species of Cinnamomum such as C. zeylanicum is valued more than C. tamala,sothis Discussion could be another reason for its low rates. However, in terms The quantity of selected species marketed during 2007 to of economic beneﬁts or regional economic developments, 2010 either from cultivated or harvested sources showed sustainable collection of frequently available species (from inconclusive trends. However, the rates (per kg.) were gen- off-farm) such as Sapindus mukorossi and Cinnamomum erally increasing in subsequent years. Based on the trends tamala may be worthwhile (Figure 1C and D). in marketing of Saussurea lappa and Picrorhiza kurrooa, Saussurea lappa is a useful species for the preparation these species may be categorized as low-volume and high- of medicines used in the treatment of skin diseases (The value medicinal species of Uttarakhand (Figure 1 A and B). Wealth of India ... 2003a). Picrorhiza kurrooa is valued as Saussurea lappa and Picrorhiza kurrooa are enlisted in the the ingredient of several herbal medicines (The Wealth of appendices I and II of Convention on International Trade India... 2003b). Sapindus mukorossi is used for the prepa- in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES ration of detergents and antidandruff shampoo (The Wealth 2012). Prohibitions on wild harvesting of S. lappa and P. of India ... 2003c). The leaves extract of Cinnamomum kurrooa and their possible cultivation at higher elevations tamala also acts as useful anti diabetic agent (Chakraborty (>2400 m a. s. l.) make them attractive optional cash crops. &Das 2010). Cultivation of S. lappa and P. kurrooa will C D Figure 1. Cultivation of Saussurea lappa (A), Picrorhiza kurrooa (B), Sapindus mukorossi (C), and Cinnamomum tamala (D) in the remote villages of Uttarakhand. Product marketed from the respective species are shown in the inset. 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International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management – Taylor & Francis
Published: Dec 1, 2013
Keywords: medicinal plants; CITES species; cultivation; marketing; registration; ecosystem services
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