Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Conservation status of Italian coastal dune habitats in the light of the 4th Monitoring Report (92/43/EEC Habitats Directive)

Conservation status of Italian coastal dune habitats in the light of the 4th Monitoring Report... Coastal dunes are among habitats with the worst conservation status on a global, European and national scale. Monitoring and re - porting are of strategic importance to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of Habitats Directive and to preserve the unique biodiversity heritage of the Italian dunes. In this study we show main results of the 4th National Report with specific reference to the macro-habitat “Coastal Sand Dunes and Inland Dunes”, highlighting its updated current conservation status at the national and Biogeographical level. A comprehensive Working Group of territorial experts collected, updated, validated and integrated the data available for 11 Annex I Habitats, distributed in the Alpine, Continental and Mediterranean Biogeographical Regions. The conserva - tion status was evaluated through the following criteria: geographic range, surface area, structure, functions, pressures, threats, con - servation measures and prospects. Results highlighted the dramatically bad conservation status of Italian dune Habitats: the overall assessment reported 88% of habitats in bad conservation status and the remaining 12% is in inadequate conditions. Results showed a generalised threat and a worrying conservation status both on herbaceous and wooded communities, in particular in some relevant habitats, such as the shifting dunes. Main pressures and threats were linked to residential, commercial and industrial activities, as well as alien species. Although some of the changes in distribution and trends are probably deriving from more accurate and updated data, the alarming conservation status of Italian sand dunes requires a better knowledge of pressures and threats for further management actions and monitoring plans, inside and outside protected areas. Keywords Continental Biogeographical Region, European guidelines, Mediterranean Biogeographical Region, national report, psammophilous vegetation, threats Introduction ularly threatened at a global, European and national scale (Acosta et al. 2009; Feola et al. 2011; Prisco et al. 2013; Sandy coastlines and dune ecosystems are fragile environ - Genovesi et al. 2014; Janssen et al. 2016; Gigante et al. ments currently exposed to several pressures and partic - 2018). Although the degradation and loss of dune systems Copyright Irene Prisco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which per- mits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. 56 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status ae ff ct many countries all over the world, it is particularly In this frame, based on the European guidelines (Evans intense along the Mediterranean coasts. and Arvela 2011), a technical manual for habitat mon - e M Th editerranean basin is one of the world biodiver - itoring has been produced at the national level in Italy. sity hotspots (Myers et al. 2000), but, at the same time, it This manual provides practical standardised monitoring is one of the regions of the world subjected to the highest tools particularly tuned to the Italian ecological and bio - geographical characteristics and peculiarities, standing level of historical anthropic pressure (Newton et al. 2012; as an official reference for fulfilling the monitoring obli - Anthony 2014). Indeed, more than 450 million inhabitants gations imposed by the Habitats Directive (Angelini et al. currently live in the Mediterranean countries, and espe - 2016; Gigante et al. 2016b). Major goals of the Habitats cially near the coasts (UNEP/MAP 2012). The high pop - Directive are achieved through the technical reports on ulation density along the Mediterranean shorelines rep - the conservation status of Habitats listed in Annex I (Dir. resents a major threat to coastal sand dunes, which suffer 92/43/EEC) and on conservation measures implemented from unregulated urbanization, intensive farming, infra - in accordance with article 17. Reporting is requested ev - structures, massive bathing tourism, pollution, biological ery six years to each Member States and in 2019 Italy, just invasions and over-exploitation of the natural resources like the other EU27 countries, has delivered its 4th Na - (Buffa et al. 2007, 2012; Malavasi et al. 2013, 2016; Basnou tional Report referred to the period 2013-2018. The here et al. 2015; Del Vecchio et al. 2015; Sciandrello et al. 2015; collected and processed information represents the most Poeta et al. 2017; Nordhaus et al. 2018; Sperandii et al. updated picture of the conservation status of habitats and 2018; Giulio et al. 2020). In Italy, previous studies reported species of Community Interest in the whole Italian terri - that coastal sand dunes are among the habitats with the tory. The complete set of rough data is available on the worst conservation status, therefore, the unique biodiver - Eionet Central Data Repository (2018). sity heritage along the Italian coasts needs to be preserved e ac Th tivities for the preparation of the 4th Nation - for the future generations and its protection should repre - al Report have been coordinated by the Italian Institute sent a priority both at national and European level. for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) on In the last years, we have witnessed a growing global behalf of the Ministry for Environment, Land and Sea awareness concerning habitat monitoring and conserva - Protection (MATTM), with the scientific support of the tion; habitats as a whole are probably more useful indi - Italian Botanical Society (SBI) and the Italian Society of cators of ecosystem functioning compared to individual Vegetation Science (SISV). Between October 2018 and species (Balmford et al. 2002; Cowling et al. 2004; Bunce May 2019, a comprehensive Working Group of territorial et al. 2013; Gigante et al. 2016a). The protection of bio - experts distributed by administrative regions and mac - diversity requires a constant and rigorous technical-sci - ro-habitat categories, worked in synergy with ISPRA it - entific commitment at national level, which should also self and, where possible, with regional administrations, in be extended to the obligations deriving from community order to collect, analyse and validate all the available data rules. In particular, the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) concerning the 124 types of terrestrial and inland water requires the Member States to implement surveillance on Habitats present in Italy (Gigante et al. 2019). Through the conservation status of habitats and species of Com - a complex and multi-level teamwork and by comparing munity Interest, taking into account also the most im - the results of the previous reporting period (2007-2012), portant threat factors that influence their future prospects it was possible to assess the current conservation status of (Angelini et al. 2016; Gigante et al. 2016b). each habitat at biogeographical scale and therefore to fill In 2016, the first European Red List of Habitats had out the standard European assessment sheets. been published. Traditionally, the Red Lists, based on cri - As part of the results achieved by the Working Group, teria developed by the International Union for Conser - this paper aims at presenting the major results of the 4th vation of Nature (IUCN), have always focused on single National Habitat reporting for the macro-habitat type species with extinction risk and trends evaluated at the “Coastal Sand Dunes and Inland Dunes”. Specifically, we taxa level. The European Red List of Habitats represents reported the updated conservation status of each coastal a step further since plant communities and habitats have dune habitat at national level with reference to Biogeo - been taken into account as assessment units. This Red List graphical Regions. confirms not only the key role of habitats concerning the implementation of conservation strategies and priorities, but also the necessity of monitoring at the ecosystem level (Rodwell et al. 2013; Keith et al. 2013, 2017; Janssen et al. Materials and Methods 2016; IUCN 2016; Gigante et al. 2018). Monitoring and reporting are of strategic importance The macro-habitat type “Coastal Sand Dunes and Inland to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of Dunes” encompasses 21 Annex I Habitats in Europe, 11 the Community Directives on biodiversity. Moreover, of which have been reported in Italy. Out of these 11 hab - they serve as a reference framework to identify prior - itats, 10 are coastal habitats occurring in the Continental ities and critical issues for the next monitoring period and Mediterranean Biogeographical Regions, while only (Genovesi et al. 2014). the inland dunes (Habitat 2330) is a non-coastal habitat Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 57 occurring in the Continental and (marginally) Alpine in published material, “gray” literature, unpublished data Biogeographical Region (Table 1). The reporting activi - of specialists and all sources deemed useful to provide an ties led to the compilation of 19 assessment sheets, with updated picture on the current conservation status of the the new inclusion of two marginal types which had not Habitats. The data received in different formats were also been evaluated in the 3rd Report due to a lack of robust homogenised. data at that time (Genovesi et al. 2014). Among the 19 At the same time, an all-embracing analysis of the in - assessment sheets, one pertained to the Alpine Region, formation was carried out with the scope to update the 10 to the Continental Region and 8 to the Mediterranean geographic distribution of Habitats at the national lev - Region (Table 1). el. We used the maps of the 3rd Report as starting back - ground information, based on the European 10 km x10 km cells grid, Reference System ETRS89-LAEA5210. In Data collection and analysis each grid cell, the collected data on Habitats occurrence were validated, integrated or modified taking into ac - e Th first step was the collection and integration of data count different sources such as official maps, scientific available for reporting: information provided by admin - papers, published books, phytosociological tables or di - istrative regions and autonomous provinces (centralised rect field surveys, combined with the expert knowledge of by ISPRA; hereaer ft : “collected data”) and further data the Working Group. In particular, the major contribution deriving from the latest available updates of the Natura to the data implementation derived from the most recent 2000 sites Standard Data Forms. These data were organ - scientific publications on dune systems and related top - ised at two different levels: I) National scale, through the ics with reference, at least in part, to the Italian territory implementation of distribution maps; II) Biogeographic (Buffa et al. 2007, 2012; Viciani et al. 2007; Gamper et al. Regions, which is the scale of the final assessment (Gi - 2008; Sburlino et al. 2008, 2013; Prisco et al. 2012; Minis - gante et al. 2019). In addition to the material provided by sale and Sciandrello 2013, 2015, 2017; Pisanu et al. 2014; local administrations, we included the official data avail - Sciandrello et al. 2015, 2017; Gheza et al. 2016; Silan et able on the MATTM and EEA (European Environmental al. 2017; Tomaselli and Sciandrello 2017; Angiolini et al. Agency) websites. 2018; Bonari et al. 2018; Del Vecchio et al. 2018; Marcenò A critical review and analysis of the collected data et al. 2018). were necessary, mainly due to their heterogeneity and Finally, extensive cross-check work allowed the devel - incompleteness. In some cases, the administrative re - opment of a comprehensive biogeographic database. This gions provided incomplete data (e.g. surface area of the database includes for each cell the information originally habitat missing, incomplete indication regarding the derived from the 3rd Report, updated and verified by re - conservation measures applied) or they provided data gions, autonomous provinces or territorial experts, using in a different format than allowed (e.g. surface area in explicit data or confirmed by direct verification. In this hectares instead of km 2, cartographic files with no spatial way, new occurrences were added only when supported reference, etc.). er Th efore, a comprehensive scientific ex - by authoritative sources. We should point out that we pro - change within and between the macro-habitats Working ceeded to delete presences in cases they were not justified Group and Subgroups was carried out, which finally led to or clearly incorrect, always including a valid motivation. shared and methodologically sound solutions to fill gaps In the absence of any updated information, we confirmed and discrepancies emerged. The missing data were initial - data from the 3rd Report as provided by the administra - ly requested to the involved administrative regions and tive regions. then integrated through the official information hold in All data supporting the Habitats’ distribution and char - the Natura 2000 sites Standard Data Forms, data gathered acteristics (georeferenced phytosociological relevés, both Table 1. List of the evaluated coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats and their presence in the Italian Biogeographical Re - gions: Alpine (ALP), Continental (CON) and Mediterranean (MED). HABITATS (Group 2xxx) Biogeographic Regions ALP CON MED 2110 Embryonic shifting dunes X X 2120 Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria X X 2130 Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation X 2160 Dunes with Hippophae rhamnoides X 2210 Crucianellion maritimae fixed beach dunes X 2230 Malcolmietalia dune grasslands X X 2240 Brachypodietalia dune grasslands with annuals MARGINAL X 2250 Coastal dunes with Juniperus spp. X X 2260 Cisto-Lavanduletalia dune sclerophyllous scrubs X X 2270 Wooded dunes with Pinus pinea and/or Pinus pinaster X X 2330 Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands MARGINAL X 58 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status published and unpublished) are currently being archived reported in the Standard Data Forms of Natura 2000 in the National Database of phytosociological surveys sites. An updated list of habitat-specific typical species VegItaly (Gigante et al. 2012; Landucci et al. 2012), freely was also delivered, based on the indications provided accessible online and managed by the Italian Society of by Angelini et al. (2016). Vegetation Science (Gigante et al. 2019). • Main pressures and threats: provides a list of pres - sures (impact on the long-term) and threats (future/ foreseeable effects) with a ranking of their impacts on Assessment criteria for Annex I Habitat the conservation status of each habitat; pressures and reporting threats were weighted according to their frequency and importance on the biogeographical scale. We referred e s Th tandard European assessment sheets for Habitats re - to the official list of pressures and threats adopted by porting foresee several criteria that must be considered in Eionet and IUCN, based on Salafsky et al. (2008). order to assess the final conservation status. Criteria were • Conservation measures: in this case, we implemented derived from the European guidelines (Evans and Arvela the data provided by the administrative regions with 2011) and encompass the seven points listed below. information deriving from the existing Natura 2000 • Range: provides the range surface area (expressed as management plans. the area of 10 km × 10 km cells) of the outer limits • Future prospects indicate the direction of expect - of the habitat distribution and can be considered as an ed changes in conservation status in the near future; envelope including the areas of actual occurrence; it we combined current status, reported pressures and was calculated by applying a standardised algorithm to threats, and existing conservation measures with refer - the distribution map of the habitat, by using the Range ence to range, area, structure and functions. tool (Eionet Central Data Repository 2019). • Overall assessment: indicates the conservation status at • Area covered by the habitat type: provides the total the end of the reporting period. It represents the com - area (in km²) currently occupied by the habitat at bio - bination of the assessments for each single parameter geographical level. (range, area, structure and functions, future prospects, • Structure and functions: provides the area (in km²) of overall trend), with reference to the four different cat - the habitat with good, not-good and unknown condi - egories: Favourable (FV), Unfavourable-Inadequate tion, considering both abiotic and biotic factors; when missing, we deduced this information from the data (U1), Unfavourable-Bad (U2) and Unknown (XX). Figure 1. Percentage of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats in each assessment category (FV, U1, U2) based on the criteria: A Range, B Area, C Structure and functions, D Future prospects. Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 59 In order to highlight the variation of the conservation Results status in relation with the area of the Habitats, for each Range, area, structure and functions and Biogeographic Region we gathered those with similar future prospects criteria surface area and then analysed how the previous assess - ments were distributed in each surface class (< 25 km 2, For the range criterion, 63% of the assessed Habitats is in between 25 and 50 km 2, > 50 km2). The highest occur - Unfavourable-Bad conservation status (U2, Fig. 1A) while rence of Unfavourable-Bad conservation conditions (U2) about 37% is in Unfavourable-Inadequate (U1) conserva - ae ff cts especially Habitats with less than 25 km 2 of extent tion status. Habitats in the worst conditions are mainly located in the Continental Biogeographical Region. in the Continental Region (Fig. 2). Similar trends could Regarding the total area currently occupied, almost all be observed for Mediterranean Habitats with a surface Habitats (84%) are in an Unfavourable-Bad conservation between 25 and 50 km 2. On the other hand, Habitats with status (U2, Fig. 1B); the only habitat in the U1 category is Favourable (FV) or Unfavourable-Inadequate (U1) con - the wooded dunes with Pinus species (2270). servation status are mainly the woody ones on stabilised Considering structure and functions, about 68% of dunes (Habitat 2270 and 2260). the Habitats is in Unfavourable-Bad (U2) conservation We should highlight that the key dune habitat 2120 status and includes embryo and shifting dunes (Habitats (Shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria) has an Unfa - 2110 and 2120), fixed dunes (Habitat 2130, Continental vourable-Bad conservation status (U2) for all the criteria Region), dune grasslands (Habitats 2210, 2230 and 2240 in both Biogeographical Regions) and dunes with Juni- in both Biogeographical Regions. In the Continental Re - perus species (Habitat 2250, Continental Region), while gion, Habitats with all U2 assessments are the fixed dunes 21% of Habitats are in Unfavourable-Inadequate (U1) with herbaceous vegetation (Habitat 2130), the dune conservation status; however, the wooded dunes with grasslands (Habitat 2230) and the inland dunes (Habitat Pinus species (Habitat 2270) show a Favourable habitat 2330); the latter has an Unfavourable-Bad conservation quality (FV, Fig. 1C). status for all the criteria also in the Alpine Region. In the e f Th uture prospects of the major part of the habitats are Mediterranean Region, Habitats with all U2 assessments definitely Unfavourable-Bad (U2, 89%). Only the wooded are the dune with Juniperus species (Habitat 2250) and the dunes with Pinus species are considered with Unfavour - able-Inadequate (U1) conservation status (Fig. 1D). maquis with sclerophyllous scrubs (Habitat 2260). Figure 2. Total number of assessment in each category (FV, U1, U2) disaggregated by Biogeographical Region and surface area (km2) of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats. We summed up the results of all criteria considered for the assess - ment: range, area, structure and functions, future prospects. 60 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status e Th complete set of data relating to all the criteria used Main pressures, threats and conservation for assessing the conservation status of the Habitats are measures available on the Article 17 Web Tool (European Topic Among the main pressures (P) and threats (T) observed Centre on Biological Diversity 2019). in the assessments, most of them are directly or indirectly related to human activities: Trends in the last reporting cycles • Development, construction and use of residential, commercial, industrial and infrastructure areas (P 34% If we consider the trend across the last three reporting cy - – T 36%), in all habitats, in at least one administrative cles (Table 2), we note a gradual improvement in knowl - region; edge concerning the Habitats conservation status, which • Alien and problematic species (P 17% - T 17%), in all led to a better definition of all the assessments, from un - habitats, in at least one administrative region. known (or data deficient) to more clear categories. At the same time, Habitats in Favourable (FV) and Unfavour - However, others could also be associated with natural able-Inadequate conservation status (U1) have progres - process, particularly coastal erosion: sively reduced and in the last Report the large majority of the Italian dune Habitats show an Unfavourable-Bad • Natural processes (P 11% - T 10%), in almost all habi - conservation status (U2) (Table 2). tats except dune grasslands and fixed dunes. Concerning the conservation measures adopted by Discussion the administrative regions to limit the negative impact of pressures and threats, we could highlight: e va Th luable ecological diversity and the multiple ecosys - tem services associated to dune habitats have been pro - • Measures related to residential, commercial, industrial gressively threatened by the expansion of anthropic ac - and recreational infrastructures, operations and activi - tivities and also by natural factors, making coastal dunes ties (39%), in almost all habitats in at least one admin - among the most threatened ecosystems at the global and istrative region; local scale (Schlacher et al. 2007; Defeo et al. 2009; Prisco • Measures related to alien and problematic native et al. 2015, 2016a; Acosta and Ercole 2015; Sciandrello et species (22%), in almost all habitats except fixed and al. 2015; Janssen et al. 2016; Malavasi et al. 2016; Marcenò wooded dunes; et al. 2018; Sarmati et al. 2019; Carranza et al. 2020). Al - • Measures related to natural processes, geological though the Italian shoreline still hosts several of well-pre - events and natural catastrophes (10%), in about half of served stretches of sandy dunes, the 4th monitoring Re - the habitats, mainly in the Mediterranean Region. port just completed has clearly highlighted the alarming bad or inadequate conservation status of most dune hab - itats in Italy. Overall conservation status and trend One of the greatest threats is related to their limited geographical extent which, with a continuously decreas - As it could be envisaged from previous results, the overall ing trend over the years, will lead to an increasingly worse assessment of Dune Habitats at the end of the 4th report - future scenario. The most ae ff cted Habitats are those with ing period is clearly Unfavourable-Bad (U2) for about the minimum extension, which are mainly concentrated 90% of the assessed Habitats (Fig. 3A), and the trend with in the Continental Region, but also in the Mediterranean reference to the last reporting cycle is deteriorating for one (shifting dunes, fixed dunes, dunes with Hippophae almost 70% of Habitats (Fig. 3B). Only 21% of Habitats rhamnoides, dune grasslands, dunes with Juniperus spe- could be considered in a stable trend, mostly represented cies, maquis with sclerophyllous scrubs, inland dunes). by woody habitats on fixed dunes. Moreover, our results showed that both herbaceous and e Th reported unknown trend is referred to the two wooded Habitats are highly threatened. In particular, we marginal Habitats that have been evaluated for the first should highlight the worrying conservation state of some time in this report (see Table 1). relevant dune Habitats (e.g. Shifting dunes with Ammoph- Although more than half of Habitats showed a con - ila arenaria, Habitat 2120) considered with a key role in siderable change in the overall conservation status com - some ecosystem services, such as dune stability enhance - pared to the previous Report, it is worth pointing out ment, coastal erosion protection, resistance of the coastal that probably a consistent part of this degradation pro - dune pollination networks, as well as in providing hab - cess is related to a better knowledge of the distribution itat for coastal fauna and in supporting fungal diversity and quality of Habitats. However, we could not exclude (Prisco et al. 2016b; Filesi et al. 2017; Fantinato et al. 2018; an actual deterioration of the conservation status for Konlechner et al. 2019; De Battisti and Griffin 2020). e Th some habitats, such as the Mediterranean dune grass - Habitat 2270 (Wooded dunes with Pinus species) is the lands (Habitat 2230). only one to show at least a favourable criterion (structure Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 61 Table 2. Final assessments of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats as resulting in the last three reporting cycles, from 2001 to 2018 (FV: Favourable; U1: Unfavourable-Inadequate; U2: Unfavourable-Bad; XX: Unknown; DD: Data Deficient). 2nd Report (2001-2006) 3rd Report (2007-2012) 4th Report (2013-2018) HABITAT ALP CON MED ALP CON MED ALP CON MED 2110 Embryonic shifting dunes U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 2120 Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 2130 Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation U1 U2 U2 2160 Dunes with Hippophae rhamnoides U1 U2 U2 2210 Crucianellion maritimae fixed beach dunes U1 U2 U2 2230 Malcolmietalia dune grasslands U1 XX U2 U1 U2 U2 2240 Brachypodietalia dune grasslands with annuals U1 XX DD U1 U2 U2 2250 Coastal dunes with Juniperus spp. U2 U1 U2 U2 U2 U2 2260 Cisto-Lavanduletalia dune sclerophyllous scrubs U2 U1 U2 U2 U2 U2 2270 Wooded dunes with Pinus pinea and/or Pinus pinaster FV FV FV U1 U1 U1 2330 Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands DD XX DD U2 U2 U2 Figure 3. A Final overall assessment and B overall trend in the conservation status of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats. and functions); however, the overall conservation status term depend on sound evaluations of the effectiveness of of this habitat is still inadequate (Bonari et al. 2018). Al - current management measures, supported by regular and though wooded dunes are usually found in the inner part highly frequent on-ground monitoring, both inside and of the coastal vegetation zonation, they are oen s ft ubject - outside protected sites. We believe that our results pro - ed to intense silvicultural treatments and tourists tram - vide bases and useful insights for dune habitats protec - pling (Sarmati et al. 2019). tion and management, in the context of the monitoring e o Th verall worrying state of conservation of the dune and reporting obligations set up by the Habitats Directive. systems claims for a better knowledge of pressures and Overall, the results of the 4th Report testify for better threats acting on these habitats and for further monitor - knowledge on the geographical distribution, quality, typ - ing plans. Without such a systematic approach, coastal ical species and conservation status of the whole Italian dune habitats are going to face further degradation trends Habitats at biogeographical scale. Therefore, we should in both structure and functions, including also the dis - clarify that for dune Habitats, some of the changes in ruption of spatial zonation of plant communities (Sarmati distribution and trends might probably be related to the et al. 2019). This degradation process could finally lead to application of more accurate and updated data. However, a dramatic alteration of the ecosystem services they pro - even though the geographical distribution maps of these vide (Everard et al. 2010; Barbier et al. 2011; Drius et al. Habitats have been validated by a large group of experts 2019). Additionally, degraded dune habitats are more sus - with detailed territorial knowledge, yet the lack of infor - ceptible to biological invasions (Del Vecchio et al. 2015; mation on the actual location of the Habitats outside the Gheza et al. 2018; Giulio et al. 2020). Natura 2000 sites has negatively influenced the quanti - In dynamic and vulnerable ecosystems such as coast - fication of the Range parameter, as well as the structure al dunes, successful conservation outcomes in the long- and functions parameter. Finally, it’s worth noting that 62 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status the information collected has been structured to ensure the archiving and traceability of both published and un - References published literature, placing a solid base of reliable and verified data at the local scale for the next reporting cycles Acosta ATR, Carranza ML, Izzi CF (2009) Are there habitats that con - tribute best to plant species diversity in coastal dunes? Biodiversi - (Gigante et al. 2019). ty and Conservation 18(4): 1087–1098. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10531-008-9454-9 Acosta ATR, Ercole S [Eds] (2015) Gli habitat delle coste sabbiose ital - Conclusions iane: ecologia e problematiche di conservazione. ISPRA Serie Rap - porti 215/2015. According to the 4th Monitoring Report (92/43/EEC Hab - Angelini P, Casella L, Grignetti A, Genovesi P (2016) Manuali per il itats Directive) the conservation status of Italian coastal monitoraggio di specie e habitat di interesse comunitario (Diretti - sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats is dramatically va 92/43/CEE) in Italia: habitat. ISPRA Serie Manuali e linee guida bad: the overall assessment reports 88% of Habitats in a 142/2016. ISBN 978-88-448-0789-4. bad conservation status and the remaining 12% in an in - Angiolini C, Bonari G, Landi M (2018) Focal plant species and soil fac - adequate condition. Key dune habitats, such as “Shifting tors in Mediterranean coastal dunes: an undisclosed liaison? Estua - dunes with Ammophila arenaria”, show a bad conserva - rine, Coastal and Shelf Science 211: 248–258. tion status for all the considered criteria in both Biogeo - Anthony EJ (2014) The human influence on the Mediterranean coast graphical Regions. Main pressures and threats are the de - over the last 200 years: a brief appraisal from a geomorphological velopment of residential, commercial and industrial areas perspective. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement and the expansion of alien and ruderal species. Results 20(3): 219–226. show an overall worse conservation status with respect to Balmford A, Bruner A, Cooper P, Costanza R, Farber S, Green RE, et al. previous national reports. Although part of these changes (2002) Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science 297: is probably due (but not only) to the provision of more ac - 950–953. curate and updated data, the undoubtedly bad conserva - Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR tion status of these unstable but resilient Habitats should (2011) The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Eco - draw attention to more effective conservation measures, logical Monographs 81(2): 169–193. supported by monitoring activities, both inside and out - Basnou C, Iguzquiza J, Pino J (2015) Examining the role of landscape structure and dynamics in alien plant invasion from urban Med - side protected areas. iterranean coastal habitats. Landscape and Urban Planning 136: 156–164. Bonari G, Acosta ATR, Angiolini C (2018) EU priority habitats: rethink - Acknowledgements ing Mediterranean coastal pine forests. Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 29(2): 295–307. We are grateful to the whole SISV Working Group for the Buffa G, Fantinato E, Pizzo L (2012) Effects of disturbance on san - professionalism shown and for the dedication that ev - dy coastal ecosystems of N-Adriatic coasts (Italy). In: Gbolagade eryone has put into this huge and complex work: Adorni Akeem Lameed [Ed.] Biodiversity Enrichment in a Diverse World. M., Allegrezza M., Armiraglio S., Attorre F., Bagella S., IntechOpen, 339–372. https://www.doi.org/10.5772/48473 Barcella M., Bazan G., Bertacchi A., Bolpagni R., Bonari Buffa G, Filesi L, Gamper U, Sburlino G (2007) Qualità e grado di con - G., Caccianiga M., Cacciatori C., Caria M., Casavecchia servazione del paesaggio vegetale del litorale sabbioso del Veneto S., Cerabolini B., Ciaschetti G., Ciccarelli D., Cogoni A., (Italia settentrionale). Fitosociologia 44(1): 49–58. Cutini M., De Sanctis M., De Simone W., Del Vecchio S., Bunce RGH, Bogers MMB, Evans D, Halada L, Jongman RHG, Mucher Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Musciano M., Fantinato CA, Bauch B, de Blust G, Parr TW, Olsvig-Whittaker L (2013) e Th E., Ferella G., Filesi L., Foggi B., Forte L., Frattaroli A., significance of habitats as indicators of biodiversity and their links to Galdenzi D., Gangale C., Gennai M., Gianguzzi L., Giusso species. Ecological Indicators 33: 19–25. Del Galdo G., Guarino R., Lasen C., Maneli F., Mariotti Carranza ML, Drius M, Marzialetti F, Malavasi M, de Francesco MC, M., Oriolo G., Paura B., Perrino E., Pesaresi S., Pezzi G., Acosta ATR, Stanisci A (2020) Urban expansion depletes cultural Pisanu S., Poponessi S., Puglisi M., Rivieccio G., Selvaggi ecosystem services: an insight into a Mediterranean coastline. Ren - A., Siniscalco C., Spampinato G., Stinca A., Strumia S., diconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 31: 103–111. https://doi. Taet ff ani F., Tesei G., Tomaselli V., Venanzoni R., Viciani org/10.1007/s12210-019-00866-w D., Wagensommer R. and Zanatta K. Cowling RM, Knight AT, Faith DP, Ferrier S, Lombard AT, Driver A, We also would like to thank Pierangela Angelini and Rouget M, Maze K, Desmet PG (2004) Nature conservation requires Laura Casella, from ISPRA, for being an important point more than a passion for species. Conservation Biology 18: 1674– of reference. 1676. Alicia T.R. Acosta gratefully acknowledges the Grant De Battisti D, Griffin JN (2020) Below-ground biomass of plants, with a of Excellence Departments, MIUR-Italy (ARTICOLO 1, key contribution of buried shoots, increases foredune resistance to COMMI 314 – 337 LEGGE 232/2016). wave swash. Annals of Botany 125 (2): 325–334. Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 63 Defeo O, McLachlan A, Schoeman DS, Schlacher TA, Dugan J, Jones Gigante D, Acosta AT, Agrillo E, Armiraglio S, Assini S, Attorre F, Ba - A, Lastra M, Scapini F (2009) Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: a gella S, Buffa G, Casella L, Giancola C, Del Galdo GG (2018) Hab - review. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 81: 1–12. itat conservation in Italy: the state of the art in the light of the first Del Vecchio S, Fantinato E, Janssen JAM, Bioret F Acosta ATR, Prisco European Red List of Terrestrial and Freshwater Habitats. Rendi - I, Tzonev R, Marcenò C, Rodwell JS, Buffa G (2018) Biogeographic conti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 29(2): 251–265. https://doi. variability of coastal perennial grasslands at the European scale. Ap - org/10.1007/s12210-018-0688-5 plied Vegetation Science 21(2): 312–321. Gigante D, Acosta ATR, Agrillo E, Attorre F, Cambria VM, Casavecchia Del Vecchio S, Pizzo L, Buffa G (2015) The response of plant community S, et al. (2012) VegItaly: Technical features, crucial issues and some diversity to alien invasion: evidence from a sand dune time series. solutions. Plant Sociology 49(2): 71–79. https://doi.org/10.7338/ Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 371–392. pls2012492/05 Drius M, Jones L, Marzialetti F, de Francesco MC, Stanisci A, Carranza Gigante D, Angelini P, Selvaggi A, Acosta ATR, Adorni M, Allegrezza ML (2019) Not just a sandy beach. e Th multi-service value of Med - M, et al. (2019) First overview on the 4th Annex I Habitats Report in iterranean coastal dunes. Science of The Total Environment 668: Italy: methods, criticality, results and future prospects. 28th Meeting 1139–1155. of the European Vegetation Survey: Vegetation Diversity and Global Eionet Central Data Repository (2018) Report on progress and imple - Change, Madrid, September 2019. Abstract Book 27 p. mentation (Article 17, Habitats Directive). Italy. https://cdr.eionet. Gigante D, Foggi B, Venanzoni R, Viciani D, Buffa G (2016a) Habi - europa.eu/it/eu/art17/envxuwp6g tats on the grid: The spatial dimension does matter for red-listing. Eionet Central Data Repository (2019) Reporting tool guidelines for the Journal for Nature Conservation 32: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. delivery of Article 12 and 17 data – Final version – 26th April 2019. jnc.2016.03.007 European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (2019) Article 17 Web Gigante D, Attorre F, Venanzoni R, Acosta ATR, Agrillo E, Aleffi M, et Tool on Biogeographical Assessment of Conservation Status of Spe - al. (2016b) A methodological protocol for Annex I Habitats moni - cies and Habitat under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. https:// toring: the contribution of Vegetation science. Plant Sociology 53(2): nature-art17.eionet.europa.eu/article17/reports2012/habitat/report/ 77–87. https://doi.org/10.7338/pls2016532/06 Evans D, Arvela M (2011) Assessment and reporting under Article 17 of Giulio S, Acosta ATR, Carboni M, Campos JA, Chytrý M, Loidi J, et al. the Habitats Directive. Explanatory Notes & Guidelines for the pe - (2020) Alien flora across European coastal dunes. Applied Vegeta - riod 2007-2012. Final version. July 2011. https://circabc.europa.eu/ tion Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12490 sd/a/2c12cea2-f827-4bdb-bb56-3731c9fd8b40/Art17-Guidelines-fi - IUCN (2016) An introduction to the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: nal.pdf the categories and criteria for assessing risks to ecosystems. IUCN, Everard M, Jones L, Watts B (2010) Have we neglected the societal im - Gland. portance of sand dunes? An ecosystem services perspective. Aquatic Janssen JAM, Rodwell JS, Criado MG, Gubbay S, Arts GHP, Haynes T, et Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(4): 476–487. al. (2016) European Red List of Habitats. Part 2. Terrestrial and fresh - Fantinato E, Del Vecchio S, Silan G, Buffa G (2018) Pollination networks water habitats. European Union. https://doi.org/10.2779/091372 along the sea-inland gradient reveal landscape patterns of keystone Keith DA, Rodríguez JP, Brooks TM, Burgman MA, Barrow EG, Bland plant species. Scientific Reports 8: 15221. https://doi.org/10.1038/ L, et al. (2017) e Th IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: motivations, chal - s41598-018-33652-z lenges, and applications. Conservation Letters 8(3): 214–226. Feola S, Carranza ML, Schaminée JHJ, Janssen JAM, Acosta ATR (2011) Keith DA, Rodríguez JP, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Nicholson E, Aapala K, EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean Alonso A, et al. (2013) Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List beach and foredunes. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 1457–1468. of Ecosystems. PLoS One 8(5): e62111. https://doi.org/10.1371/jour - Filesi L, Antinori F, Bizio E, Borgo A, Castelli S, Manzini A, Marotta nal.pone.0062111 L, Masin R, Mitri MG (2017) Pregio naturalistico del settore costie - Konlechner TM, Kennedy DM, Cousens RD, Woods JL (2019) Patterns ro antistante l’ex Ospedale a Mare (isola di Lido – Venezia). Lavori of early-colonising species on eroding to prograding coasts; implica - Società Veneziana di Scienze Naturali 42: 61–88. https://www.svsn. tions for foredune plant communities on retreating coastlines. Geo - it/pregio-naturalistico-del-settore-costiero-antistante-lex-osped - morphology 327: 404–416. ale-al-mare-isola-di-lido-venezia/ Landucci F, Acosta ATR, Agrillo E, Attorre F, Biondi E, Cambria VE, et Gamper U, Filesi L, Buffa G, Sburlino G (2008) Phytocaenotic diversity al. (2012) VegItaly: The Italian collaborative project for a national of the N-Adriatic coastal sand dunes. 1 – The phanerophytic com - vegetation database. Plant Biosystems 146(4): 756–763. https://doi. munities. Fitosociologia 45: 3–21. org/10.1080/11263504.2012.740093 Genovesi P, Angelini P, Bianchi E, Dupré E, Ercole S, Giacanelli V, Malavasi M, Santoro R, Cutini M, Acosta ATR, Carranza ML (2013) Ronchi F, Stoch F (2014) Specie e habitat di interesse comunitario What has happened to coastal dunes in the last half century? A mul - in Italia: distribuzione, stato di conservazione e trend. ISPRA Serie titemporal coastal landscape analysis in Central Italy. Landscape and Rapporti 194/2014. Urban Planning 119: 54–63. Gheza G, Assini S, Marini L, Nascimbene J (2018) Impact on an inva - Malavasi M, Santoro R, Cutini M, Acosta ATR, Carranza ML (2016) sive herbivore and human trampling on lichen-rich dry grasslands: e Th impact of human pressure on landscape patterns and plant spe - Soil-dependent response of multiple taxa. Science of the Total Envi - cies richness in Mediterranean coastal dunes. Plant Biosystems 150: ronment 639: 633–639. 73–82. Gheza G, Assini S, Valcuvia Passadore M (2016) Terricolous lichen com - Marcenò C, Guarino R, Loidi J, Herrera M, Isermann M, Knollová I, munities of Corynephorus canescens grasslands of Northern Italy. et al. (2018) Classification of European and Mediterranean coastal Tuexenia 36: 121–142. dune vegetation. Applied Vegetation Science 21(3): 533–559. 64 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status Minissale P, Sciandrello S (2013) A relict wood of Juniperus turbinata ropean Commission DG Environment. https://www.wur.nl/en/Pub - Guss. (Cupressaceae) in Sicily. Ecological features and conservation lication-details.htm?publicationId=publication-way-343439373830 perspectives. Plant Biosystems 147(1): 145–157. Salafsky N, Salzer D, Stattersfield Aj, Hilton-Taylor C, Neugarten R, Minissale P, Sciandrello S (2015) The sabulicolous therophytic associa - Butchart SHM, Collen B, Cox N, Master LL, O’Connor S, Wilkie tions in Sicily: new insights through the statistical approach, stress - D (2008) A standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: unified ing the continuum vs discrete model of plant communities. Acata classifications of threats and actions. Conservation Biology 22 (4): Botanica Gallica 162(1): 55–78. 897–911. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00937.x Minissale P, Sciandrello S (2017) Flora and habitats of Vendicari Islet Sarmati S, Bonari G, Angiolini C (2019) Conservation status of Mediter - (“Isola di Vendicari”) in south east Sicily. Natura Croatica 26(1): ranean coastal dune habitats: anthropogenic disturbance may ham - 1–16. per habitat assignment. Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali Myers N, Mittermeier R, Mittermeier C, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca 30(3): 623–636. GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Sburlino G, Buffa G, Filesi L, Gamper U (2008) Phytocoenotic origi - Nature 403: 853–858. https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501 nality of the N-Adriatic coastal sand dunes (Northern Italy) in the Newton A, Carruthers TJB, Icely J (2012) e Th coastal syndromes and European context: e Th Stipa veneta-rich communities. Plant Biosys - hotspots on the coast. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 96: 39–47. tems 142: 533–539. Nordhaus I, Roelke DL, Vaquer-Sunyer R, Winter C (2018) Coastal sys - Sburlino G, Buffa G, Filesi L, Gamper U, Ghirelli L (2013) Phytocoenot - tems in transition: From a ‘natural’ to an ‘anthropogenically-modi - ic diversity of the N-Adriatic coastal sand dunes – The herbaceous fied’ state. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 211: 1–5. communities of the fixed dunes and the vegetation of the interdunal Pisanu S, Farris E, Caria MC,Filigheddu R, Urbani M, Bagella S (2014) wetlands. Plant Sociology 50: 57–77. Vegetation and plant landscape of Asinara National Park (Italy). Schlacher T Dugan J, Schoeman DS, Lastra M, Jones A, Scapini F, Mc - Plant Sociology 51(1): 31–57. Lachlan A, Defeo O (2007) Sandy beaches at the brink. Diversity and Poeta G, Fanelli G, Pietrelli L, Acosta ATR, Battisti C (2017) Plastisphere Distribution 13(5): 556–560. in action: evidence for an interaction between expanded polystyrene Sciandrello S, Giusso del Galdo GP, Minissale P (2017) Ecology and and dunal plants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research conservation status of Muscari gussonei (Parl.) Nyman in Sicily: a 24(12): 11856–11859. narrow endemic species threatened by habitat reduction. Plant So - Prisco I, Acosta ATR, Ercole S (2012) An overview of the Italian ciology 54(Suppl. 1): 85–96. coastal dune EU habitats. Annali di Botanica 2: 39–48. https://doi. Sciandrello S, Tomaselli G, Minissale P (2015) The role of natural vege - org/10.4462/annbotrm-9340 tation in the analysis of the spatio-temporal changes of coastal dune Prisco I, Carboni M, Acosta ATR (2013) The fate of threatened coastal system: a case study in Sicily. Journal of Coastal Conservation 19(2): dune habitats in Italy under climate change scenarios. PLoS ONE 199–212. 8(7): e68850. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068850 Silan G, Del Vecchio S, Fantinato E, Buffa G (2017) Habitat quality as - Prisco I, Stanisci A, Acosta ATR (2016a) Mediterranean dunes on the sessment through a multifaceted approach: the case of the habitat go: Evidence from a short term study on coastal herbaceous vege - 2130* in Italy. Plant Sociology 54: 13–22. tation. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 182: 40–46. https://doi. Sperandii MG, Prisco I, Acosta ATR (2018) Hard times for Italian coast - org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.09.012 al dunes: insights from a diachronic analysis based on random plots. Prisco I, Carboni M, Jucker T, Acosta ATR (2016b) Temporal changes in Biodiversity and Conservation 27(3): 633–646. the vegetation of Italian coastal dunes: identifying winners and los - Tomaselli V, Sciandrello S (2017) Contribution to the knowledge of the ers through the lens of functional traits. Journal of Applied Ecology coastal vegetation of the Zone Umide della Capitanata (Apulia, Ita - 53(5): 1533–1542. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12684 ly). Plant Biosystems 151(4): 673–694. Prisco I, Stanisci A, Acosta ATR (2015) Temporal changes in Adriatic UNEP/MAP (2012) State of the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal En - coastal dunes: results from a short term vegetation monitoring. Plant vironment, UNEP/MAP – Barcelona Convention, Athens. Sociology 52(2): 95–100. https://doi.org/10.7338/pls2015522/05 Viciani D, Angiolini C, Foggi B (2007) Gli habitat costieri ed insulari Rodwell J, Janssen J, Gubbay S, Schaminée J (2013) Red List Assessment della Toscana: conoscenze attuali, prospettive e vulnerabilità. Fitoso - of European Habitat Types. A feasibility study. Report for the Eu - ciologia 44 (1): 84–95. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Sociology Unpaywall

Conservation status of Italian coastal dune habitats in the light of the 4th Monitoring Report (92/43/EEC Habitats Directive)

Loading next page...
 
/lp/unpaywall/conservation-status-of-italian-coastal-dune-habitats-in-the-light-of-su86dpvxZl

References

References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.

Publisher
Unpaywall
ISSN
2280-1855
DOI
10.3897/pls2020571/05
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Coastal dunes are among habitats with the worst conservation status on a global, European and national scale. Monitoring and re - porting are of strategic importance to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of Habitats Directive and to preserve the unique biodiversity heritage of the Italian dunes. In this study we show main results of the 4th National Report with specific reference to the macro-habitat “Coastal Sand Dunes and Inland Dunes”, highlighting its updated current conservation status at the national and Biogeographical level. A comprehensive Working Group of territorial experts collected, updated, validated and integrated the data available for 11 Annex I Habitats, distributed in the Alpine, Continental and Mediterranean Biogeographical Regions. The conserva - tion status was evaluated through the following criteria: geographic range, surface area, structure, functions, pressures, threats, con - servation measures and prospects. Results highlighted the dramatically bad conservation status of Italian dune Habitats: the overall assessment reported 88% of habitats in bad conservation status and the remaining 12% is in inadequate conditions. Results showed a generalised threat and a worrying conservation status both on herbaceous and wooded communities, in particular in some relevant habitats, such as the shifting dunes. Main pressures and threats were linked to residential, commercial and industrial activities, as well as alien species. Although some of the changes in distribution and trends are probably deriving from more accurate and updated data, the alarming conservation status of Italian sand dunes requires a better knowledge of pressures and threats for further management actions and monitoring plans, inside and outside protected areas. Keywords Continental Biogeographical Region, European guidelines, Mediterranean Biogeographical Region, national report, psammophilous vegetation, threats Introduction ularly threatened at a global, European and national scale (Acosta et al. 2009; Feola et al. 2011; Prisco et al. 2013; Sandy coastlines and dune ecosystems are fragile environ - Genovesi et al. 2014; Janssen et al. 2016; Gigante et al. ments currently exposed to several pressures and partic - 2018). Although the degradation and loss of dune systems Copyright Irene Prisco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which per- mits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. 56 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status ae ff ct many countries all over the world, it is particularly In this frame, based on the European guidelines (Evans intense along the Mediterranean coasts. and Arvela 2011), a technical manual for habitat mon - e M Th editerranean basin is one of the world biodiver - itoring has been produced at the national level in Italy. sity hotspots (Myers et al. 2000), but, at the same time, it This manual provides practical standardised monitoring is one of the regions of the world subjected to the highest tools particularly tuned to the Italian ecological and bio - geographical characteristics and peculiarities, standing level of historical anthropic pressure (Newton et al. 2012; as an official reference for fulfilling the monitoring obli - Anthony 2014). Indeed, more than 450 million inhabitants gations imposed by the Habitats Directive (Angelini et al. currently live in the Mediterranean countries, and espe - 2016; Gigante et al. 2016b). Major goals of the Habitats cially near the coasts (UNEP/MAP 2012). The high pop - Directive are achieved through the technical reports on ulation density along the Mediterranean shorelines rep - the conservation status of Habitats listed in Annex I (Dir. resents a major threat to coastal sand dunes, which suffer 92/43/EEC) and on conservation measures implemented from unregulated urbanization, intensive farming, infra - in accordance with article 17. Reporting is requested ev - structures, massive bathing tourism, pollution, biological ery six years to each Member States and in 2019 Italy, just invasions and over-exploitation of the natural resources like the other EU27 countries, has delivered its 4th Na - (Buffa et al. 2007, 2012; Malavasi et al. 2013, 2016; Basnou tional Report referred to the period 2013-2018. The here et al. 2015; Del Vecchio et al. 2015; Sciandrello et al. 2015; collected and processed information represents the most Poeta et al. 2017; Nordhaus et al. 2018; Sperandii et al. updated picture of the conservation status of habitats and 2018; Giulio et al. 2020). In Italy, previous studies reported species of Community Interest in the whole Italian terri - that coastal sand dunes are among the habitats with the tory. The complete set of rough data is available on the worst conservation status, therefore, the unique biodiver - Eionet Central Data Repository (2018). sity heritage along the Italian coasts needs to be preserved e ac Th tivities for the preparation of the 4th Nation - for the future generations and its protection should repre - al Report have been coordinated by the Italian Institute sent a priority both at national and European level. for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) on In the last years, we have witnessed a growing global behalf of the Ministry for Environment, Land and Sea awareness concerning habitat monitoring and conserva - Protection (MATTM), with the scientific support of the tion; habitats as a whole are probably more useful indi - Italian Botanical Society (SBI) and the Italian Society of cators of ecosystem functioning compared to individual Vegetation Science (SISV). Between October 2018 and species (Balmford et al. 2002; Cowling et al. 2004; Bunce May 2019, a comprehensive Working Group of territorial et al. 2013; Gigante et al. 2016a). The protection of bio - experts distributed by administrative regions and mac - diversity requires a constant and rigorous technical-sci - ro-habitat categories, worked in synergy with ISPRA it - entific commitment at national level, which should also self and, where possible, with regional administrations, in be extended to the obligations deriving from community order to collect, analyse and validate all the available data rules. In particular, the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) concerning the 124 types of terrestrial and inland water requires the Member States to implement surveillance on Habitats present in Italy (Gigante et al. 2019). Through the conservation status of habitats and species of Com - a complex and multi-level teamwork and by comparing munity Interest, taking into account also the most im - the results of the previous reporting period (2007-2012), portant threat factors that influence their future prospects it was possible to assess the current conservation status of (Angelini et al. 2016; Gigante et al. 2016b). each habitat at biogeographical scale and therefore to fill In 2016, the first European Red List of Habitats had out the standard European assessment sheets. been published. Traditionally, the Red Lists, based on cri - As part of the results achieved by the Working Group, teria developed by the International Union for Conser - this paper aims at presenting the major results of the 4th vation of Nature (IUCN), have always focused on single National Habitat reporting for the macro-habitat type species with extinction risk and trends evaluated at the “Coastal Sand Dunes and Inland Dunes”. Specifically, we taxa level. The European Red List of Habitats represents reported the updated conservation status of each coastal a step further since plant communities and habitats have dune habitat at national level with reference to Biogeo - been taken into account as assessment units. This Red List graphical Regions. confirms not only the key role of habitats concerning the implementation of conservation strategies and priorities, but also the necessity of monitoring at the ecosystem level (Rodwell et al. 2013; Keith et al. 2013, 2017; Janssen et al. Materials and Methods 2016; IUCN 2016; Gigante et al. 2018). Monitoring and reporting are of strategic importance The macro-habitat type “Coastal Sand Dunes and Inland to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of Dunes” encompasses 21 Annex I Habitats in Europe, 11 the Community Directives on biodiversity. Moreover, of which have been reported in Italy. Out of these 11 hab - they serve as a reference framework to identify prior - itats, 10 are coastal habitats occurring in the Continental ities and critical issues for the next monitoring period and Mediterranean Biogeographical Regions, while only (Genovesi et al. 2014). the inland dunes (Habitat 2330) is a non-coastal habitat Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 57 occurring in the Continental and (marginally) Alpine in published material, “gray” literature, unpublished data Biogeographical Region (Table 1). The reporting activi - of specialists and all sources deemed useful to provide an ties led to the compilation of 19 assessment sheets, with updated picture on the current conservation status of the the new inclusion of two marginal types which had not Habitats. The data received in different formats were also been evaluated in the 3rd Report due to a lack of robust homogenised. data at that time (Genovesi et al. 2014). Among the 19 At the same time, an all-embracing analysis of the in - assessment sheets, one pertained to the Alpine Region, formation was carried out with the scope to update the 10 to the Continental Region and 8 to the Mediterranean geographic distribution of Habitats at the national lev - Region (Table 1). el. We used the maps of the 3rd Report as starting back - ground information, based on the European 10 km x10 km cells grid, Reference System ETRS89-LAEA5210. In Data collection and analysis each grid cell, the collected data on Habitats occurrence were validated, integrated or modified taking into ac - e Th first step was the collection and integration of data count different sources such as official maps, scientific available for reporting: information provided by admin - papers, published books, phytosociological tables or di - istrative regions and autonomous provinces (centralised rect field surveys, combined with the expert knowledge of by ISPRA; hereaer ft : “collected data”) and further data the Working Group. In particular, the major contribution deriving from the latest available updates of the Natura to the data implementation derived from the most recent 2000 sites Standard Data Forms. These data were organ - scientific publications on dune systems and related top - ised at two different levels: I) National scale, through the ics with reference, at least in part, to the Italian territory implementation of distribution maps; II) Biogeographic (Buffa et al. 2007, 2012; Viciani et al. 2007; Gamper et al. Regions, which is the scale of the final assessment (Gi - 2008; Sburlino et al. 2008, 2013; Prisco et al. 2012; Minis - gante et al. 2019). In addition to the material provided by sale and Sciandrello 2013, 2015, 2017; Pisanu et al. 2014; local administrations, we included the official data avail - Sciandrello et al. 2015, 2017; Gheza et al. 2016; Silan et able on the MATTM and EEA (European Environmental al. 2017; Tomaselli and Sciandrello 2017; Angiolini et al. Agency) websites. 2018; Bonari et al. 2018; Del Vecchio et al. 2018; Marcenò A critical review and analysis of the collected data et al. 2018). were necessary, mainly due to their heterogeneity and Finally, extensive cross-check work allowed the devel - incompleteness. In some cases, the administrative re - opment of a comprehensive biogeographic database. This gions provided incomplete data (e.g. surface area of the database includes for each cell the information originally habitat missing, incomplete indication regarding the derived from the 3rd Report, updated and verified by re - conservation measures applied) or they provided data gions, autonomous provinces or territorial experts, using in a different format than allowed (e.g. surface area in explicit data or confirmed by direct verification. In this hectares instead of km 2, cartographic files with no spatial way, new occurrences were added only when supported reference, etc.). er Th efore, a comprehensive scientific ex - by authoritative sources. We should point out that we pro - change within and between the macro-habitats Working ceeded to delete presences in cases they were not justified Group and Subgroups was carried out, which finally led to or clearly incorrect, always including a valid motivation. shared and methodologically sound solutions to fill gaps In the absence of any updated information, we confirmed and discrepancies emerged. The missing data were initial - data from the 3rd Report as provided by the administra - ly requested to the involved administrative regions and tive regions. then integrated through the official information hold in All data supporting the Habitats’ distribution and char - the Natura 2000 sites Standard Data Forms, data gathered acteristics (georeferenced phytosociological relevés, both Table 1. List of the evaluated coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats and their presence in the Italian Biogeographical Re - gions: Alpine (ALP), Continental (CON) and Mediterranean (MED). HABITATS (Group 2xxx) Biogeographic Regions ALP CON MED 2110 Embryonic shifting dunes X X 2120 Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria X X 2130 Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation X 2160 Dunes with Hippophae rhamnoides X 2210 Crucianellion maritimae fixed beach dunes X 2230 Malcolmietalia dune grasslands X X 2240 Brachypodietalia dune grasslands with annuals MARGINAL X 2250 Coastal dunes with Juniperus spp. X X 2260 Cisto-Lavanduletalia dune sclerophyllous scrubs X X 2270 Wooded dunes with Pinus pinea and/or Pinus pinaster X X 2330 Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands MARGINAL X 58 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status published and unpublished) are currently being archived reported in the Standard Data Forms of Natura 2000 in the National Database of phytosociological surveys sites. An updated list of habitat-specific typical species VegItaly (Gigante et al. 2012; Landucci et al. 2012), freely was also delivered, based on the indications provided accessible online and managed by the Italian Society of by Angelini et al. (2016). Vegetation Science (Gigante et al. 2019). • Main pressures and threats: provides a list of pres - sures (impact on the long-term) and threats (future/ foreseeable effects) with a ranking of their impacts on Assessment criteria for Annex I Habitat the conservation status of each habitat; pressures and reporting threats were weighted according to their frequency and importance on the biogeographical scale. We referred e s Th tandard European assessment sheets for Habitats re - to the official list of pressures and threats adopted by porting foresee several criteria that must be considered in Eionet and IUCN, based on Salafsky et al. (2008). order to assess the final conservation status. Criteria were • Conservation measures: in this case, we implemented derived from the European guidelines (Evans and Arvela the data provided by the administrative regions with 2011) and encompass the seven points listed below. information deriving from the existing Natura 2000 • Range: provides the range surface area (expressed as management plans. the area of 10 km × 10 km cells) of the outer limits • Future prospects indicate the direction of expect - of the habitat distribution and can be considered as an ed changes in conservation status in the near future; envelope including the areas of actual occurrence; it we combined current status, reported pressures and was calculated by applying a standardised algorithm to threats, and existing conservation measures with refer - the distribution map of the habitat, by using the Range ence to range, area, structure and functions. tool (Eionet Central Data Repository 2019). • Overall assessment: indicates the conservation status at • Area covered by the habitat type: provides the total the end of the reporting period. It represents the com - area (in km²) currently occupied by the habitat at bio - bination of the assessments for each single parameter geographical level. (range, area, structure and functions, future prospects, • Structure and functions: provides the area (in km²) of overall trend), with reference to the four different cat - the habitat with good, not-good and unknown condi - egories: Favourable (FV), Unfavourable-Inadequate tion, considering both abiotic and biotic factors; when missing, we deduced this information from the data (U1), Unfavourable-Bad (U2) and Unknown (XX). Figure 1. Percentage of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats in each assessment category (FV, U1, U2) based on the criteria: A Range, B Area, C Structure and functions, D Future prospects. Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 59 In order to highlight the variation of the conservation Results status in relation with the area of the Habitats, for each Range, area, structure and functions and Biogeographic Region we gathered those with similar future prospects criteria surface area and then analysed how the previous assess - ments were distributed in each surface class (< 25 km 2, For the range criterion, 63% of the assessed Habitats is in between 25 and 50 km 2, > 50 km2). The highest occur - Unfavourable-Bad conservation status (U2, Fig. 1A) while rence of Unfavourable-Bad conservation conditions (U2) about 37% is in Unfavourable-Inadequate (U1) conserva - ae ff cts especially Habitats with less than 25 km 2 of extent tion status. Habitats in the worst conditions are mainly located in the Continental Biogeographical Region. in the Continental Region (Fig. 2). Similar trends could Regarding the total area currently occupied, almost all be observed for Mediterranean Habitats with a surface Habitats (84%) are in an Unfavourable-Bad conservation between 25 and 50 km 2. On the other hand, Habitats with status (U2, Fig. 1B); the only habitat in the U1 category is Favourable (FV) or Unfavourable-Inadequate (U1) con - the wooded dunes with Pinus species (2270). servation status are mainly the woody ones on stabilised Considering structure and functions, about 68% of dunes (Habitat 2270 and 2260). the Habitats is in Unfavourable-Bad (U2) conservation We should highlight that the key dune habitat 2120 status and includes embryo and shifting dunes (Habitats (Shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria) has an Unfa - 2110 and 2120), fixed dunes (Habitat 2130, Continental vourable-Bad conservation status (U2) for all the criteria Region), dune grasslands (Habitats 2210, 2230 and 2240 in both Biogeographical Regions) and dunes with Juni- in both Biogeographical Regions. In the Continental Re - perus species (Habitat 2250, Continental Region), while gion, Habitats with all U2 assessments are the fixed dunes 21% of Habitats are in Unfavourable-Inadequate (U1) with herbaceous vegetation (Habitat 2130), the dune conservation status; however, the wooded dunes with grasslands (Habitat 2230) and the inland dunes (Habitat Pinus species (Habitat 2270) show a Favourable habitat 2330); the latter has an Unfavourable-Bad conservation quality (FV, Fig. 1C). status for all the criteria also in the Alpine Region. In the e f Th uture prospects of the major part of the habitats are Mediterranean Region, Habitats with all U2 assessments definitely Unfavourable-Bad (U2, 89%). Only the wooded are the dune with Juniperus species (Habitat 2250) and the dunes with Pinus species are considered with Unfavour - able-Inadequate (U1) conservation status (Fig. 1D). maquis with sclerophyllous scrubs (Habitat 2260). Figure 2. Total number of assessment in each category (FV, U1, U2) disaggregated by Biogeographical Region and surface area (km2) of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats. We summed up the results of all criteria considered for the assess - ment: range, area, structure and functions, future prospects. 60 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status e Th complete set of data relating to all the criteria used Main pressures, threats and conservation for assessing the conservation status of the Habitats are measures available on the Article 17 Web Tool (European Topic Among the main pressures (P) and threats (T) observed Centre on Biological Diversity 2019). in the assessments, most of them are directly or indirectly related to human activities: Trends in the last reporting cycles • Development, construction and use of residential, commercial, industrial and infrastructure areas (P 34% If we consider the trend across the last three reporting cy - – T 36%), in all habitats, in at least one administrative cles (Table 2), we note a gradual improvement in knowl - region; edge concerning the Habitats conservation status, which • Alien and problematic species (P 17% - T 17%), in all led to a better definition of all the assessments, from un - habitats, in at least one administrative region. known (or data deficient) to more clear categories. At the same time, Habitats in Favourable (FV) and Unfavour - However, others could also be associated with natural able-Inadequate conservation status (U1) have progres - process, particularly coastal erosion: sively reduced and in the last Report the large majority of the Italian dune Habitats show an Unfavourable-Bad • Natural processes (P 11% - T 10%), in almost all habi - conservation status (U2) (Table 2). tats except dune grasslands and fixed dunes. Concerning the conservation measures adopted by Discussion the administrative regions to limit the negative impact of pressures and threats, we could highlight: e va Th luable ecological diversity and the multiple ecosys - tem services associated to dune habitats have been pro - • Measures related to residential, commercial, industrial gressively threatened by the expansion of anthropic ac - and recreational infrastructures, operations and activi - tivities and also by natural factors, making coastal dunes ties (39%), in almost all habitats in at least one admin - among the most threatened ecosystems at the global and istrative region; local scale (Schlacher et al. 2007; Defeo et al. 2009; Prisco • Measures related to alien and problematic native et al. 2015, 2016a; Acosta and Ercole 2015; Sciandrello et species (22%), in almost all habitats except fixed and al. 2015; Janssen et al. 2016; Malavasi et al. 2016; Marcenò wooded dunes; et al. 2018; Sarmati et al. 2019; Carranza et al. 2020). Al - • Measures related to natural processes, geological though the Italian shoreline still hosts several of well-pre - events and natural catastrophes (10%), in about half of served stretches of sandy dunes, the 4th monitoring Re - the habitats, mainly in the Mediterranean Region. port just completed has clearly highlighted the alarming bad or inadequate conservation status of most dune hab - itats in Italy. Overall conservation status and trend One of the greatest threats is related to their limited geographical extent which, with a continuously decreas - As it could be envisaged from previous results, the overall ing trend over the years, will lead to an increasingly worse assessment of Dune Habitats at the end of the 4th report - future scenario. The most ae ff cted Habitats are those with ing period is clearly Unfavourable-Bad (U2) for about the minimum extension, which are mainly concentrated 90% of the assessed Habitats (Fig. 3A), and the trend with in the Continental Region, but also in the Mediterranean reference to the last reporting cycle is deteriorating for one (shifting dunes, fixed dunes, dunes with Hippophae almost 70% of Habitats (Fig. 3B). Only 21% of Habitats rhamnoides, dune grasslands, dunes with Juniperus spe- could be considered in a stable trend, mostly represented cies, maquis with sclerophyllous scrubs, inland dunes). by woody habitats on fixed dunes. Moreover, our results showed that both herbaceous and e Th reported unknown trend is referred to the two wooded Habitats are highly threatened. In particular, we marginal Habitats that have been evaluated for the first should highlight the worrying conservation state of some time in this report (see Table 1). relevant dune Habitats (e.g. Shifting dunes with Ammoph- Although more than half of Habitats showed a con - ila arenaria, Habitat 2120) considered with a key role in siderable change in the overall conservation status com - some ecosystem services, such as dune stability enhance - pared to the previous Report, it is worth pointing out ment, coastal erosion protection, resistance of the coastal that probably a consistent part of this degradation pro - dune pollination networks, as well as in providing hab - cess is related to a better knowledge of the distribution itat for coastal fauna and in supporting fungal diversity and quality of Habitats. However, we could not exclude (Prisco et al. 2016b; Filesi et al. 2017; Fantinato et al. 2018; an actual deterioration of the conservation status for Konlechner et al. 2019; De Battisti and Griffin 2020). e Th some habitats, such as the Mediterranean dune grass - Habitat 2270 (Wooded dunes with Pinus species) is the lands (Habitat 2230). only one to show at least a favourable criterion (structure Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 61 Table 2. Final assessments of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats as resulting in the last three reporting cycles, from 2001 to 2018 (FV: Favourable; U1: Unfavourable-Inadequate; U2: Unfavourable-Bad; XX: Unknown; DD: Data Deficient). 2nd Report (2001-2006) 3rd Report (2007-2012) 4th Report (2013-2018) HABITAT ALP CON MED ALP CON MED ALP CON MED 2110 Embryonic shifting dunes U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 2120 Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 2130 Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation U1 U2 U2 2160 Dunes with Hippophae rhamnoides U1 U2 U2 2210 Crucianellion maritimae fixed beach dunes U1 U2 U2 2230 Malcolmietalia dune grasslands U1 XX U2 U1 U2 U2 2240 Brachypodietalia dune grasslands with annuals U1 XX DD U1 U2 U2 2250 Coastal dunes with Juniperus spp. U2 U1 U2 U2 U2 U2 2260 Cisto-Lavanduletalia dune sclerophyllous scrubs U2 U1 U2 U2 U2 U2 2270 Wooded dunes with Pinus pinea and/or Pinus pinaster FV FV FV U1 U1 U1 2330 Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands DD XX DD U2 U2 U2 Figure 3. A Final overall assessment and B overall trend in the conservation status of the Italian coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats. and functions); however, the overall conservation status term depend on sound evaluations of the effectiveness of of this habitat is still inadequate (Bonari et al. 2018). Al - current management measures, supported by regular and though wooded dunes are usually found in the inner part highly frequent on-ground monitoring, both inside and of the coastal vegetation zonation, they are oen s ft ubject - outside protected sites. We believe that our results pro - ed to intense silvicultural treatments and tourists tram - vide bases and useful insights for dune habitats protec - pling (Sarmati et al. 2019). tion and management, in the context of the monitoring e o Th verall worrying state of conservation of the dune and reporting obligations set up by the Habitats Directive. systems claims for a better knowledge of pressures and Overall, the results of the 4th Report testify for better threats acting on these habitats and for further monitor - knowledge on the geographical distribution, quality, typ - ing plans. Without such a systematic approach, coastal ical species and conservation status of the whole Italian dune habitats are going to face further degradation trends Habitats at biogeographical scale. Therefore, we should in both structure and functions, including also the dis - clarify that for dune Habitats, some of the changes in ruption of spatial zonation of plant communities (Sarmati distribution and trends might probably be related to the et al. 2019). This degradation process could finally lead to application of more accurate and updated data. However, a dramatic alteration of the ecosystem services they pro - even though the geographical distribution maps of these vide (Everard et al. 2010; Barbier et al. 2011; Drius et al. Habitats have been validated by a large group of experts 2019). Additionally, degraded dune habitats are more sus - with detailed territorial knowledge, yet the lack of infor - ceptible to biological invasions (Del Vecchio et al. 2015; mation on the actual location of the Habitats outside the Gheza et al. 2018; Giulio et al. 2020). Natura 2000 sites has negatively influenced the quanti - In dynamic and vulnerable ecosystems such as coast - fication of the Range parameter, as well as the structure al dunes, successful conservation outcomes in the long- and functions parameter. Finally, it’s worth noting that 62 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status the information collected has been structured to ensure the archiving and traceability of both published and un - References published literature, placing a solid base of reliable and verified data at the local scale for the next reporting cycles Acosta ATR, Carranza ML, Izzi CF (2009) Are there habitats that con - tribute best to plant species diversity in coastal dunes? Biodiversi - (Gigante et al. 2019). ty and Conservation 18(4): 1087–1098. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10531-008-9454-9 Acosta ATR, Ercole S [Eds] (2015) Gli habitat delle coste sabbiose ital - Conclusions iane: ecologia e problematiche di conservazione. ISPRA Serie Rap - porti 215/2015. According to the 4th Monitoring Report (92/43/EEC Hab - Angelini P, Casella L, Grignetti A, Genovesi P (2016) Manuali per il itats Directive) the conservation status of Italian coastal monitoraggio di specie e habitat di interesse comunitario (Diretti - sand dunes and inland dunes Habitats is dramatically va 92/43/CEE) in Italia: habitat. ISPRA Serie Manuali e linee guida bad: the overall assessment reports 88% of Habitats in a 142/2016. ISBN 978-88-448-0789-4. bad conservation status and the remaining 12% in an in - Angiolini C, Bonari G, Landi M (2018) Focal plant species and soil fac - adequate condition. Key dune habitats, such as “Shifting tors in Mediterranean coastal dunes: an undisclosed liaison? Estua - dunes with Ammophila arenaria”, show a bad conserva - rine, Coastal and Shelf Science 211: 248–258. tion status for all the considered criteria in both Biogeo - Anthony EJ (2014) The human influence on the Mediterranean coast graphical Regions. Main pressures and threats are the de - over the last 200 years: a brief appraisal from a geomorphological velopment of residential, commercial and industrial areas perspective. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement and the expansion of alien and ruderal species. Results 20(3): 219–226. show an overall worse conservation status with respect to Balmford A, Bruner A, Cooper P, Costanza R, Farber S, Green RE, et al. previous national reports. Although part of these changes (2002) Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science 297: is probably due (but not only) to the provision of more ac - 950–953. curate and updated data, the undoubtedly bad conserva - Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR tion status of these unstable but resilient Habitats should (2011) The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Eco - draw attention to more effective conservation measures, logical Monographs 81(2): 169–193. supported by monitoring activities, both inside and out - Basnou C, Iguzquiza J, Pino J (2015) Examining the role of landscape structure and dynamics in alien plant invasion from urban Med - side protected areas. iterranean coastal habitats. Landscape and Urban Planning 136: 156–164. Bonari G, Acosta ATR, Angiolini C (2018) EU priority habitats: rethink - Acknowledgements ing Mediterranean coastal pine forests. Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 29(2): 295–307. We are grateful to the whole SISV Working Group for the Buffa G, Fantinato E, Pizzo L (2012) Effects of disturbance on san - professionalism shown and for the dedication that ev - dy coastal ecosystems of N-Adriatic coasts (Italy). In: Gbolagade eryone has put into this huge and complex work: Adorni Akeem Lameed [Ed.] Biodiversity Enrichment in a Diverse World. M., Allegrezza M., Armiraglio S., Attorre F., Bagella S., IntechOpen, 339–372. https://www.doi.org/10.5772/48473 Barcella M., Bazan G., Bertacchi A., Bolpagni R., Bonari Buffa G, Filesi L, Gamper U, Sburlino G (2007) Qualità e grado di con - G., Caccianiga M., Cacciatori C., Caria M., Casavecchia servazione del paesaggio vegetale del litorale sabbioso del Veneto S., Cerabolini B., Ciaschetti G., Ciccarelli D., Cogoni A., (Italia settentrionale). Fitosociologia 44(1): 49–58. Cutini M., De Sanctis M., De Simone W., Del Vecchio S., Bunce RGH, Bogers MMB, Evans D, Halada L, Jongman RHG, Mucher Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Musciano M., Fantinato CA, Bauch B, de Blust G, Parr TW, Olsvig-Whittaker L (2013) e Th E., Ferella G., Filesi L., Foggi B., Forte L., Frattaroli A., significance of habitats as indicators of biodiversity and their links to Galdenzi D., Gangale C., Gennai M., Gianguzzi L., Giusso species. Ecological Indicators 33: 19–25. Del Galdo G., Guarino R., Lasen C., Maneli F., Mariotti Carranza ML, Drius M, Marzialetti F, Malavasi M, de Francesco MC, M., Oriolo G., Paura B., Perrino E., Pesaresi S., Pezzi G., Acosta ATR, Stanisci A (2020) Urban expansion depletes cultural Pisanu S., Poponessi S., Puglisi M., Rivieccio G., Selvaggi ecosystem services: an insight into a Mediterranean coastline. Ren - A., Siniscalco C., Spampinato G., Stinca A., Strumia S., diconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 31: 103–111. https://doi. Taet ff ani F., Tesei G., Tomaselli V., Venanzoni R., Viciani org/10.1007/s12210-019-00866-w D., Wagensommer R. and Zanatta K. Cowling RM, Knight AT, Faith DP, Ferrier S, Lombard AT, Driver A, We also would like to thank Pierangela Angelini and Rouget M, Maze K, Desmet PG (2004) Nature conservation requires Laura Casella, from ISPRA, for being an important point more than a passion for species. Conservation Biology 18: 1674– of reference. 1676. Alicia T.R. Acosta gratefully acknowledges the Grant De Battisti D, Griffin JN (2020) Below-ground biomass of plants, with a of Excellence Departments, MIUR-Italy (ARTICOLO 1, key contribution of buried shoots, increases foredune resistance to COMMI 314 – 337 LEGGE 232/2016). wave swash. Annals of Botany 125 (2): 325–334. Plant Sociology 57(1) 2020, 55–64 63 Defeo O, McLachlan A, Schoeman DS, Schlacher TA, Dugan J, Jones Gigante D, Acosta AT, Agrillo E, Armiraglio S, Assini S, Attorre F, Ba - A, Lastra M, Scapini F (2009) Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: a gella S, Buffa G, Casella L, Giancola C, Del Galdo GG (2018) Hab - review. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 81: 1–12. itat conservation in Italy: the state of the art in the light of the first Del Vecchio S, Fantinato E, Janssen JAM, Bioret F Acosta ATR, Prisco European Red List of Terrestrial and Freshwater Habitats. Rendi - I, Tzonev R, Marcenò C, Rodwell JS, Buffa G (2018) Biogeographic conti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 29(2): 251–265. https://doi. variability of coastal perennial grasslands at the European scale. Ap - org/10.1007/s12210-018-0688-5 plied Vegetation Science 21(2): 312–321. Gigante D, Acosta ATR, Agrillo E, Attorre F, Cambria VM, Casavecchia Del Vecchio S, Pizzo L, Buffa G (2015) The response of plant community S, et al. (2012) VegItaly: Technical features, crucial issues and some diversity to alien invasion: evidence from a sand dune time series. solutions. Plant Sociology 49(2): 71–79. https://doi.org/10.7338/ Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 371–392. pls2012492/05 Drius M, Jones L, Marzialetti F, de Francesco MC, Stanisci A, Carranza Gigante D, Angelini P, Selvaggi A, Acosta ATR, Adorni M, Allegrezza ML (2019) Not just a sandy beach. e Th multi-service value of Med - M, et al. (2019) First overview on the 4th Annex I Habitats Report in iterranean coastal dunes. Science of The Total Environment 668: Italy: methods, criticality, results and future prospects. 28th Meeting 1139–1155. of the European Vegetation Survey: Vegetation Diversity and Global Eionet Central Data Repository (2018) Report on progress and imple - Change, Madrid, September 2019. Abstract Book 27 p. mentation (Article 17, Habitats Directive). Italy. https://cdr.eionet. Gigante D, Foggi B, Venanzoni R, Viciani D, Buffa G (2016a) Habi - europa.eu/it/eu/art17/envxuwp6g tats on the grid: The spatial dimension does matter for red-listing. Eionet Central Data Repository (2019) Reporting tool guidelines for the Journal for Nature Conservation 32: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. delivery of Article 12 and 17 data – Final version – 26th April 2019. jnc.2016.03.007 European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (2019) Article 17 Web Gigante D, Attorre F, Venanzoni R, Acosta ATR, Agrillo E, Aleffi M, et Tool on Biogeographical Assessment of Conservation Status of Spe - al. (2016b) A methodological protocol for Annex I Habitats moni - cies and Habitat under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. https:// toring: the contribution of Vegetation science. Plant Sociology 53(2): nature-art17.eionet.europa.eu/article17/reports2012/habitat/report/ 77–87. https://doi.org/10.7338/pls2016532/06 Evans D, Arvela M (2011) Assessment and reporting under Article 17 of Giulio S, Acosta ATR, Carboni M, Campos JA, Chytrý M, Loidi J, et al. the Habitats Directive. Explanatory Notes & Guidelines for the pe - (2020) Alien flora across European coastal dunes. Applied Vegeta - riod 2007-2012. Final version. July 2011. https://circabc.europa.eu/ tion Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12490 sd/a/2c12cea2-f827-4bdb-bb56-3731c9fd8b40/Art17-Guidelines-fi - IUCN (2016) An introduction to the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: nal.pdf the categories and criteria for assessing risks to ecosystems. IUCN, Everard M, Jones L, Watts B (2010) Have we neglected the societal im - Gland. portance of sand dunes? An ecosystem services perspective. Aquatic Janssen JAM, Rodwell JS, Criado MG, Gubbay S, Arts GHP, Haynes T, et Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(4): 476–487. al. (2016) European Red List of Habitats. Part 2. Terrestrial and fresh - Fantinato E, Del Vecchio S, Silan G, Buffa G (2018) Pollination networks water habitats. European Union. https://doi.org/10.2779/091372 along the sea-inland gradient reveal landscape patterns of keystone Keith DA, Rodríguez JP, Brooks TM, Burgman MA, Barrow EG, Bland plant species. Scientific Reports 8: 15221. https://doi.org/10.1038/ L, et al. (2017) e Th IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: motivations, chal - s41598-018-33652-z lenges, and applications. Conservation Letters 8(3): 214–226. Feola S, Carranza ML, Schaminée JHJ, Janssen JAM, Acosta ATR (2011) Keith DA, Rodríguez JP, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Nicholson E, Aapala K, EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean Alonso A, et al. (2013) Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List beach and foredunes. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 1457–1468. of Ecosystems. PLoS One 8(5): e62111. https://doi.org/10.1371/jour - Filesi L, Antinori F, Bizio E, Borgo A, Castelli S, Manzini A, Marotta nal.pone.0062111 L, Masin R, Mitri MG (2017) Pregio naturalistico del settore costie - Konlechner TM, Kennedy DM, Cousens RD, Woods JL (2019) Patterns ro antistante l’ex Ospedale a Mare (isola di Lido – Venezia). Lavori of early-colonising species on eroding to prograding coasts; implica - Società Veneziana di Scienze Naturali 42: 61–88. https://www.svsn. tions for foredune plant communities on retreating coastlines. Geo - it/pregio-naturalistico-del-settore-costiero-antistante-lex-osped - morphology 327: 404–416. ale-al-mare-isola-di-lido-venezia/ Landucci F, Acosta ATR, Agrillo E, Attorre F, Biondi E, Cambria VE, et Gamper U, Filesi L, Buffa G, Sburlino G (2008) Phytocaenotic diversity al. (2012) VegItaly: The Italian collaborative project for a national of the N-Adriatic coastal sand dunes. 1 – The phanerophytic com - vegetation database. Plant Biosystems 146(4): 756–763. https://doi. munities. Fitosociologia 45: 3–21. org/10.1080/11263504.2012.740093 Genovesi P, Angelini P, Bianchi E, Dupré E, Ercole S, Giacanelli V, Malavasi M, Santoro R, Cutini M, Acosta ATR, Carranza ML (2013) Ronchi F, Stoch F (2014) Specie e habitat di interesse comunitario What has happened to coastal dunes in the last half century? A mul - in Italia: distribuzione, stato di conservazione e trend. ISPRA Serie titemporal coastal landscape analysis in Central Italy. Landscape and Rapporti 194/2014. Urban Planning 119: 54–63. Gheza G, Assini S, Marini L, Nascimbene J (2018) Impact on an inva - Malavasi M, Santoro R, Cutini M, Acosta ATR, Carranza ML (2016) sive herbivore and human trampling on lichen-rich dry grasslands: e Th impact of human pressure on landscape patterns and plant spe - Soil-dependent response of multiple taxa. Science of the Total Envi - cies richness in Mediterranean coastal dunes. Plant Biosystems 150: ronment 639: 633–639. 73–82. Gheza G, Assini S, Valcuvia Passadore M (2016) Terricolous lichen com - Marcenò C, Guarino R, Loidi J, Herrera M, Isermann M, Knollová I, munities of Corynephorus canescens grasslands of Northern Italy. et al. (2018) Classification of European and Mediterranean coastal Tuexenia 36: 121–142. dune vegetation. Applied Vegetation Science 21(3): 533–559. 64 Irene Prisco et al.: Dune habitat monitoring and conservation status Minissale P, Sciandrello S (2013) A relict wood of Juniperus turbinata ropean Commission DG Environment. https://www.wur.nl/en/Pub - Guss. (Cupressaceae) in Sicily. Ecological features and conservation lication-details.htm?publicationId=publication-way-343439373830 perspectives. Plant Biosystems 147(1): 145–157. Salafsky N, Salzer D, Stattersfield Aj, Hilton-Taylor C, Neugarten R, Minissale P, Sciandrello S (2015) The sabulicolous therophytic associa - Butchart SHM, Collen B, Cox N, Master LL, O’Connor S, Wilkie tions in Sicily: new insights through the statistical approach, stress - D (2008) A standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: unified ing the continuum vs discrete model of plant communities. Acata classifications of threats and actions. Conservation Biology 22 (4): Botanica Gallica 162(1): 55–78. 897–911. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00937.x Minissale P, Sciandrello S (2017) Flora and habitats of Vendicari Islet Sarmati S, Bonari G, Angiolini C (2019) Conservation status of Mediter - (“Isola di Vendicari”) in south east Sicily. Natura Croatica 26(1): ranean coastal dune habitats: anthropogenic disturbance may ham - 1–16. per habitat assignment. Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali Myers N, Mittermeier R, Mittermeier C, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca 30(3): 623–636. GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Sburlino G, Buffa G, Filesi L, Gamper U (2008) Phytocoenotic origi - Nature 403: 853–858. https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501 nality of the N-Adriatic coastal sand dunes (Northern Italy) in the Newton A, Carruthers TJB, Icely J (2012) e Th coastal syndromes and European context: e Th Stipa veneta-rich communities. Plant Biosys - hotspots on the coast. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 96: 39–47. tems 142: 533–539. Nordhaus I, Roelke DL, Vaquer-Sunyer R, Winter C (2018) Coastal sys - Sburlino G, Buffa G, Filesi L, Gamper U, Ghirelli L (2013) Phytocoenot - tems in transition: From a ‘natural’ to an ‘anthropogenically-modi - ic diversity of the N-Adriatic coastal sand dunes – The herbaceous fied’ state. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 211: 1–5. communities of the fixed dunes and the vegetation of the interdunal Pisanu S, Farris E, Caria MC,Filigheddu R, Urbani M, Bagella S (2014) wetlands. Plant Sociology 50: 57–77. Vegetation and plant landscape of Asinara National Park (Italy). Schlacher T Dugan J, Schoeman DS, Lastra M, Jones A, Scapini F, Mc - Plant Sociology 51(1): 31–57. Lachlan A, Defeo O (2007) Sandy beaches at the brink. Diversity and Poeta G, Fanelli G, Pietrelli L, Acosta ATR, Battisti C (2017) Plastisphere Distribution 13(5): 556–560. in action: evidence for an interaction between expanded polystyrene Sciandrello S, Giusso del Galdo GP, Minissale P (2017) Ecology and and dunal plants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research conservation status of Muscari gussonei (Parl.) Nyman in Sicily: a 24(12): 11856–11859. narrow endemic species threatened by habitat reduction. Plant So - Prisco I, Acosta ATR, Ercole S (2012) An overview of the Italian ciology 54(Suppl. 1): 85–96. coastal dune EU habitats. Annali di Botanica 2: 39–48. https://doi. Sciandrello S, Tomaselli G, Minissale P (2015) The role of natural vege - org/10.4462/annbotrm-9340 tation in the analysis of the spatio-temporal changes of coastal dune Prisco I, Carboni M, Acosta ATR (2013) The fate of threatened coastal system: a case study in Sicily. Journal of Coastal Conservation 19(2): dune habitats in Italy under climate change scenarios. PLoS ONE 199–212. 8(7): e68850. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068850 Silan G, Del Vecchio S, Fantinato E, Buffa G (2017) Habitat quality as - Prisco I, Stanisci A, Acosta ATR (2016a) Mediterranean dunes on the sessment through a multifaceted approach: the case of the habitat go: Evidence from a short term study on coastal herbaceous vege - 2130* in Italy. Plant Sociology 54: 13–22. tation. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 182: 40–46. https://doi. Sperandii MG, Prisco I, Acosta ATR (2018) Hard times for Italian coast - org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.09.012 al dunes: insights from a diachronic analysis based on random plots. Prisco I, Carboni M, Jucker T, Acosta ATR (2016b) Temporal changes in Biodiversity and Conservation 27(3): 633–646. the vegetation of Italian coastal dunes: identifying winners and los - Tomaselli V, Sciandrello S (2017) Contribution to the knowledge of the ers through the lens of functional traits. Journal of Applied Ecology coastal vegetation of the Zone Umide della Capitanata (Apulia, Ita - 53(5): 1533–1542. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12684 ly). Plant Biosystems 151(4): 673–694. Prisco I, Stanisci A, Acosta ATR (2015) Temporal changes in Adriatic UNEP/MAP (2012) State of the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal En - coastal dunes: results from a short term vegetation monitoring. Plant vironment, UNEP/MAP – Barcelona Convention, Athens. Sociology 52(2): 95–100. https://doi.org/10.7338/pls2015522/05 Viciani D, Angiolini C, Foggi B (2007) Gli habitat costieri ed insulari Rodwell J, Janssen J, Gubbay S, Schaminée J (2013) Red List Assessment della Toscana: conoscenze attuali, prospettive e vulnerabilità. Fitoso - of European Habitat Types. A feasibility study. Report for the Eu - ciologia 44 (1): 84–95.

Journal

Plant SociologyUnpaywall

Published: Jun 15, 2020

There are no references for this article.