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Cocaine and Tobacco Use and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion

Cocaine and Tobacco Use and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion BackgroundCigarette smoking and cocaine use may be risk factors for spontaneous abortion, but data supporting such a link are limited.MethodsWe studied the associations between cocaine and tobacco use and spontaneous abortion among pregnant adolescents and women (age range, 14 to 40 years) who sought care at an inner-city emergency department. A total of 400 adolescents and women had spontaneous abortions either at study entry or during follow-up (which lasted until 22 weeks' gestation), and 570 adolescents and women remained pregnant past 22 weeks' gestation. Cocaine use was measured at base line by self-reports and analysis of urine and hair samples. Cigarette smoking was measured by self-reports and urine analysis.ResultsThe adolescents and women in both groups were predominantly black and of lower socioeconomic status. Among those who had spontaneous abortions, 28.9 percent used cocaine on the basis of hair analysis and 34.6 percent smoked on the basis of a urine cotinine assay, as compared with 20.5 percent and 21.8 percent, respectively, of the adolescents and women who did not have spontaneous abortions. The presence of cocaine in hair samples was independently associated with an increase in the occurrence of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio, 1.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.1) after adjustment for demographic and drug-use variables. However, the use of cocaine as measured by self-reports and by urine analysis was not. The presence of cotinine in urine was also independently associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio, 1.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.6). Twenty-four percent of the risk of spontaneous abortion could be related to cocaine or tobacco use.ConclusionsCocaine use and tobacco use were common in our study population and were associated with a significant risk of spontaneous abortion. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The New England Journal of Medicine The New England Journal of Medicine

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References (26)

Publisher
The New England Journal of Medicine
Copyright
Copyright © 1999 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
ISSN
0028-4793
eISSN
1533-4406
DOI
10.1056/NEJM199902043400501
pmid
9929522
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

BackgroundCigarette smoking and cocaine use may be risk factors for spontaneous abortion, but data supporting such a link are limited.MethodsWe studied the associations between cocaine and tobacco use and spontaneous abortion among pregnant adolescents and women (age range, 14 to 40 years) who sought care at an inner-city emergency department. A total of 400 adolescents and women had spontaneous abortions either at study entry or during follow-up (which lasted until 22 weeks' gestation), and 570 adolescents and women remained pregnant past 22 weeks' gestation. Cocaine use was measured at base line by self-reports and analysis of urine and hair samples. Cigarette smoking was measured by self-reports and urine analysis.ResultsThe adolescents and women in both groups were predominantly black and of lower socioeconomic status. Among those who had spontaneous abortions, 28.9 percent used cocaine on the basis of hair analysis and 34.6 percent smoked on the basis of a urine cotinine assay, as compared with 20.5 percent and 21.8 percent, respectively, of the adolescents and women who did not have spontaneous abortions. The presence of cocaine in hair samples was independently associated with an increase in the occurrence of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio, 1.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.1) after adjustment for demographic and drug-use variables. However, the use of cocaine as measured by self-reports and by urine analysis was not. The presence of cotinine in urine was also independently associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio, 1.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.6). Twenty-four percent of the risk of spontaneous abortion could be related to cocaine or tobacco use.ConclusionsCocaine use and tobacco use were common in our study population and were associated with a significant risk of spontaneous abortion.

Journal

The New England Journal of MedicineThe New England Journal of Medicine

Published: Feb 4, 1999

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