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Frontiers in glucagon-like peptide-2: multiple actions, multiple mediators

Frontiers in glucagon-like peptide-2: multiple actions, multiple mediators Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a pleiotropic hormone that affects multiple facets of intestinal physiology, including growth, barrier function, digestion, absorption, motility, and blood flow. The mechanisms through which GLP-2 produces these actions are complex, involving unique signaling mechanisms and multiple indirect mediators. As clinical trials have begun for the use of GLP-2 in a variety of intestinal disorders, the elucidation of such mechanisms is vital. The GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor, signaling through multiple G proteins to affect the cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, leading to both proliferative and antiapoptotic cellular responses. The GLP-2R also demonstrates unique mechanisms for receptor trafficking. Expression of the GLP-2R in discrete sets of intestinal cells, including endocrine cells, subepithelial myofibroblasts, and enteric neurons, has led to the hypothesis that GLP-2 acts indirectly through multiple mediators to produce its biological effects. Indeed, several studies have now provided important mechanistic data illustrating several of the indirect pathways of GLP-2 action. Thus, insulin-like growth factor I has been demonstrated to be required for GLP-2-induced crypt cell proliferation, likely involving activation of -catenin signaling. Furthermore, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide modulates the actions of GLP-2 in models of intestinal inflammation, while keratinocyte growth factor is required for GLP-2-induced colonic mucosal growth and mucin expression. Finally, enteric neural GLP-2R signaling affects intestinal blood flow through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Determining how GLP-2 produces its full range of biological effects, which mediators are involved, and how these mediators interact is a continuing area of active research. growth; intestine; receptor; signaling Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: P. L. Brubaker, Rm. 3366, 1 King's College Cir., Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada (e-mail: p.brubaker@utoronto.ca ) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism The American Physiological Society

Frontiers in glucagon-like peptide-2: multiple actions, multiple mediators

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Publisher
The American Physiological Society
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society
ISSN
0193-1849
eISSN
1522-1555
DOI
10.1152/ajpendo.00149.2007
pmid
17652153
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a pleiotropic hormone that affects multiple facets of intestinal physiology, including growth, barrier function, digestion, absorption, motility, and blood flow. The mechanisms through which GLP-2 produces these actions are complex, involving unique signaling mechanisms and multiple indirect mediators. As clinical trials have begun for the use of GLP-2 in a variety of intestinal disorders, the elucidation of such mechanisms is vital. The GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor, signaling through multiple G proteins to affect the cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, leading to both proliferative and antiapoptotic cellular responses. The GLP-2R also demonstrates unique mechanisms for receptor trafficking. Expression of the GLP-2R in discrete sets of intestinal cells, including endocrine cells, subepithelial myofibroblasts, and enteric neurons, has led to the hypothesis that GLP-2 acts indirectly through multiple mediators to produce its biological effects. Indeed, several studies have now provided important mechanistic data illustrating several of the indirect pathways of GLP-2 action. Thus, insulin-like growth factor I has been demonstrated to be required for GLP-2-induced crypt cell proliferation, likely involving activation of -catenin signaling. Furthermore, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide modulates the actions of GLP-2 in models of intestinal inflammation, while keratinocyte growth factor is required for GLP-2-induced colonic mucosal growth and mucin expression. Finally, enteric neural GLP-2R signaling affects intestinal blood flow through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Determining how GLP-2 produces its full range of biological effects, which mediators are involved, and how these mediators interact is a continuing area of active research. growth; intestine; receptor; signaling Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: P. L. Brubaker, Rm. 3366, 1 King's College Cir., Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada (e-mail: p.brubaker@utoronto.ca )

Journal

AJP - Endocrinology and MetabolismThe American Physiological Society

Published: Aug 1, 2007

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