Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

DehydrogenasesDehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment

Dehydrogenases: Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment We are IntechOpen, the world’s leading publisher of Open Access books Built by scientists, for scientists 137,000 170M 5,600 Open access books available International authors and editors Downloads Our authors are among the TOP 1% 12.2% Countries delivered to Contributors from top 500 universities most cited scientists Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index in Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI) Interested in publishing with us? Contact book.department@intechopen.com Numbers displayed above are based on latest data collected. For more information visit www.intechopen.com Chapter 8 Agnieszka Wolińska and Zofia Stępniewska Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/48294 1. Introduction The main purpose of the chapter is clarify description of the role of intracellular enzyme- dehydrogenase in the soil environment, as well as presentation of soil factors, influencing an enzymatic activity, by either stimulation or inhibition effect on soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA). The most common laboratory procedure used for DHA determination is the method developed by Casida et al. (1964). According this method, specific dyes such as the triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), that can specify the flow of electrons are useful indicators of electron transport system (ETS) activity. By the reduction of colorless, water soluble substrate (TTC) by dehydrogenases present in the soil environment, an insoluble product with red color (triphenylformazan-TPF) is formed. TPF can be easily quantified calorimetrically at the range of visible light (485 nm). This test however, reflected positive answer only at neutral range of pH and in presence of calcium carbonate for buffering soil system. Briefly, if the red colors of soil samples prepared for spectrophotometer analyses are more intensive, the measured level of DHA is higher. Consequently, soil samples without red colors or those with light red colors are characterized by lower DHA values. Determination of DHA in the soil samples gives us large amount of information about biological characteristic of the soil. It was confirmed that although oxygen and other electron acceptors can be utilized by dehydrogenases, most of the enzyme is produced by anaerobic microorganisms. In other words, soil DHA strongly increases under anaerobic conditions. Several environmental factors, including soil moisture, oxygen availability, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, organic matter content, depth of the soil profile, temperature, season of the year, heavy metal contamination and soil fertilization or pesticide use can affect significantly DHA in the soil environment. In the current chapter we would like to concentrate on precise description of mentioned factors effect on soil DHA level. Presented © 2012 Wolińska and Stępniewska, licensee InTech. This is an open access chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 184 Dehydrogenases results of laboratory experiments were conducted on different soil types, representing dominant types of arable soils in Poland, in order to demonstrate changeability and variability of DHA at diverse soil environment. 2. Role of dehydrogenase activity in the soil environment There are lots of enzymes in soil the environment, such as Oxidoreductases, Hydrolases, Isomerases, Lyases and Ligases. Each of them play key biochemical functions in the overall process of material and energy conversion (Gu et al., 2009). Soil dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.) are the major representatives of the Oxidoreductase enzymes class (Gu et al., 2009). Among all enzymes in the soil environment, dehydrogenases are one of the most important, and are used as an indicator of overall soil microbial activity (Quilchano & Marañon, 2002; Gu et al., 2009; Salazar et al., 2011), because they occur intracellular in all living microbial cells (Moeskops et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2010; Yuan & Yue, 2012). Moreover, they are tightly linked with microbial oxidoreduction processes (Moeskops et al., 2010). What is important dehydrogenases do not accumulate extracellular in the soil. Dehydrogenases play a significant role in the biological oxidation of soil organic matter (OM) by transferring hydrogen from organic substrates to inorganic acceptors (Zhang et al., 2010). Many specific dehydrogenases transfer hydrogen to either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Subhani et al., 2001). Throughout mentioned co-enzymes hydrogen atoms are involved in the reductive processes of biosynthesis. Due to this fact, the overall DHA of a soil depends on the activities of various dehydrogenases, which are fundamental part of the enzyme system of all living microorganisms, like enzymes of the respiratory metabolism, the citrate cycle, and N metabolism (Subhani et al., 2011). Thus, DHA serves as an indicator of the microbiological redox-systems and could be considered a good and adequate measure of microbial oxidative activities in soil. Brzezińska et al. (2001) found that active dehydrogenases can utilize both O2 and other compounds as terminal electron acceptors, although anaerobic microorganisms produce most dehydrogenases. Therefore, DHA reflects metabolic ability of the soil and its activity is considered to be proportional to the biomass of the microorganisms in soil. However, the relationships between an individual biochemical property of soil DHA and the total microbial activity is not always obvious, especially in the case of complex systems like soils, where the microorganisms and processes involved in the degradation of the organic compounds are highly diverse (Salazar et al., 2011). 3. Soil factors stimulating dehydrogenase activity Among different environmental factors with special emphasis on enzymatic activities in the soil environment it is possible to screen some, which have positive impact on DHA. The most important soil factors stimulating soil DHA are described below. Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 185 3.1. Soil moisture Life in the soil environment, as well as land use is related to alternate cycles of humidification and drainage (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). Water availability strongly affects on soil microbial activity, community composition (Geisseler et al., 2011), and consequently on soil enzymatic activities. As soils dry, the water potential increases, and as well microbial activity as intracellular enzyme activity slows down (Geisseler et al., 2011). In the case of wet soils, increased moisture could bring into soil solution soluble OM, what might be responsible for increase of bacterial population number (Subhani et al., 2001). What is important, we should have consciousness that any compound, which alters the number or activity of microorganisms, could on the other hand affect on soil biochemical properties, and ultimately also on soil fertility and plant growth (Subhani et al., 2001). A basic hydrophysical characteristic of soil is water retention, that can be described as a dependence between soil water content and soil water potential. Soil water content in the function of the soil water tension is described by pF curve, which provides information about the ability for water retaining by the soil pores at any given water tension, or conversely, how tightly a water is held between soil aggregates (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). The Figure 1 demonstrates diminishing trend for DHA behaviour at different soil moisture, described as water potential values. During this experiment gig set of soils (n=315), including all representatives among the most typical Polish mineral soils (Eutric Cambisol, Eutric Histosol, Eutric Fluvisol, Mollic Gleysol, Orthic Podzol, Rendzina Leptosol, Haplic Phaeozem) were investigated. However, each of soil unites displayed DHA reducing trend with increase of soil pF value, what means that maximum values of DHA in the soil profiles are indirectly connected with maximum soil moisture (pF 0). (0-30cm) (30-60cm) (60-100cm) (X 0,00001) (X 1,E-7) (X 1,E-7) 6 124 83 3 84 0 44 33 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 pF -1 -1 Figure 1. DHA (µgTPFg min ) dependence from water potential (pF) at different mineral Polish soil types, during reoxidation (n=315), according to Wolińska (2010) Statistical relationships between DHA and soil water content, described as pF value in the range of pF0 – pF3.2, determined by Wolińska & Bennicelli (2010) are presented in Table 1. Founded significant negative relationships between DHA and pF are confirmed by our above mentioned observations, that DHA is strongly affected by soil moisture. These strong -1 -1 DHA (µgTPFg min ) 186 Dehydrogenases correlations are undoubtedly connected with the fact that the metabolism and the survival of soil microorganisms are also strongly impacted by the availability of water (Uhlirova et al., 2005), what is essential for microbial survival and activity. Consequently, low water availability can inhibit microbial activity by lowering intracellular water potential, and thus by reducing of hydration and enzymes activity (Wall & Heiskanen, 2003). Periods of moisture limitation may affect microbial communities through starvation. Thus, the most common environmental stress for soil microorganisms is perhaps drought (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). It was shown in many studies that DHA is significantly influenced by water content and dropped with the decrease of soil humidity. For example, Gu et al. (2009) observed higher DHA level (even by 90%) in flooded soil, rather than in non-flooded conditions. The higher DHA values in flooded conditions agreed also with results presented by Zhao et al. (2010) and Weaver et al (2012). DHA Depth pF response (cm) 0-20 -0.98*** Rendzina Leptosols 50-60 -0.95** 0-20 -0.97*** Eutric Fluvisol 50-60 -0.22 n.s. *, **, *** - indicate significance at the 5, 1 and 0.1% level, respectively, n.s. – not significant differences Table 1. Statistical significance of differences between DHA and pF described by correlation coefficient (R) (95% LSD method, n=15), according to Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010 The decline of DHA with an increase of pF value, could be also explained by the fact, that flooding of soil with water significantly increased the electron transport system (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). Dehydrogenases however, are responsible for electron transport in the soil environment. It was also reported that DHA is higher in flooded, anaerobically soils, than aerobically incubated soils (Trevors, 1984; Subhani et al., 2001). 3.2. Soil aeration state (redox potential and oxygen diffusion rate) Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR) is usually considered to be the most critical proximal regulator of microbial activities (Hutchinson, 1995). Moreover, it is often assumed that a decrease of soil water content (higher value of pF), cause a significant (P<0.001) increase of ODR and redox potential (Stępniewski et al., 2000; Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). The available literature shows -2 -1 that low ODR level, ranged below its critical values (35 µg O2 m s ), is favorable and optimal for DHA (Stępniewski et al., 2000; Brzezińska et al., 2001; Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). We confirmed that dehydrogenases are sensitive enzymes, indirectly depended on the soil aeration status (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). Based on performed measurements we found, that pF constitutes a significant factor, determining ODR in the soil environment, as well as its DHA level (P<0.01). The reoxidation processes, occurring in the direction from pF 0 to pF Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 187 3.2, were the reason of DHA inhibition and stimulation of ODR level in the Rendzina Leptosols and Eutric Fluvisol soil samples (Fig. 2). We also stated that soil DHA at pF 3.2 was lower by about 60.86%, in comparison to the activity estimated at pF 0. y = 0,66x - 18,98x + 121,16 2 Eutric Fluvisol y = 1,02x - 9,54x + 32,40 Rendzina Leptosols R = 0,98 2 depth 0-30 cm depth 0-20 cm R = 0,98 120 140 30 140 120 120 40 40 0 0 0 0 01,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 soil water potential, pF AD ODR soil water potential, pF AD ODR Figure 2. The response of soil DHA to varied aeration factors (pF and ODR), at surface layers of Rendzina Leptosols and Eutric Fluvisol , during reoxidation process (according to Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented -2 -1 The Figure 3. demonstrates that low oxygen diffusion rate (2.8-25 µg O2 m s ) was optimal for DHA, what was also confirmed by correlation coefficient (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010; Wolińska, 2010). Our results and founding’s are compatible with work of Stępniewski et al. (2000), Brzezińska et al. (2001), and Yang et al. (2005). Statistical relationships between DHA and ODR, determined for two soil types (Rendzina Leptosols and Eutric Fluvisol) by Wolińska & Bennicelli (2010) are presented in Table 2. At every case negative correlations DHA-ODR were determined. (0-30cm) 0,00022 R= -0,31* 0,00020 y=8.55E-5-3.5E-5*log(x) 0,00018 0,00016 0,00014 0,00012 0,00010 0,00008 0,00006 0,00004 0,00002 0,00000 -0,00002 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 95% p.ufności -2 -1 ODR (µg O m s ) -1 -1 -6 -2 -1 Figure 3. Relationship between DHA (µgTPFg min * 10 ) and ODR (µg m s ), in surface layer of different mineral Polish soil types (n=315, P<0.05), according to Wolińska (2010) DHA -1 -1 -6 (µgTPFg min )10 -1 -1 -6 DH A (µgTPFg min 10 ) -2 -1 ODR (µgm s ) DHA -1 -1 -6 (µg TPFgmin )1 0 -2 -1 ODR(µgms ) 188 Dehydrogenases DHA Depth ODR response (cm) 0-20 -0.90** Rendzina Leptosols 50-60 -0.84* 0-20 -0.96** Eutric Fluvisol 50-60 -0.16 n.s. *, **, *** - indicate significance at the 5, 1 and 0.1% level, respectively, n.s. – not significant differences Table 2. Statistical significance of differences between DHA and ODR described by correlation coefficient (R) (95% LSD method, n=15) Redox potential (Eh) is the next, important, environmental factor, which expresses the tendency of an environment to receive or to supply electrons in solution (Stępniewski et al., 2005). The well-oxygenated soils are characterized by high values of Eh (600-800 mV), in quite well-oxygenated soils Eh ~ 500-600 mV, whereas in anaerobic conditions drop of Eh below 300 mV or even lower values were observed (Pett-Ridge & Firestone, 2005; Stępniewski et al., 2000). It is well known, that Eh play a crucial role in regulating microbial activity as well as community structure (Pett-Ridge & Firestone, 2005; Song et al., 2008), and affecting on soil enzymatic activity, especially DHA. Brzezińska et al. (1998) indicated that among all aeration parameters, Eh plays the most important role in determining soil DHA level. Similar conclusions were also reported by Włodarczyk et al. (2001) and Menon et al. (2005). We founded significant negative relationships between DHA and Eh (Fig. 4) at surface layers of Mollic Gleysols, Eutric Fluvisols, Rendzina Leptosols and Haplic Phaeozems, where determined correlation coefficients equaled as follows: r=-0.91*, r=-0.43*, r=-0.47** and r=- 0.48** (Wolińska, 2010). Eh (mV) Figure 4. Relationship between soil DHA level and Eh at Mollic Gleysol (n=9, r=-0.91*), according to Wolińska (2010) -1 -1 DHA (µg TPF g min ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 189 Negative correlations DHA-Eh were also described by Brzezińska et al. (1998), who determined r=-0.75***, r=-0.83*** and r=-0.87*** for temperature 10, 20 and 30ºC, respectively, and by Stępniewski et al. (2000), and Nyak et al. (2007). Mentioned relationships DHA-Eh have significant negative character, what means that increase of soil DHA level is indirectly connected with decrease of Eh values, as most of microorganisms, which are responsible for DHA prefer rather anaerobic conditions, and belong to obligate anaerobes. What is more, anaerobic conditions are consequence of flooding and decrease of oxygen availability in soil environment. Competition for oxygen limits aerobic processes and the subsequent oxygen deficiency creates local anaerobic microsites, which stimulates growth of anaerobic bacteria (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011), and finally DHA. Also, in the absence of oxygen in the soil a decline of Eh and the reduction 4+ 2+ 2- of oxidized forms (nitrate, Mn , Fe and SO4 ) takes place. Bohrerova et al. (2004) reported - - 3+ 2+ that the most common ions forming the redox couples of soil include NO3 /NO2 , Fe /Fe , 4+ 2+ and Mn /Mn . In the literature data, it was also assumed that DHA is strongly affected by both Fe as Mn presence in the soil (Brzezińska et al., 1998; Włodarczyk et al., 2002). 3.3. Organic matter content Soil organic matter (OM) has important effects not only on soil enzymes activities but first of all on microorganisms activities. Soil OM has been considered as an indicator of soil quality (similarly like dehydrogenases,) because of its character of nutrient sink and source that can enhance soil physical and chemical properties, and also promote biological activity (Salazar et al., 2011). Interestingly, not only amount of OM in the soil is important but most of all its quality, as OM affects the supply of energy for microbial growth and enzyme production (Fontaine et al., 2003). It is evident that soil enzymatic activity is strongly connected with soil OM content. The higher OM level can provide enough substrate to support higher microbial biomass, hence higher enzyme production (Yuan & Yue, 2012). Several authors reported positive correlation between DHA and OM content (Chodak & Niklińska, 2010; Moeskops et al., 2010; Romero et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2010; Yuan & Yue, 2012). Zhang et al. (2010) indicated also that as well DHA and CaCO3 correlated with OM content, and what is more DHA, OM and CaCO3 were correlated with each other in their spatial distribution, suggesting that abundant OM content contributed to the formation of pedogenic calcium carbonate. Salazar et al. (2011) hypothesized that activities of dehydrogenases in different forest ecosystems are involved in the carbon cycling, and they also reported their positive relationships. Dehydrogenases, are highly associated with microbial biomass (MB), which in turn affects on decomposition of OM and the release of CaCO3 (Zhang et al., 2010). We also investigated effect posed by total organic carbon (TOC) and response of DHA in the agricultural used Mollic Gleysol, taken from Kosiorów village (SE part of Poland). We 190 Dehydrogenases determined significant (P<0.0001) correlation between TOC-DHA (Fig. 5). Mentioned strong relationship was also confirmed by high value of correlation coefficient (r=0.99***). In our laboratory conditions the optimal value of TOC content for reaching maximal values of soil DHA was its level above 25%. TOC (%) Figure 5. Relationship between DHA and TOC content in the Mollic Gleysol (n=9, r=0.99***), according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data) Analogically to our investigations also Koper et al. (2008) found and reported strong significant relationships between DHA and organic carbon content in Haplic Podzol soil samples, and they described mentioned correlations by r coefficient ranged between 0.56* and 0.98*. The study of Kumar et al. (1992) indicated that DHA displayed the close, positive correlations not only with OM content but also with fungal population abundance in four forest stands (two at low and two at higher attitudes). High correlation coefficient reported for enzymatic activities and TOC level suggested an important role of these enzymes in transformations of basic components of soil OM (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). There is in general agreement with previous results indicated by Pascual et al. (2000), who found that soils characterized with low microbial and biological activity (e.g. low microbial carbon and low respiration rate), also display the lowest values of DHA. Summarizing, the higher content of OM, the more active the soil microorganisms. Microorganisms accelerate the degradation of OM, which is reflected in soil respiration and release of carbon dioxide from the rizosphere (Zhang et al., 2010), thus DHA is positively correlated with OM content. Similarly, increase of DHA with higher microorganisms number was reported (Fontaine et al., 2003). -1 -1 DHA (µg TPF g min ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 191 3.4. pH The literature data, currently available, referring to the connections between DHA and soil pH are still ambiguous. Generally, enzyme activities tend to increase with soil pH (Błońska, 2010; Moeskops et al., 2010) – please put a space before Moeskops. Błońska (2010) determined significant positive correlation (r=0.50***) DHA-pH(water) in the pH range 3.67-5.88. Fernandez-Calviño et al. (2010) noted significantly positive correlations among soil DHA and pH in the range of 4.1 (pHKCl) and 4.9 (pHwater), suggesting that acidity suppressed potential enzyme activity. Adequately, a study by Levyk et al. (2007) demonstrated that acidic conditions in the pH range between 1.5–4.5 resulted with strong DHA inhibition in relation to alkaline soils, whereas Ghaly & Mahmoud (2006) noted that under acidic conditions with pH less than 6.5, the rate of TTC - specific substrate for DHA, did not decrease. According to Frankenberger & Johanson (1982), the weakening of enzymatic activity in soil with the increase of soil acidity is the effect of destroying ion and hydrogen bonds in enzyme active centre. On the other hand, study performed by Włodarczyk et al. (2002) indicated maximum DHA at pH 7.1, similarly to the work of Ros et al. (2003), where optimum for DHA was noted for pH 7.6-7.8. Also Brzezińska et al. (2001) reported that the best pH conditions for DHA ranged between 6.6-7.2. Natywa & Selwet (2011) noted positive correlation between DHA and pH in soils under maize growth at pH range from 5.17 to 7.27. Trevors (1984) concluded that very little DHA is observed below pH 6.6. and above pH 9.5. According to Nagatsuka & Furosaka (1980) the optimum range for DHA is contained between 7.4–8.5. However we should realize that many heterogeneous soil types might not be included in mentioned above range. Our investigations, performed on Mollic Gleysol sample (from Kosiorów village) indicated however, that DHA also reached high level at lower pH values–between 5.5-5.73 (Fig. 6). Significant inhibition of DHA (even by 95%) we scarcely noted when soil pH was above 5.75. It is often assumed that pH may affects soil enzymes level in three different ways (Shuler & Kargi, 2010): 1. by changing in the ionic form of the active sites of the enzymes, which consequently affect the enzyme activity and hence the reaction rate, 2. by altering the three-dimensional shape of enzyme, and 3. by affecting the affinity of the substrate to the enzyme. Thus, the pH factor is considered to be the best predictor of DHA in the soil environment (Quilchano & Marañon, 2002; Moeskops et al., 2010). 192 Dehydrogenases pH Figure 6. Relationship between DHA and pH values in the Mollic Gleysol (n=18, r=-0.70**), according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data) 3.5. Temperature Many researchers have studied effect posed by temperature incubation on soil DHA and/or on soil microorganisms abundance (Subhani et al., 2001; Ghaly & Mahmoud, 2006; Trasar- Cepeda et al., 2007). Taking into account the important fact that DHA is found inside the viable soil microbial cells only, its activity must be the highest at a temperature close to optimum temperature for microorganisms growth and their development (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). It is known that, the rate of enzyme catalysis generally increases with increase in temperature until the unfavorable temperature, at which enzyme becomes denaturized and hence its activity reduces (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). Our investigations were concentrated on investigations of DHA changeability at temperature range 5-30ºC, what reflect natural changes of soil temperature during seasons. Surface layer (0-20 cm) of Mollic Gleysol was used for experiment. Soil samples were incubated at the following temperatures: 5, 10, 20 and 30ºC. DHA was measured after 30 h incubations at proper temperature and after ethanol extractions. Absorbance was tested at λ=485 nm (UV-1800 Shimadzu). Received results are presented in Fig. 7. We found growing, linear trend for DHA with increase of temperature at the range from 5 to 30ºC, what we described by R =0.97. The differences between DHA level estimated at 5 and 30ºC were significant (P<0.01), analogically like between 5 and 20ºC (P<0.05). The lowest -1 -1 -6 values of DHA at 5ºC were found, where DHA equaled 1.259 (µg TPF g min *10 ), whereas -1 -1 -6 the same soil sample incubated at 30ºC reached DHA level of 3.149 (µg TPF g min *10 ), what was by c.a. 60% higher in relation to DHA level from 5ºC. Quite high DHA level (2.741 -1 -1 -6 µg TPF g min *10 ) was also estimated at 20ºC, where mentioned value was only by 13% lower than maximum DHA, from 30ºC. -1 -1 DHA (µg TPF g min ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 193 Figure 7. The dependence between DHA and temperature incubation in the Mollic Gleysol, according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Casida et al. (1964) indicated that incubation of soil samples at 37ºC increased of soil DHA above the value normally observed at lower temperatures. Trevors (1984) described positive significant correlation among DHA and temperature in the range from 5 to 70ºC and determined r coefficient on the level of 0.99*. Moreover, study by Trasar-Cepeda et al. (2007) reported that increased temperatures up to 57-70ºC enhanced the product formation in the reaction catalyzed by soil dehydrogenases increased with, explained by the fact that specific substrate (TTC), used for DHA determination, is chemically reduced at high temperatures. Analogically, Subhani et al. (2001) noted positive correlation in soil samples incubated at 10, 25 and 40ºC (under constant moisture – flooded conditions), what confirmed by r=0.82*. As suggested by Cirilli et al. (2012) optimum temperature for soil DHA is 30ºC, what is in agreement with our findings. Similarly, Brzezińska et al. (1998) indicated that under laboratory conditions DHA demonstrated the highest activity at 28-30ºC. 3.6. Season of the year Seasonal variations in both microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activities reflect the combine effects of temperature, moisture, substrate availability and other environmental factors. Dehydrogenases belong to the enzymes displaying strong fluctuations in their activities caused by season of the year, as they are in close relationships with dynamic of microbial activity. 194 Dehydrogenases Yuan & Yue (2012) stated the highest DHA level in autumn season and the lowest value of DHA in winter time. The study performed by Piotrowska & Długosz (2012) indicated that DHA level in Luvisols revealed significantly higher values in April (by 96%) than in August, probably due to intensive winter wheat growth with an increased secretion of substrates such as polysaccharides, organic acids, which may have affected the growth and activity of microorganisms. Similarly, our investigations demonstrated the highest level of DHA in Eutric Fluvisol -1 -1 sample taken in May (0.0087 µg TPF g min ), than in the same soil type taken in October, where DHA was reduced by 42.5 % (Fig. 8). Quite high level of DHA (lower by 14.9% from its maximum reaching in May) we also noted in July. Moreover, we did not found significant differences (P>0.05) in DHA values during autumn season, where DHA -1 -1 -1 -1 remained on similar level equaled 0.000598 (µg TPF g min ) and 0.0005 (µg TPF g min ), for September and October, respectively. Figure 8. Effect of the season of the year on soil DHA in the Eutric Fluvisol, according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Analogical trend like our observations, related to high Oxidoreductases activity at the time form spring to autumn was noted by Januszek (1993). A study by Włodarczyk (2000) performed on Orthic Luvisol sample, showed that DHA demonstrated seasonal pattern and reached the highest values in September, whereas the lowest in winter time. Similarly effect noted Tripathi et al. (2007), who indicated maximum DHA in September and its reduction in January. Spring season is strongly connected with increase in microbial activity, intensification of oxido-reduction reactions and temperature change, what is indirectly impacted with DHA, Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 195 and is the reason of slight DHA increase during this time. Moreover, taking into account that DHA is present inside viable microbial cells, its activity must be the highest at temperature 20-30ºC (temperature characteristic for summer and early autumn), close to the optimum temperature for microbial growth, activity and development (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). 4. Soil factors inhibiting dehydrogenase activity Some of environmental factors have ability to affect negatively on DHA, by reducing its activity. In the role of enzyme inhibitors usually different molecules are involved, which by binding to enzymes activation sites are the reason of prohibition the enzymes from catalyzing its reaction, and finally decrease their activity. The most important soil factors inhibiting soil DHA are described below. 4.1. Depth of the soil profile Depth of the soil profile is one of the most known and popular environmental factor reducing soil DHA level. It is well known that the highest microorganisms abundance is in the surface layer of the soil profile (till to the depth of 30 cm), at the deepest part of the soil the number of microbial cells is limited, and consequently also DHA level display diminishing trend. -1 -1 Figure 9. DHA (µgTPFg min ) at different depth of the Mollic Gleysol profile (n=18, P<0.001), according to Wolińska founding (unpublished data) The confirmation of the above statement might be the Fig. 9, where effect of depth on DHA in Mollic Gleysol is presented. The highest level of DHA we noted in surface layer (0-20 cm), 196 Dehydrogenases whereas at the deepest part of the soil profile (40-60 cm) DHA was reduced by 95%, in relation to the surface layer. This trend is undoubtedly connected with presented in literature data and mentioned above spatial distribution of soil microorganisms (Agnelli et al., 2004; Levyk et al., 2007; Wolińska, 2010), and its preference to inhabiting the surface layers, where optimum conditions for its growth and development are guaranteed. Our results are in agreement and might be supported by the findings of Xiang et al. (2008), who observed that DHA was roughly 4-fold higher in surface (till to 5 cm depth), than in subsoil (90-100 cm). It was also suggested by study of Gajda (2008), that values of DHA noted in the anthropogenic soil, till depth to 4 cm were by c.a. 30% higher in relation to the deeper part of the soil profile. Brzezińska (2006), reported even 9-fold increase of DHA in the surface layer of the soil, than in the subsurface parts and 25-fold higher enzymatic activity in surface than in subsoil. Generally it is possible to state, that both diversity, abundance as distribution of microorganisms are more even under oxic (surface layers) conditions, relative to anoxic (deeper layers) conditions (Fierer et al., 2003; Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). 4.2. Fertilization and pesticide amendment Organic and inorganic fertilizers are commonly used to increase nutrient availability (Macci et al., 2012). The balanced fertilization of major elements (N, P, K) for plant nutrient could be beneficial for the growth of plant aboveground parts and roots (Chu et al., 2007), and also for improvement of soil structure (Macci et al., 2012). However, fertilization could affect on the population of soil microorganisms and consequently soil enzymatic activities. It is often assumed, that inorganic fertilizers had relatively less effect on soil enzymes activity than organic fertilizers (Chu et al., 2007; Xie et al., 2009; Romero et al., 2010). Macci et al. (2012) noted, that DHA usually reached higher level in the organic treatments. As was suggested by Chu et al. (2007) and Xie et al. (2009) long-term balanced fertilization greatly increased DHA level in the soil environment, rather than nutrient-deficiency fertilization. Zhao et al. (2010) indicated, that soils with higher fertility are more capable of maintaining the original biological functions (i.e. have a higher functional stability). On the other hand, Moeskops et al. (2010) compared the effect of organic and conventional farming practices on soil enzymatic activities. On the organic farms, soil fertility was maintained mainly with composted OM, in contrast to conventional farmers, who combined fresh manure and chemical fertilizers, and typically applied large amounts of pesticides. As a consequence, a strong negative impact of intensive fertilizer and also pesticide use on DHA was demonstrated (Moeskops et al., 2010). Soil DHA is an indicator of soil quality and microbial activity and also is the most frequently used to determining the influence of various pollutants (like pesticides or excessive fertilization) on the microbiological quality of soils (Xie et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2010). Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 197 Despite the fact that pesticides are important tools in agriculture that help to minimize economic losses caused by weeds, insects and pathogens, they also are recognized as a source of potential adverse environmental impacts (Tejada et al., 2010). It is often assumed that less than 0.3% of the pesticide reaches its target pest, the remaining 99.7% is released to the environment, representing a potential hazard for non-target organisms (Muñoz-Leoz et al., 2011). Stepniewska et al. (2007) noted the relationship between soil DHA and Fonofos (Stauffer Chemical Co., Westport, USA) concentration in the Mollic Gleysol. In the investigated samples influence of pesticide on soil enzymatic activity started to be observed after one th week of incubation, but since 14 day to the end of experiment this effect was significant -1 and noticeable (Fig. 10). Generally, 1µg g dose of Fonofos was responsible for about 26% st inhibition of soil DHA, whereas ten times higher factor reduced activity for 46.6% at 21 day of incubation time, later fall of enzymatic activity ranged from 22.5% to 30% in relation to the control samples was considered. -1 Figure 10. Dynamic of DHA during incubation at 20ºC (0 - control, 1 - 1µg g Fonofos supplement; 10 - -1 10 µg g Fonofos supplement), according to Stępniewska et al., 2007. Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Our results suggest a negative effect of Fonofos on soil DHA in the first stage after application (1-7 day), later an initial, almost linear growth of DHA was observed and the final day of incubation resulted in significant extension of DHA, presumably because the process of Fonofos decomposition in the soil environment was almost completely finished. -1 Tejada et al. (2010) indicated that MCPA herbicide rate of 1.5 l ha (manufactures rate recommended) was the reason of 39.3% soil DHA inhibition, what suggest that the MCPA -1 -1 -6 DHA (ugTPF g min *10 ) 198 Dehydrogenases caused toxic effect on soil enzymatic activity. A field half-life of MCPA ranged from 14 days to 1 month, dependently on soil moisture, pH and microorganisms abundance. The most important soil factor in predicting MCPA effect on soil enzyme activities is pH, as at acidic conditions persistence of pesticide may last even 5 years, whereas at alkaline pH only 6 days. Moreover, decrease of soil moisture and reduction of microbial abundance influence on elongation of MCPA decomposition process. We also studied effect posed by MCPA (Organika Sarzyna, Poland) on soil DHA behavior (Fig. 11). The following MCPA dosage were introduced into the soil samples: 0.165; 0.30 and 3.3 mg MCPA per g of soil. Non-amended with pesticide soil sample was marked as 0 and used as a control. As a result of realized experiment we found linear inhibition of 2 -1 DHA by increasing MCPA doses (R =0.99). Decrease of DHA level at 3.3. mg g MCPA dose by c.a. 38.5%, in comparison to the control sample, was noted. However, registered inhibition was not significant (P>0.05). Our conclusions are comparable with results presented by Tejada et al. (2010). Figure 11. Effect of MCPA pesticide on DHA level in Eutric Fluvisol, according to Stępniewska founding (unpublished data). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Other pesticide, which we take into account in our investigations was Glyphosate – commonly used by Polish farmers (in the form of RUNDUP), a broad spectrum, non- selective, systemic and post-emergence herbicide, widely popular in soil cultivation, forestry, rights-of-way and aquatic systems to prevent grass and weeds competition with plant seedlings (Bennicelli et al., 2009). At low doses it is used as a plant growth regulator. -1 Glyphosate (Monsanto Co., USA) is a polar substance that is highly soluble in water (12 g l at 25°C), and insoluble in most organic solvents. In soil is moderately persistent; its half-life Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 199 is reported between 1 to 174 days (Bennicelli et al., 2009). Glyphosate in soil is transformed to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), which is non-persistent metabolite. As a effect of mentioned transformations and in presence of dehydrogenases (microorganisms), Glyphosate give CO2 and H2O (Forlani et al., 1999). Glyphosate degradation in soil is mainly the reason of microbial activity, while the chemical decomposition and photolysis play a minor role (Bennicelli et al., 2009). As was reported by Zabaloy et al. (2008), Glyphosate, as an organophosphonate can be used as a source of P, C or N by either gram-positive as gram negative bacteria. The purpose of our study was to research the influence of Glyphosate on soil DHA in the Mollic Gleysol (from Wieprz river valley), Eutric Fluvisol (from Vistula river valley) and Terric Histosol (from Bystrzyca river valley), taken from surface layer (0-20 cm). Soil samples were enriched with Glyphosate, as follows: with 1 µg (first combination), and 10 µg (next version), and 0 µg (control) of pesticide per 1g of soil. Thus prepared samples were incubated in thermostatic chamber at 20ºC. Received results are presented in Fig. 12. Figure 12. Mean DHA in Terric Histosols, Eutric Fluvisols and Mollic Gleysols, in three combinations of -1 -1 Glyphosate doses: 0-control; 1-1µg g ; 10-10µg g (according to Bennicelli et al., 2009) We found that both 1 and 10 µg of Glyphosate additions to soils caused a decrease of DHA, dependently on the pesticide doses. The strongest effect of Glyphosate was observed in -1 Terric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisol (10 µg g of soil),where reduction of DHA by 33-47%, relative to control soils (non-amended with Glyphosate), was noted. The most resistant to -1 Glyphosate supplement seemed to be Mollic Gleysol, in 10 µg g of soil dose, where DHA dropped by c.a. 24%. -1 -1 -6 DHA (µg TPF g min *10 ) 200 Dehydrogenases Suggested by us inhibition effect, may be supported by founding’s of Zabaloy et al. (2008), who in typical Ardiudoll from Argentina observed reduction of DHA for about 48%, as an effect of Glyphosate contamination, in comparison to control sample. Results, suggesting inhibitory pesticide effect on DHA level are also in agreement with those obtained by other plaguicides such as: chlorpyrifos (Kadian et al., 2012), or vermicompost (Romero et al., 2010). Moreover, Muñoz-Leoz et al. (2011) noted that DHA -1 was inhibited by 14%, as a effect of application 5 mg kg tebuconazole fungicide dosage. Conversely, others have found also different results. For example, Tejada et al. (2011) noted insignificant (by 10%) growth of DHA, when the Prochloraz fungicide applied to the soil increased, possibly because the fungicide is commonly used by bacterial communities, as a source of energy and nutrients. Also Andreá et al. (2003), noted that DHA was slight higher after month from Glyphosate application. In that case authors reported, that Glyphosate stimulated DHA, which means that the herbicide might stimulate the soil oxidative processes. 4.3. Heavy metals presence Heavy metals, even though they are natural constituents of soil, could have long-term hazardous impacts on the health of soil ecosystems, and adverse influences on soil biological processes (Pan & Yu, 2011). Generally, it was assumed that heavy metals can reduce enzyme activity by interacting with the enzyme-substrate complex, denaturing the enzyme protein or interacting with the protein-active groups, they could also affect the synthesis of enzyme microbial cells (Pan & Yu, 2011). -1 Xie et al. (2009) noted that Cu of 100 mg kg could suppress DHA significantly, while Cd of -1 5 mg kg had relative greater influence on soil microbial diversity, what suggest that the effect of each soil pollutant on soil microbes and their enzymatic activities was specific. On the contrary, a study by Fernandez-Calviño et al. (2010) indicated adverse effect of Cu on DHA (r=-0.24, P<0.01). Threshold Cu concentrations at which changes in the enzyme -1 -1 activities became evident were 150-200 mg total Cu kg and 60-80 mg bioavailable Cu kg . A study by Pan & Yu (2011) undertaken with brown soil, showed that DHA was significantly lower by 37.8% and by 51.1% in Cd and Pb treatments, than in control. Moreover, mentioned researchers noted that the effect of Cd and Pb combined on DHA were higher, than Cd or Pb alone. -1 We also investigated effect posed by Cd (2 and 20 mg kg ) on soil DHA (Fig. 13). Incubation of soil material with mentioned Cd doses lasted 42 days. After that DHA was determined via Casida et al. (1964) method. -1 We observed that Cd presence at concentration of 2 mg kg had stimulating effect on soil DHA level, and we noted increase of DHA by 8.8%, in comparison with control sample -1 (without Cd contamination). However, 10-fold higher Cd amendment (20 mg kg ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 201 consequence with strong DHA inhibition, by as follows: 29.4% and 35%, in relation to -1 control and 2 mg kg sample, respectively. Observed inhibition effect was probably caused by Cd interaction with enzyme-substrate complex, what resulted with strong decrease of DHA level. Figure 13. Effect of Cd on DHA in Eutric Fluvisol (according to Stępniewska & Wolińska, unpublished data) from Cd introduction into the soil. Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Our results, may be supported by findings of Moreno et al. (2001), who by investigating the influence of Cd on DHA stated, that Cd content strongly affected on DHA, by reducing its activity, and this effect is noticeable even after 3 hours. Negative effect of heavy metals on DHA was reported also by Kizilkaya et al. (2004), who organized the following order of this inhibition: Cu > Cd > Co. Analogically, strong reduction of DHA by Cd contamination was indicated by Welp (1999), who tested the effect of Co, As, Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu on soil DHA, and demonstrated that the strongest effect was displayed by Hg and Cd. Stępniewska & Wolińska (2005) found that the application of trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds had a noticeable negative effect on soil DHA (Fig. 14). The soil sample (Haplic Luvisol) was amended with Cr (III), as a CrCl3 and with Cr (VI), as a K2Cr2O7 −1 -1 in the concentration range from 0 to 20 mg kg and 0-100 µg kg , for Cr (III) and Cr (VI), respectively. The differences in Cr (III) and Cr (VI) doses resulted from the fact that Cr (VI) is highly toxic and much mobile form of Cr, and is considered to cause much stronger effect on living organisms, than Cr (III). 202 Dehydrogenases Figure 14. The variations of DHA in Haplic Luvisol at different Cr (III) and Cr (VI) concentrations (according to Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2005). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Non-amended soil samples were used as a control, and their enzymatic activity were estimated as 100%. Effect posed by Cr content was calculated as a decrease of its level, in relation to the control value. We found that the lowest values of DHA were the effect of increasing Cr(III) and Cr(VI) doses. Haplic Luvisol seemed to be very sensitive on Cr contamination. DHA was reduced to 18-20% in the samples enriched in Cr (III) forms. Surprisingly, the more dangerous form of Cr (VI) was less harmful for DHA in the Haplic -1 Luvisol, because enzymatic activity remained on the level of 84%, with a 1µg kg addition and decreased to the value of 14% with the highest supplement of Cr (VI). One possible explanation for this fact is that. the more dangerous form of Cr (VI) was reduced to the less toxic form of Cr (III) by microorganisms, living in the soil (Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2005). In the same way we investigated effect of Cr forms on Eutric Cambisol (Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2004). Received results are shown in Fig. 15. We stated that excess of Cr forms in soil disturb homeostatic metabolism of microbes, what reflect their enzymatic activity. DHA demonstrated a tendency to decrease with increase of Cr concentration. The lowest content -1 of both Cr (III) and Cr (VI), at the level of 2 mg kg reduced soil DHA to 51-66%, respectively. But at the same time the highest Cr (III) and Cr (VI) supplement at the level of -1 20 mg kg limited DHA to 6-15%, in relation to the control. Inhibition of DHA by applied Cr compounds was also reported by Wyszkowska et al. (2001), who noted that decrease of enzymatic activity in soil should be considered as very unfavourable in terms of soil fertility, because soils of good quality and high content of soil OM show high enzymatic activity. The decrease of soil DHA by several metallic elements (Al, Be, Cu, U) was also discussed by Antunes et al. (2011), whereas a study by Nowak et al. (2002) found that DHA decreased by up to 85% at 5 mM selenic acid (IV) presence. Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 203 Figure 15. The variations of DHA in Eutric Cambisol at different Cr (III) and Cr (VI) concentrations (according to Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2004). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented 5. Conclusions Soil is a part of the terrestrial compartment, and supports all terrestrial life forms. Thus, without proper soil protection policies, numerous problems may arise, like reduction of soil fertility, erosion, groundwater contamination, insufficient water holding capacity and loss of biodiversity. To asses soil quality, it is essential to measure all potential changes in biological soil properties, because they are highly sensitive to any environmental perturbations and stresses. A usual approach to diagnose soil quality, is to use a soil microbial indicators, which are very sensitive and respond quickly to environmental alterations. Among different soil indicators, DHA is one of the most adequate, important and one of the most sensitive bioindicators, relating to soil quality and fertility. Moreover, their routine measurement is simple and low-cost under laboratory condition. However, we should not remind about limitations, resulting from laboratory conditions, when we are able to measure and estimate only potential DHA, similarly like we are able to cultivate only small percentage of soil microorganisms, on artificial media. Soil enzymes are strongly associated with microorganisms. Soil enzymatic activity plays an important role in catalyzing reactions indispensable in life processes of soil microorganisms, decomposition of organic residues, circulation of nutrients, as well as forming organic matter and soil structure. Thus, it is possible to say that without proper soil enzymes system, soil life processes will be disturbed. 204 Dehydrogenases DHA is related to quantitative changes in microorganisms populations, as only strictly intracellular enzymes can truly reflect microbial activity, because with respect to the degradation processes of extracellular soil enzymes, they will be quickly mineralized by other enzymes (i.e. proteases), unless they are either adsorbed by clays or immobilized by humic molecules. It should be also remind, that overall soil DHA level depends most of all from the activities of various types of dehydrogenases, which are fundamental part of the enzyme system of all living soil microorganisms, i.e. the respiratory metabolism, the citrate cycle, and N metabolism. Due to this fact, DHA is proposed as the best indicator of the microbiological redox-systems, and could be considered as good and adequate parameter of microbial oxidative activities in soil. Furthermore, soil DHA is also used as a measure of any soils disruption posed by pesticides, heavy metals, or other soils contaminates and improper management practices. As DHA is strictly connected with living microbial cells, its activity depends from the same environmental factors, which influence on microorganisms abundance, activity and life processes. Consequently, when entertaining soil DHA behavior in the soil environment, we should be not only limited to DHA, but it is necessity to consider on the most important soils factors and conditions, affecting measuring by us DHA level. In the presented chapter we described the most important soil parameters, affecting DHA, which poses ability either for stimulation or inhibition its activity. To sum up the forgoing observations it was demonstrated, that DHA display increasing trend under anaerobic conditions, what suggest that the facultative and anaerobic member of soil microbial community become more important in soil respiration processes. Thus, soil DHA was reported to be negatively correlated with soil water potential, oxygen diffusion rate, and redox potential, what means that DHA reached higher values at lower soil water potential, lower oxygen diffusion rate and lower redox potential conditions. Analogically, negative correlation we also found in the case of soil depth–what was connected with spatial stratification of microorganisms abundance and its preference for inhabiting the surface layers of the soil profiles. Inhibiting effect on DHA level have also pesticides and soil contamination with heavy metals. Important parameter affecting soil biological activity is pH. Our investigations demonstrated, that optimal pH range for DHA is between 5.5-5.73, what was confirmed by correlation coefficient (r=-0.70*). Soil DHA depends also from the season of the year, similarly like dynamics of microbial activity, and reached the highest level in May, as spring season is strongly connected with increase in microbial activity, and intensification of oxido-reduction reactions, what is indirectly linked with DHA. Positive relationships we noted between DHA and two parameters: TOC and temperature, what means that DHA reached higher values at soils with higher TOC content (what is also Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 205 preferred by soil microorganisms), analogically like increase of temperature to 30°C (temperature close to optimum for microorganisms growth and development) resulted in DHA stimulation. Presented and discussed above results are based on our several years studies, however additional investigations are needed and recommended to determine the relative contribution of the different environmental effects on soil DHA. However, the discussion highlights the strong interactions between the soil environment, soil enzymes (dehydrogenases especially) and soil microorganisms. Author details Agnieszka Wolińska and Zofia Stępniewska The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Institute of Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Lublin, Poland Acknowledgement The study was partly funded by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (grant N 305 009 32/0514). 6. References Agnelli, A.; Ascher, J.; Corti, G.; Ceccechrini, M.; Nannipieri, P. & Pietramellara, G. (2004). Distribution of Microbial Communities In a Forest Soil Profile Investigated by Microbial Biomass, Soil Respiration and DGGE of Total and Extracellular DNA. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 36, pp. 859-868 Andrea, M.; Peres, T.; Luchini, L.; Bazarin, S.; Papini, S.; Matallo, M. & Savoy V. (2003). Influence of Repeated Applications of Glyphosate on Its Persistence and Soil Bioactivity. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 38, pp. 1329-1335. Antunes, S.; Pereira, R.; Marques, S.; Castro, B. & Gonçalves, F. (2011). Impaired Microbial Activity Caused by Metal Pollution: A Field Study In a Deactivated Uranium Mining Area. Science of the Total Environment, 410, pp. 87-95 Bennicelli, R.; Szafranek-Nakonieczna, A.; Wolińska, A.; Stępniewska, Z. & Bogudzińska, M. (2009). Influence of Pesticide (Glyphosate) on Dehydrogenase Activity, pH, Eh and Gases Production In Soil (Laboratory Conditions). International Agrophysics, 23, pp. 117- Błońska, E. (2010). Enzyme Activity in Forest Peat Soils. Folia Forestalia Polonica, 52, pp.20-25. Brzezińska, M. (2006). Impact of Treated Wastewater on Biological Activity and Accompanying Processes in Organic Soils. Acta Agrophysica, 131, pp. 1-163 (in Polish with English Summary) Brzezińska, M.; Stępniewska, Z. & Stępniewski, W. (1998). Soil Oxygen Status and Dehydrogenase Activity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 30, pp. 1783-1790 206 Dehydrogenases Brzezińska, M.; Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z. & Przywara, G. (2001). Effect of Oxygen Deficiency On Soil Dehydrogenase Activity In a Pot Experiment With Triticale CV. Jago Vegetation. International Agrophysics, 15, pp. 145-149 Casida, L.; Klein, D. & Santoro, T. (1964). Soil Dehydrogenase Activity. Soil Science, 98, pp. 371-376 Chodak, M. & Niklińska, M. (2010). Effect of Texture and Tree Species On Microbial Properties of Mine Soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 46, pp. 268-275 Chu, H.; Lin, X.; Fujii, T.; Morimoto, S.; Yagi K.; Hu, J. & Zhang, J. (2007). Soil Microbial Biomass, Dehydrogenase Activity, Bacterial Community Structure In Response To Long-Term Fertilizer Management. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 2971-2976 Cirilli, F.; Bellincontro, A.; De Santis, D.; Botondi, R.; Colao, M.; Muleo, R. & Mencarelli, F. (2012). Temperature and Water Loss Affect ADH Activity and Gene Expression In Grape Berry During Postharvest Dehydration. Food Chemistry, 132, pp. 447-454 Fernandez-Calviño, D.; Soler-Rovira, P.; Polo, A.; Diaz-Raviña, M.; Arias-Estevez, M. & Plaza C. (2010). Enzyme Activities In Vineyard Soils Long-Term Treated With Copper- Based Fungicides. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 42, pp. 2119-2127 Fierer, N.; Schimel, J. & Holden P. (2003). Variations In Microbial Community Composition Through Two Soil Depth Profiles. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35, pp. 167-176 Fontaine, S.; Marotti, A. & Abbadie, L. (2003). The Priming Effect of Organic Matter: A Question of Microbial Competition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35, pp. 837-843 Forlani, G.; Mangiagalli, A.; Nielsen, E. & Suardi, M. (1999). Degradation Of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate In Soil: Evidence For a Possible Involvement of Unculturable Microorganisms. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 31, pp. 991-997 Frankenberger, W. & Johanson, J. (1982). Effect of pH On Enzyme Stability in Soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 14, pp. 433-437 Gajda, A. (2008). Effect of Different Tillage Systems On Some Microbiological Properties of Soils Under Winter Wheat. International Agrophysics, 22, pp. 201-208 Geisseler, D.; Horwath, W. & Scow, K. (2011). Soil Moisture and Plant Residue Addition Interact In Their Effect On Extracellular Enzyme Activity. Pedobiologia, 54, pp. 71-78 Ghaly, A. & Mahmoud, N. (2006). Optimum Conditions For Measuring Dehydrogenase Activity of Aspergillus niger Using TTC. American Journal of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 2, pp. 186-194 Gu, Y.; Wag, P. & Kong, C. (2009). Urease, Invertase, Dehydrogenase and Polyphenoloxidase Activities In Paddy Soils Influenced By Allelophatic Rice variety. European Journal of Soil Biology, 45, pp. 436-441 Hutchinson, G. (1995). Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange of Gaseous N Oxides. In: Soil and global change, R. Lal, (Ed.), 219-236, CRC Lewis Publisher, Boca Raton, FL, USA. Januszek, K. (1993). Seasonal Changes of Enzyme Activity In Mor, Moder and Mull Humus of Selected Forest Soils In The Western Beskid Mountains. Folia Forestalia Polonica, 35, pp. 59-75 Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 207 Kadian, N.; Malik, A.; Sataya, S. & Dureja, P. (2012). Effect of Organic Amendments on Microbial Activity in Chlorpyrifos Contaminated Soil. Journal of Environmental Management, 95, pp. 199-202 Kizilkaya, R.; Askin, T.; Bayrakli, B. & Saglam, M. (2004). Microbiological Characteristics of Soils Contaminated With Heavy Metals. European Journal of Soil Biology, 40, pp. 95-102 Koper, J.; Piotrowska, A. & Siwik-Ziomek, A. (2008). Dehydrogenase and Inwertase Activities In a Rusty Soil In The Neighborhood of The Włocławek Nitrogen Plant “Anwill”. Proceedings of ECOpole, 2, pp. 197-202 Kumar, J.; Sharma, G. & Mishra, R. (1992). Soil Microbial Population Number and Enzyme Activities In Relation To Altitude and Forest Degradation. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 24, pp. 761-767 Quilchano, C. & Marañon, T. (2002). Dehydrogenase Activity In Mediterranean Forest Soils. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 35, pp. 102-107 Levyk, V.; Maryskevych, O.; Brzezińska, M. & Włodarczyk, T. (2007). Dehydrogenase Activity of Technogenic Soils of Former Sulphur Mines (Yvaoriv and Nemyriv, Ukraine). International Agrophysics, 21, pp. 255-260 Macci, C.; Doni, S.; Peruzzi, E.; Masciandro, G.; Mennone, C. & Ceccanti, B. (2012). Almond Tree and Organic Fertilization for Soil Quality Improvement In Southern Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 95, pp. 215-222 Menon, P.; Gopal, M. & Parsad, R. (2005). Effects of Chlorpyrifos and Quinalphos On 3+ Dehydrogenase Activities and Reduction of Fe In The Soils of Two Semi-Arid Fields of Tropical India. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 108, pp. 73-83 Moeskops, B.; Buchan, D.; Sleutel, S.; Herawaty, L.; Husen, E.; Saraswati, R.; Setyorini, D. & De Neve, S. (2010). Soil Microbial Communities and Activities Under Intensive Organic and Conventional Vegetable Farming In West Java, Indonesia. Applied Soil Ecology, 45, pp. 112-120 Moreno, J.; Aliaga, A.; Navarro, S.; Hernendez, T. & Garcia, C. (2007). Effects of Atrazine On Microbial Activity In Semiarid Soil. Applied Soil Ecology, 35, pp. 120-127 Muñoz-Leoz, B.; Ruiz-Romera, E.; Antigüedad, I. & Garbisu, C. (2011). Tebuconazole Application Decreases Soil Microbial Biomass and Activity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, pp. 2176-2183 Nagatsuka, T. & Furosaka, C. (1980). Effect of Oxygen Tension On Growth, Respiration and Types of Bacteria Isolated From Soil Suspensions. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 12, pp. 397-403 Natywa, M. & Selwet, M. 2011. Respiratory and Dehydrogenase Activities In The Soils Under Maize Growth In The Conditions of Irrigated and Nonirrigated Fields. Agricultura, 10, pp. 93-100 Nayak, D.; Babu, J. & Adhya, T. (2007). Long-Term Application of Compost Influences Microbial Biomass and Enzyme Activities In a Tropical Aeric Endoaquept Planted To Rice Under Flooded Condition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 1897-1906 Nowak, J.; Kaklewski, K. & Klódka, D. (2002). Influence of Various Concentrations of Selenic Acid (IV) On The Activity of Soil Enzymes. The Science of Total Environment, 291, pp. 105-110 208 Dehydrogenases Pan, J. & Yu, L. (2011). Effects of Cd or/and Pb On Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Sructure. Ecological Engineering, 37, pp. 1889-1894 Pascual, J.; Garcia, C.; Hernandez,T.; Moreno, J. & Ros, M. (2000). Soil Microbial Activity As a Biomarker of Degradation and Remediation Processes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 32, pp. 1877-1883 Pett-Ridge, J. & Firestone, M. (2005). Redox Fluctuation Structures Microbial Communities In a Wet-Tropical Soil. Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 71, pp. 6998-7007 Romero, E.; Fernandez-Bayo, J.; Diaz, J. & Nogales, R. (2010). Enzyme Activities and Diuron Persistence In Soil Amended With Vermicompost Derived From Spent Grape Marc and Treated With Urea. Applied Soil Ecology, 44, pp. 198-204 Ros, M.; Hernandez, M. & Garcia, C. (2003). Soil Microbial Activity After Restoration of a Semiarid Soil By Organic Amendments. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35, pp. 463-469 Salazar, S.; Sanchez, L.; Alvarez, J.; Valverde, A.; Galindo, P.; Igual, J.; Peix, A. & Santa- Regina, I. (2011). Correlation Among Soil Enzyme Activities Under Different Forest System Management Practices. Ecological Engineering, 37, pp. 1123-1131 Shuler, M. & Kargi, F. (2010). Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concepts. Prentice-Hall Incorporation, Englewood Cliffs, New Yersey, USA. ISBN-10: 0130819085 Song, Y.; Deng, S.; Acosta-Martinez, V. & Katsalirou, E. (2008). Characterization of Redox- Related Soil Microbial Communities Along a River Floodplain Continuum By Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and 16S rRNA Genes. Applied Soil Ecology, 40, pp. 499-509 Stępniewska, Z. & Wolińska, A. (2004). Enzyme Activity In The Soil Contaminated by Chromium (III, VI) Forms. Multi author work: Modern Physical & Physicochemical Methods & Their Applications in Agroecological Research. Institute of Agrophysics PAS, Lublin, pp. 201-207 Stępniewska, Z. & Wolińska, A. (2005). Soil Dehydrogenase Activity In The Presence of Chromium (III) and (VI). International Agrophysics, 19, pp. 79-83 Stępniewska, Z.; Wolińska, A. & Lipińska, R. (2007). Effect of Fonofos On Soil Dehydrogenase Activity. International Agrophysics, 21, pp. 101-105 Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z.; Gliński, J.; Brzezińska, M., Włodarczyk, T.; Przywara, G.; Varallyay, G. & Rajkai, J. (2000). Dehydrogenase Activity of Some Hungarian Soils as Related To Their Water and Aeration Status. International Agrophysics, 14, pp. 341-354 Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z.; Bennicelli, R. & Gliński, J. (2005). Oxygenology In Outline. Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, pp. 18-33, Lublin, Poland Subhani, A.; Changyong, H.; Zhengmiao, Y.; Min, L. & El-ghamry, A. (2001). Impact of Soil Environment and Agronomic Practices On Microbial/Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity In Soil. A Review. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, pp. 333-338 Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A.; Gomez, I. & Parrado, J. (2010). Application of MCPA Herbicide On Soils Amended With Biostimulants: Short-time Effects On Soil Biological Properties. Chemosphere, 80, pp. 1088-1094 Tejada, M.; Gomez, I.; Garcia-Martinez, A.; Osta, P. & Parado, J. (2011). Effects of Prochloraz Fungicide On Soil Enzymatic Activities and Bacterial Communities. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 74, pp. 1708-1714 Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 209 Trasar-Cepeda, C.; Gil-Sotres, F. & Leiros, M. (2007). Thermodynamic Parameters of Enzymes In Grassland Soils From Galicia, NW Spain. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 311-319 Trevors, J. (1984). Effect of Substrate Concentration, Inorganic Nitrogen, O2 Concentration, Temperature and pH On Dehydrogenase Activity In Soil. Plant & Soil, 77, pp.285-293 Tripathi, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Chakrabarti, K. & Bandyopadhyay, B. (2007). Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass In Coastal Soils of India. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 2840-2848 Uhlirova, E.; Elhottova, D.; Triska, J. & Santruckova, H. (2005). Physiology and Microbial Community Structure In Soil At Extreme Water Content. Folia Microbiology, 50, pp. 161- Wall, A. & Heiskanen, J. (2003). Water-Retention Characteristic and Related Physical Properties of Soil On Afforested Agricultural Land In Finland. Forest Ecology & Management, 186, pp. 21-32 Weaver, M.; Zablotowicz, R.; Krutz, L.; Bryson, C. & Locke, M. (2012). Microbial and Vegetative Changes Associated With Development of a Constructed Wetland. Ecological Indicators, 13, pp. 37-45 Welp, G. (1999). Inhibitory Effects of The Total and Water-Soluble Concentrations of Nine Differents Metals On The Dehydrogenase Activity of a Loess Soil. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 30, pp.132-139 Włodarczyk, T. (2000). Some Aspects of Dehydrogenase Activity In Soils. International Agrophysics, 22, pp. 371-375 Włodarczyk, T.; Gliński, J.; Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z.; Brzezińska, M. & Kuraz, V. (2001). Aeration Properties and Enzyme Activity On The Example of Arenic Chernozem (Tisice). International Agrophysics, 15, pp. 131-138 Włodarczyk, T.; Stępniewski, W. & Brzezińska, M. (2002). Dehydrogenase Activity, Redox Potential, and Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide From Cambisols Under Flooding Conditions. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 36, pp. 200-206 Wolińska, A. (2010). Dehydrogenase Activity of Soil Microorganisms and Oxygen Availability During Reoxidation Process of The Selected Mineral Soils From Poland. Acta Agrophysica, 180, pp. 1-88 (in Polish with English Summary) Wolińska, A. & Bennicelli, R. (2010). Dehydrogenase Activity Response to Soil Reoxidation Process Described as Varied Condition of Water Potential, Air Porosity and Oxygen Availability. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19, pp. 651-657 Wolińska, A. & Stępniewska, Z. (2011). Microorganisms Abundance and Dehydrogenase Activity As a Consequence of Soil Reoxidation Process, In: Soil Tillage & Microbial Activities, M. Miransari, (Ed.), 111-143, Research Singpost, Kerala, India Wyszkowska, J.; Kucharski J.; Jastrzębska, E. & Hlasko, A. (2001). The Biological Properties of Soil As Influenced By Chromium Contamination. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 10, 37-42 Xiang, S.; Doyle, A.; Holden, P. & Schimel, J. (2008). Drying and Rewetting Effects On C and N mineralization and Microbial Activity In Surface and Subsurface California Grassland Soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, pp. 2281-2289 210 Dehydrogenases Xie, W.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.; Chen, X.; Lu, Z.; Yu J. & Chen, X. (2009). Short-Term Effects of Copper, Cadmium and Cypermethrin On Dehydrogenase Activity and Microbial Functional Diversity In Soils After Long-Term Mineral or Organic Fertilization. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 129, pp. 450-456 Yang, L.; Li, T. & Fu, S. (2005). Effect of Manure and Chemical Fertilizer On The Dynamics of Soil Enzymatic Activities In Vegetable Soil. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 36, pp. 223- Yuan, B. & Yue, D. (2012). Soil Microbial and Enzymatic Activities Across a Chronosequence of Chinese Pine Plantation Development On The Loess Plateau of China. Pedosphere, 22, pp. 1-12 Zabaloy, M.; Garland, J. & Gomez, M. (2008). An Integrated Approach To Evaluate The Impacts of The Herbicides Glyphosate, 2,4-D and Metsulfuron-Methyl On Soil Microbial Communities In The Pampas Region, Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology, 40, pp. 1-12 Zhang, N.; He, X.; Gao, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, H.; Ma, D.; Zhang, R. & Yang, S. (2010). Pedogenic Carbonate and Soil Dehydrogenase Activity In Response To Soil Organic Matter in Artemisia ordosica Community. Pedosphere, 20, pp. 229-235 Zhao, B.; Chen, J.; Zhang, J. & Qin S. (2010). Soil Microbial Biomass and Activity Response To Repeated Drying-Rewetting Cycles Along a Soil Fertility Gradient Modified By Long-Term Fertilization Management Practices. Geoderma, 160, pp. 218-224 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png

DehydrogenasesDehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment

Unpaywall — Nov 14, 2012

Loading next page...
 
/lp/unpaywall/dehydrogenases-dehydrogenase-activity-in-the-soil-environment-3vOHJGLWzr

References

References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.

DOI
10.5772/48294
Publisher site
See Chapter on Publisher Site

Abstract

We are IntechOpen, the world’s leading publisher of Open Access books Built by scientists, for scientists 137,000 170M 5,600 Open access books available International authors and editors Downloads Our authors are among the TOP 1% 12.2% Countries delivered to Contributors from top 500 universities most cited scientists Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index in Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI) Interested in publishing with us? Contact book.department@intechopen.com Numbers displayed above are based on latest data collected. For more information visit www.intechopen.com Chapter 8 Agnieszka Wolińska and Zofia Stępniewska Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/48294 1. Introduction The main purpose of the chapter is clarify description of the role of intracellular enzyme- dehydrogenase in the soil environment, as well as presentation of soil factors, influencing an enzymatic activity, by either stimulation or inhibition effect on soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA). The most common laboratory procedure used for DHA determination is the method developed by Casida et al. (1964). According this method, specific dyes such as the triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), that can specify the flow of electrons are useful indicators of electron transport system (ETS) activity. By the reduction of colorless, water soluble substrate (TTC) by dehydrogenases present in the soil environment, an insoluble product with red color (triphenylformazan-TPF) is formed. TPF can be easily quantified calorimetrically at the range of visible light (485 nm). This test however, reflected positive answer only at neutral range of pH and in presence of calcium carbonate for buffering soil system. Briefly, if the red colors of soil samples prepared for spectrophotometer analyses are more intensive, the measured level of DHA is higher. Consequently, soil samples without red colors or those with light red colors are characterized by lower DHA values. Determination of DHA in the soil samples gives us large amount of information about biological characteristic of the soil. It was confirmed that although oxygen and other electron acceptors can be utilized by dehydrogenases, most of the enzyme is produced by anaerobic microorganisms. In other words, soil DHA strongly increases under anaerobic conditions. Several environmental factors, including soil moisture, oxygen availability, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, organic matter content, depth of the soil profile, temperature, season of the year, heavy metal contamination and soil fertilization or pesticide use can affect significantly DHA in the soil environment. In the current chapter we would like to concentrate on precise description of mentioned factors effect on soil DHA level. Presented © 2012 Wolińska and Stępniewska, licensee InTech. This is an open access chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 184 Dehydrogenases results of laboratory experiments were conducted on different soil types, representing dominant types of arable soils in Poland, in order to demonstrate changeability and variability of DHA at diverse soil environment. 2. Role of dehydrogenase activity in the soil environment There are lots of enzymes in soil the environment, such as Oxidoreductases, Hydrolases, Isomerases, Lyases and Ligases. Each of them play key biochemical functions in the overall process of material and energy conversion (Gu et al., 2009). Soil dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.) are the major representatives of the Oxidoreductase enzymes class (Gu et al., 2009). Among all enzymes in the soil environment, dehydrogenases are one of the most important, and are used as an indicator of overall soil microbial activity (Quilchano & Marañon, 2002; Gu et al., 2009; Salazar et al., 2011), because they occur intracellular in all living microbial cells (Moeskops et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2010; Yuan & Yue, 2012). Moreover, they are tightly linked with microbial oxidoreduction processes (Moeskops et al., 2010). What is important dehydrogenases do not accumulate extracellular in the soil. Dehydrogenases play a significant role in the biological oxidation of soil organic matter (OM) by transferring hydrogen from organic substrates to inorganic acceptors (Zhang et al., 2010). Many specific dehydrogenases transfer hydrogen to either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Subhani et al., 2001). Throughout mentioned co-enzymes hydrogen atoms are involved in the reductive processes of biosynthesis. Due to this fact, the overall DHA of a soil depends on the activities of various dehydrogenases, which are fundamental part of the enzyme system of all living microorganisms, like enzymes of the respiratory metabolism, the citrate cycle, and N metabolism (Subhani et al., 2011). Thus, DHA serves as an indicator of the microbiological redox-systems and could be considered a good and adequate measure of microbial oxidative activities in soil. Brzezińska et al. (2001) found that active dehydrogenases can utilize both O2 and other compounds as terminal electron acceptors, although anaerobic microorganisms produce most dehydrogenases. Therefore, DHA reflects metabolic ability of the soil and its activity is considered to be proportional to the biomass of the microorganisms in soil. However, the relationships between an individual biochemical property of soil DHA and the total microbial activity is not always obvious, especially in the case of complex systems like soils, where the microorganisms and processes involved in the degradation of the organic compounds are highly diverse (Salazar et al., 2011). 3. Soil factors stimulating dehydrogenase activity Among different environmental factors with special emphasis on enzymatic activities in the soil environment it is possible to screen some, which have positive impact on DHA. The most important soil factors stimulating soil DHA are described below. Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 185 3.1. Soil moisture Life in the soil environment, as well as land use is related to alternate cycles of humidification and drainage (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). Water availability strongly affects on soil microbial activity, community composition (Geisseler et al., 2011), and consequently on soil enzymatic activities. As soils dry, the water potential increases, and as well microbial activity as intracellular enzyme activity slows down (Geisseler et al., 2011). In the case of wet soils, increased moisture could bring into soil solution soluble OM, what might be responsible for increase of bacterial population number (Subhani et al., 2001). What is important, we should have consciousness that any compound, which alters the number or activity of microorganisms, could on the other hand affect on soil biochemical properties, and ultimately also on soil fertility and plant growth (Subhani et al., 2001). A basic hydrophysical characteristic of soil is water retention, that can be described as a dependence between soil water content and soil water potential. Soil water content in the function of the soil water tension is described by pF curve, which provides information about the ability for water retaining by the soil pores at any given water tension, or conversely, how tightly a water is held between soil aggregates (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). The Figure 1 demonstrates diminishing trend for DHA behaviour at different soil moisture, described as water potential values. During this experiment gig set of soils (n=315), including all representatives among the most typical Polish mineral soils (Eutric Cambisol, Eutric Histosol, Eutric Fluvisol, Mollic Gleysol, Orthic Podzol, Rendzina Leptosol, Haplic Phaeozem) were investigated. However, each of soil unites displayed DHA reducing trend with increase of soil pF value, what means that maximum values of DHA in the soil profiles are indirectly connected with maximum soil moisture (pF 0). (0-30cm) (30-60cm) (60-100cm) (X 0,00001) (X 1,E-7) (X 1,E-7) 6 124 83 3 84 0 44 33 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 pF -1 -1 Figure 1. DHA (µgTPFg min ) dependence from water potential (pF) at different mineral Polish soil types, during reoxidation (n=315), according to Wolińska (2010) Statistical relationships between DHA and soil water content, described as pF value in the range of pF0 – pF3.2, determined by Wolińska & Bennicelli (2010) are presented in Table 1. Founded significant negative relationships between DHA and pF are confirmed by our above mentioned observations, that DHA is strongly affected by soil moisture. These strong -1 -1 DHA (µgTPFg min ) 186 Dehydrogenases correlations are undoubtedly connected with the fact that the metabolism and the survival of soil microorganisms are also strongly impacted by the availability of water (Uhlirova et al., 2005), what is essential for microbial survival and activity. Consequently, low water availability can inhibit microbial activity by lowering intracellular water potential, and thus by reducing of hydration and enzymes activity (Wall & Heiskanen, 2003). Periods of moisture limitation may affect microbial communities through starvation. Thus, the most common environmental stress for soil microorganisms is perhaps drought (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). It was shown in many studies that DHA is significantly influenced by water content and dropped with the decrease of soil humidity. For example, Gu et al. (2009) observed higher DHA level (even by 90%) in flooded soil, rather than in non-flooded conditions. The higher DHA values in flooded conditions agreed also with results presented by Zhao et al. (2010) and Weaver et al (2012). DHA Depth pF response (cm) 0-20 -0.98*** Rendzina Leptosols 50-60 -0.95** 0-20 -0.97*** Eutric Fluvisol 50-60 -0.22 n.s. *, **, *** - indicate significance at the 5, 1 and 0.1% level, respectively, n.s. – not significant differences Table 1. Statistical significance of differences between DHA and pF described by correlation coefficient (R) (95% LSD method, n=15), according to Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010 The decline of DHA with an increase of pF value, could be also explained by the fact, that flooding of soil with water significantly increased the electron transport system (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). Dehydrogenases however, are responsible for electron transport in the soil environment. It was also reported that DHA is higher in flooded, anaerobically soils, than aerobically incubated soils (Trevors, 1984; Subhani et al., 2001). 3.2. Soil aeration state (redox potential and oxygen diffusion rate) Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR) is usually considered to be the most critical proximal regulator of microbial activities (Hutchinson, 1995). Moreover, it is often assumed that a decrease of soil water content (higher value of pF), cause a significant (P<0.001) increase of ODR and redox potential (Stępniewski et al., 2000; Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). The available literature shows -2 -1 that low ODR level, ranged below its critical values (35 µg O2 m s ), is favorable and optimal for DHA (Stępniewski et al., 2000; Brzezińska et al., 2001; Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). We confirmed that dehydrogenases are sensitive enzymes, indirectly depended on the soil aeration status (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). Based on performed measurements we found, that pF constitutes a significant factor, determining ODR in the soil environment, as well as its DHA level (P<0.01). The reoxidation processes, occurring in the direction from pF 0 to pF Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 187 3.2, were the reason of DHA inhibition and stimulation of ODR level in the Rendzina Leptosols and Eutric Fluvisol soil samples (Fig. 2). We also stated that soil DHA at pF 3.2 was lower by about 60.86%, in comparison to the activity estimated at pF 0. y = 0,66x - 18,98x + 121,16 2 Eutric Fluvisol y = 1,02x - 9,54x + 32,40 Rendzina Leptosols R = 0,98 2 depth 0-30 cm depth 0-20 cm R = 0,98 120 140 30 140 120 120 40 40 0 0 0 0 01,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 0 1,5 2,2 2,7 3,2 soil water potential, pF AD ODR soil water potential, pF AD ODR Figure 2. The response of soil DHA to varied aeration factors (pF and ODR), at surface layers of Rendzina Leptosols and Eutric Fluvisol , during reoxidation process (according to Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented -2 -1 The Figure 3. demonstrates that low oxygen diffusion rate (2.8-25 µg O2 m s ) was optimal for DHA, what was also confirmed by correlation coefficient (Wolińska & Bennicelli, 2010; Wolińska, 2010). Our results and founding’s are compatible with work of Stępniewski et al. (2000), Brzezińska et al. (2001), and Yang et al. (2005). Statistical relationships between DHA and ODR, determined for two soil types (Rendzina Leptosols and Eutric Fluvisol) by Wolińska & Bennicelli (2010) are presented in Table 2. At every case negative correlations DHA-ODR were determined. (0-30cm) 0,00022 R= -0,31* 0,00020 y=8.55E-5-3.5E-5*log(x) 0,00018 0,00016 0,00014 0,00012 0,00010 0,00008 0,00006 0,00004 0,00002 0,00000 -0,00002 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 95% p.ufności -2 -1 ODR (µg O m s ) -1 -1 -6 -2 -1 Figure 3. Relationship between DHA (µgTPFg min * 10 ) and ODR (µg m s ), in surface layer of different mineral Polish soil types (n=315, P<0.05), according to Wolińska (2010) DHA -1 -1 -6 (µgTPFg min )10 -1 -1 -6 DH A (µgTPFg min 10 ) -2 -1 ODR (µgm s ) DHA -1 -1 -6 (µg TPFgmin )1 0 -2 -1 ODR(µgms ) 188 Dehydrogenases DHA Depth ODR response (cm) 0-20 -0.90** Rendzina Leptosols 50-60 -0.84* 0-20 -0.96** Eutric Fluvisol 50-60 -0.16 n.s. *, **, *** - indicate significance at the 5, 1 and 0.1% level, respectively, n.s. – not significant differences Table 2. Statistical significance of differences between DHA and ODR described by correlation coefficient (R) (95% LSD method, n=15) Redox potential (Eh) is the next, important, environmental factor, which expresses the tendency of an environment to receive or to supply electrons in solution (Stępniewski et al., 2005). The well-oxygenated soils are characterized by high values of Eh (600-800 mV), in quite well-oxygenated soils Eh ~ 500-600 mV, whereas in anaerobic conditions drop of Eh below 300 mV or even lower values were observed (Pett-Ridge & Firestone, 2005; Stępniewski et al., 2000). It is well known, that Eh play a crucial role in regulating microbial activity as well as community structure (Pett-Ridge & Firestone, 2005; Song et al., 2008), and affecting on soil enzymatic activity, especially DHA. Brzezińska et al. (1998) indicated that among all aeration parameters, Eh plays the most important role in determining soil DHA level. Similar conclusions were also reported by Włodarczyk et al. (2001) and Menon et al. (2005). We founded significant negative relationships between DHA and Eh (Fig. 4) at surface layers of Mollic Gleysols, Eutric Fluvisols, Rendzina Leptosols and Haplic Phaeozems, where determined correlation coefficients equaled as follows: r=-0.91*, r=-0.43*, r=-0.47** and r=- 0.48** (Wolińska, 2010). Eh (mV) Figure 4. Relationship between soil DHA level and Eh at Mollic Gleysol (n=9, r=-0.91*), according to Wolińska (2010) -1 -1 DHA (µg TPF g min ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 189 Negative correlations DHA-Eh were also described by Brzezińska et al. (1998), who determined r=-0.75***, r=-0.83*** and r=-0.87*** for temperature 10, 20 and 30ºC, respectively, and by Stępniewski et al. (2000), and Nyak et al. (2007). Mentioned relationships DHA-Eh have significant negative character, what means that increase of soil DHA level is indirectly connected with decrease of Eh values, as most of microorganisms, which are responsible for DHA prefer rather anaerobic conditions, and belong to obligate anaerobes. What is more, anaerobic conditions are consequence of flooding and decrease of oxygen availability in soil environment. Competition for oxygen limits aerobic processes and the subsequent oxygen deficiency creates local anaerobic microsites, which stimulates growth of anaerobic bacteria (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011), and finally DHA. Also, in the absence of oxygen in the soil a decline of Eh and the reduction 4+ 2+ 2- of oxidized forms (nitrate, Mn , Fe and SO4 ) takes place. Bohrerova et al. (2004) reported - - 3+ 2+ that the most common ions forming the redox couples of soil include NO3 /NO2 , Fe /Fe , 4+ 2+ and Mn /Mn . In the literature data, it was also assumed that DHA is strongly affected by both Fe as Mn presence in the soil (Brzezińska et al., 1998; Włodarczyk et al., 2002). 3.3. Organic matter content Soil organic matter (OM) has important effects not only on soil enzymes activities but first of all on microorganisms activities. Soil OM has been considered as an indicator of soil quality (similarly like dehydrogenases,) because of its character of nutrient sink and source that can enhance soil physical and chemical properties, and also promote biological activity (Salazar et al., 2011). Interestingly, not only amount of OM in the soil is important but most of all its quality, as OM affects the supply of energy for microbial growth and enzyme production (Fontaine et al., 2003). It is evident that soil enzymatic activity is strongly connected with soil OM content. The higher OM level can provide enough substrate to support higher microbial biomass, hence higher enzyme production (Yuan & Yue, 2012). Several authors reported positive correlation between DHA and OM content (Chodak & Niklińska, 2010; Moeskops et al., 2010; Romero et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2010; Yuan & Yue, 2012). Zhang et al. (2010) indicated also that as well DHA and CaCO3 correlated with OM content, and what is more DHA, OM and CaCO3 were correlated with each other in their spatial distribution, suggesting that abundant OM content contributed to the formation of pedogenic calcium carbonate. Salazar et al. (2011) hypothesized that activities of dehydrogenases in different forest ecosystems are involved in the carbon cycling, and they also reported their positive relationships. Dehydrogenases, are highly associated with microbial biomass (MB), which in turn affects on decomposition of OM and the release of CaCO3 (Zhang et al., 2010). We also investigated effect posed by total organic carbon (TOC) and response of DHA in the agricultural used Mollic Gleysol, taken from Kosiorów village (SE part of Poland). We 190 Dehydrogenases determined significant (P<0.0001) correlation between TOC-DHA (Fig. 5). Mentioned strong relationship was also confirmed by high value of correlation coefficient (r=0.99***). In our laboratory conditions the optimal value of TOC content for reaching maximal values of soil DHA was its level above 25%. TOC (%) Figure 5. Relationship between DHA and TOC content in the Mollic Gleysol (n=9, r=0.99***), according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data) Analogically to our investigations also Koper et al. (2008) found and reported strong significant relationships between DHA and organic carbon content in Haplic Podzol soil samples, and they described mentioned correlations by r coefficient ranged between 0.56* and 0.98*. The study of Kumar et al. (1992) indicated that DHA displayed the close, positive correlations not only with OM content but also with fungal population abundance in four forest stands (two at low and two at higher attitudes). High correlation coefficient reported for enzymatic activities and TOC level suggested an important role of these enzymes in transformations of basic components of soil OM (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). There is in general agreement with previous results indicated by Pascual et al. (2000), who found that soils characterized with low microbial and biological activity (e.g. low microbial carbon and low respiration rate), also display the lowest values of DHA. Summarizing, the higher content of OM, the more active the soil microorganisms. Microorganisms accelerate the degradation of OM, which is reflected in soil respiration and release of carbon dioxide from the rizosphere (Zhang et al., 2010), thus DHA is positively correlated with OM content. Similarly, increase of DHA with higher microorganisms number was reported (Fontaine et al., 2003). -1 -1 DHA (µg TPF g min ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 191 3.4. pH The literature data, currently available, referring to the connections between DHA and soil pH are still ambiguous. Generally, enzyme activities tend to increase with soil pH (Błońska, 2010; Moeskops et al., 2010) – please put a space before Moeskops. Błońska (2010) determined significant positive correlation (r=0.50***) DHA-pH(water) in the pH range 3.67-5.88. Fernandez-Calviño et al. (2010) noted significantly positive correlations among soil DHA and pH in the range of 4.1 (pHKCl) and 4.9 (pHwater), suggesting that acidity suppressed potential enzyme activity. Adequately, a study by Levyk et al. (2007) demonstrated that acidic conditions in the pH range between 1.5–4.5 resulted with strong DHA inhibition in relation to alkaline soils, whereas Ghaly & Mahmoud (2006) noted that under acidic conditions with pH less than 6.5, the rate of TTC - specific substrate for DHA, did not decrease. According to Frankenberger & Johanson (1982), the weakening of enzymatic activity in soil with the increase of soil acidity is the effect of destroying ion and hydrogen bonds in enzyme active centre. On the other hand, study performed by Włodarczyk et al. (2002) indicated maximum DHA at pH 7.1, similarly to the work of Ros et al. (2003), where optimum for DHA was noted for pH 7.6-7.8. Also Brzezińska et al. (2001) reported that the best pH conditions for DHA ranged between 6.6-7.2. Natywa & Selwet (2011) noted positive correlation between DHA and pH in soils under maize growth at pH range from 5.17 to 7.27. Trevors (1984) concluded that very little DHA is observed below pH 6.6. and above pH 9.5. According to Nagatsuka & Furosaka (1980) the optimum range for DHA is contained between 7.4–8.5. However we should realize that many heterogeneous soil types might not be included in mentioned above range. Our investigations, performed on Mollic Gleysol sample (from Kosiorów village) indicated however, that DHA also reached high level at lower pH values–between 5.5-5.73 (Fig. 6). Significant inhibition of DHA (even by 95%) we scarcely noted when soil pH was above 5.75. It is often assumed that pH may affects soil enzymes level in three different ways (Shuler & Kargi, 2010): 1. by changing in the ionic form of the active sites of the enzymes, which consequently affect the enzyme activity and hence the reaction rate, 2. by altering the three-dimensional shape of enzyme, and 3. by affecting the affinity of the substrate to the enzyme. Thus, the pH factor is considered to be the best predictor of DHA in the soil environment (Quilchano & Marañon, 2002; Moeskops et al., 2010). 192 Dehydrogenases pH Figure 6. Relationship between DHA and pH values in the Mollic Gleysol (n=18, r=-0.70**), according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data) 3.5. Temperature Many researchers have studied effect posed by temperature incubation on soil DHA and/or on soil microorganisms abundance (Subhani et al., 2001; Ghaly & Mahmoud, 2006; Trasar- Cepeda et al., 2007). Taking into account the important fact that DHA is found inside the viable soil microbial cells only, its activity must be the highest at a temperature close to optimum temperature for microorganisms growth and their development (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). It is known that, the rate of enzyme catalysis generally increases with increase in temperature until the unfavorable temperature, at which enzyme becomes denaturized and hence its activity reduces (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). Our investigations were concentrated on investigations of DHA changeability at temperature range 5-30ºC, what reflect natural changes of soil temperature during seasons. Surface layer (0-20 cm) of Mollic Gleysol was used for experiment. Soil samples were incubated at the following temperatures: 5, 10, 20 and 30ºC. DHA was measured after 30 h incubations at proper temperature and after ethanol extractions. Absorbance was tested at λ=485 nm (UV-1800 Shimadzu). Received results are presented in Fig. 7. We found growing, linear trend for DHA with increase of temperature at the range from 5 to 30ºC, what we described by R =0.97. The differences between DHA level estimated at 5 and 30ºC were significant (P<0.01), analogically like between 5 and 20ºC (P<0.05). The lowest -1 -1 -6 values of DHA at 5ºC were found, where DHA equaled 1.259 (µg TPF g min *10 ), whereas -1 -1 -6 the same soil sample incubated at 30ºC reached DHA level of 3.149 (µg TPF g min *10 ), what was by c.a. 60% higher in relation to DHA level from 5ºC. Quite high DHA level (2.741 -1 -1 -6 µg TPF g min *10 ) was also estimated at 20ºC, where mentioned value was only by 13% lower than maximum DHA, from 30ºC. -1 -1 DHA (µg TPF g min ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 193 Figure 7. The dependence between DHA and temperature incubation in the Mollic Gleysol, according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Casida et al. (1964) indicated that incubation of soil samples at 37ºC increased of soil DHA above the value normally observed at lower temperatures. Trevors (1984) described positive significant correlation among DHA and temperature in the range from 5 to 70ºC and determined r coefficient on the level of 0.99*. Moreover, study by Trasar-Cepeda et al. (2007) reported that increased temperatures up to 57-70ºC enhanced the product formation in the reaction catalyzed by soil dehydrogenases increased with, explained by the fact that specific substrate (TTC), used for DHA determination, is chemically reduced at high temperatures. Analogically, Subhani et al. (2001) noted positive correlation in soil samples incubated at 10, 25 and 40ºC (under constant moisture – flooded conditions), what confirmed by r=0.82*. As suggested by Cirilli et al. (2012) optimum temperature for soil DHA is 30ºC, what is in agreement with our findings. Similarly, Brzezińska et al. (1998) indicated that under laboratory conditions DHA demonstrated the highest activity at 28-30ºC. 3.6. Season of the year Seasonal variations in both microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activities reflect the combine effects of temperature, moisture, substrate availability and other environmental factors. Dehydrogenases belong to the enzymes displaying strong fluctuations in their activities caused by season of the year, as they are in close relationships with dynamic of microbial activity. 194 Dehydrogenases Yuan & Yue (2012) stated the highest DHA level in autumn season and the lowest value of DHA in winter time. The study performed by Piotrowska & Długosz (2012) indicated that DHA level in Luvisols revealed significantly higher values in April (by 96%) than in August, probably due to intensive winter wheat growth with an increased secretion of substrates such as polysaccharides, organic acids, which may have affected the growth and activity of microorganisms. Similarly, our investigations demonstrated the highest level of DHA in Eutric Fluvisol -1 -1 sample taken in May (0.0087 µg TPF g min ), than in the same soil type taken in October, where DHA was reduced by 42.5 % (Fig. 8). Quite high level of DHA (lower by 14.9% from its maximum reaching in May) we also noted in July. Moreover, we did not found significant differences (P>0.05) in DHA values during autumn season, where DHA -1 -1 -1 -1 remained on similar level equaled 0.000598 (µg TPF g min ) and 0.0005 (µg TPF g min ), for September and October, respectively. Figure 8. Effect of the season of the year on soil DHA in the Eutric Fluvisol, according to Wolińska & Stępniewska (unpublished data). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Analogical trend like our observations, related to high Oxidoreductases activity at the time form spring to autumn was noted by Januszek (1993). A study by Włodarczyk (2000) performed on Orthic Luvisol sample, showed that DHA demonstrated seasonal pattern and reached the highest values in September, whereas the lowest in winter time. Similarly effect noted Tripathi et al. (2007), who indicated maximum DHA in September and its reduction in January. Spring season is strongly connected with increase in microbial activity, intensification of oxido-reduction reactions and temperature change, what is indirectly impacted with DHA, Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 195 and is the reason of slight DHA increase during this time. Moreover, taking into account that DHA is present inside viable microbial cells, its activity must be the highest at temperature 20-30ºC (temperature characteristic for summer and early autumn), close to the optimum temperature for microbial growth, activity and development (Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). 4. Soil factors inhibiting dehydrogenase activity Some of environmental factors have ability to affect negatively on DHA, by reducing its activity. In the role of enzyme inhibitors usually different molecules are involved, which by binding to enzymes activation sites are the reason of prohibition the enzymes from catalyzing its reaction, and finally decrease their activity. The most important soil factors inhibiting soil DHA are described below. 4.1. Depth of the soil profile Depth of the soil profile is one of the most known and popular environmental factor reducing soil DHA level. It is well known that the highest microorganisms abundance is in the surface layer of the soil profile (till to the depth of 30 cm), at the deepest part of the soil the number of microbial cells is limited, and consequently also DHA level display diminishing trend. -1 -1 Figure 9. DHA (µgTPFg min ) at different depth of the Mollic Gleysol profile (n=18, P<0.001), according to Wolińska founding (unpublished data) The confirmation of the above statement might be the Fig. 9, where effect of depth on DHA in Mollic Gleysol is presented. The highest level of DHA we noted in surface layer (0-20 cm), 196 Dehydrogenases whereas at the deepest part of the soil profile (40-60 cm) DHA was reduced by 95%, in relation to the surface layer. This trend is undoubtedly connected with presented in literature data and mentioned above spatial distribution of soil microorganisms (Agnelli et al., 2004; Levyk et al., 2007; Wolińska, 2010), and its preference to inhabiting the surface layers, where optimum conditions for its growth and development are guaranteed. Our results are in agreement and might be supported by the findings of Xiang et al. (2008), who observed that DHA was roughly 4-fold higher in surface (till to 5 cm depth), than in subsoil (90-100 cm). It was also suggested by study of Gajda (2008), that values of DHA noted in the anthropogenic soil, till depth to 4 cm were by c.a. 30% higher in relation to the deeper part of the soil profile. Brzezińska (2006), reported even 9-fold increase of DHA in the surface layer of the soil, than in the subsurface parts and 25-fold higher enzymatic activity in surface than in subsoil. Generally it is possible to state, that both diversity, abundance as distribution of microorganisms are more even under oxic (surface layers) conditions, relative to anoxic (deeper layers) conditions (Fierer et al., 2003; Wolińska & Stępniewska, 2011). 4.2. Fertilization and pesticide amendment Organic and inorganic fertilizers are commonly used to increase nutrient availability (Macci et al., 2012). The balanced fertilization of major elements (N, P, K) for plant nutrient could be beneficial for the growth of plant aboveground parts and roots (Chu et al., 2007), and also for improvement of soil structure (Macci et al., 2012). However, fertilization could affect on the population of soil microorganisms and consequently soil enzymatic activities. It is often assumed, that inorganic fertilizers had relatively less effect on soil enzymes activity than organic fertilizers (Chu et al., 2007; Xie et al., 2009; Romero et al., 2010). Macci et al. (2012) noted, that DHA usually reached higher level in the organic treatments. As was suggested by Chu et al. (2007) and Xie et al. (2009) long-term balanced fertilization greatly increased DHA level in the soil environment, rather than nutrient-deficiency fertilization. Zhao et al. (2010) indicated, that soils with higher fertility are more capable of maintaining the original biological functions (i.e. have a higher functional stability). On the other hand, Moeskops et al. (2010) compared the effect of organic and conventional farming practices on soil enzymatic activities. On the organic farms, soil fertility was maintained mainly with composted OM, in contrast to conventional farmers, who combined fresh manure and chemical fertilizers, and typically applied large amounts of pesticides. As a consequence, a strong negative impact of intensive fertilizer and also pesticide use on DHA was demonstrated (Moeskops et al., 2010). Soil DHA is an indicator of soil quality and microbial activity and also is the most frequently used to determining the influence of various pollutants (like pesticides or excessive fertilization) on the microbiological quality of soils (Xie et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2010). Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 197 Despite the fact that pesticides are important tools in agriculture that help to minimize economic losses caused by weeds, insects and pathogens, they also are recognized as a source of potential adverse environmental impacts (Tejada et al., 2010). It is often assumed that less than 0.3% of the pesticide reaches its target pest, the remaining 99.7% is released to the environment, representing a potential hazard for non-target organisms (Muñoz-Leoz et al., 2011). Stepniewska et al. (2007) noted the relationship between soil DHA and Fonofos (Stauffer Chemical Co., Westport, USA) concentration in the Mollic Gleysol. In the investigated samples influence of pesticide on soil enzymatic activity started to be observed after one th week of incubation, but since 14 day to the end of experiment this effect was significant -1 and noticeable (Fig. 10). Generally, 1µg g dose of Fonofos was responsible for about 26% st inhibition of soil DHA, whereas ten times higher factor reduced activity for 46.6% at 21 day of incubation time, later fall of enzymatic activity ranged from 22.5% to 30% in relation to the control samples was considered. -1 Figure 10. Dynamic of DHA during incubation at 20ºC (0 - control, 1 - 1µg g Fonofos supplement; 10 - -1 10 µg g Fonofos supplement), according to Stępniewska et al., 2007. Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Our results suggest a negative effect of Fonofos on soil DHA in the first stage after application (1-7 day), later an initial, almost linear growth of DHA was observed and the final day of incubation resulted in significant extension of DHA, presumably because the process of Fonofos decomposition in the soil environment was almost completely finished. -1 Tejada et al. (2010) indicated that MCPA herbicide rate of 1.5 l ha (manufactures rate recommended) was the reason of 39.3% soil DHA inhibition, what suggest that the MCPA -1 -1 -6 DHA (ugTPF g min *10 ) 198 Dehydrogenases caused toxic effect on soil enzymatic activity. A field half-life of MCPA ranged from 14 days to 1 month, dependently on soil moisture, pH and microorganisms abundance. The most important soil factor in predicting MCPA effect on soil enzyme activities is pH, as at acidic conditions persistence of pesticide may last even 5 years, whereas at alkaline pH only 6 days. Moreover, decrease of soil moisture and reduction of microbial abundance influence on elongation of MCPA decomposition process. We also studied effect posed by MCPA (Organika Sarzyna, Poland) on soil DHA behavior (Fig. 11). The following MCPA dosage were introduced into the soil samples: 0.165; 0.30 and 3.3 mg MCPA per g of soil. Non-amended with pesticide soil sample was marked as 0 and used as a control. As a result of realized experiment we found linear inhibition of 2 -1 DHA by increasing MCPA doses (R =0.99). Decrease of DHA level at 3.3. mg g MCPA dose by c.a. 38.5%, in comparison to the control sample, was noted. However, registered inhibition was not significant (P>0.05). Our conclusions are comparable with results presented by Tejada et al. (2010). Figure 11. Effect of MCPA pesticide on DHA level in Eutric Fluvisol, according to Stępniewska founding (unpublished data). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Other pesticide, which we take into account in our investigations was Glyphosate – commonly used by Polish farmers (in the form of RUNDUP), a broad spectrum, non- selective, systemic and post-emergence herbicide, widely popular in soil cultivation, forestry, rights-of-way and aquatic systems to prevent grass and weeds competition with plant seedlings (Bennicelli et al., 2009). At low doses it is used as a plant growth regulator. -1 Glyphosate (Monsanto Co., USA) is a polar substance that is highly soluble in water (12 g l at 25°C), and insoluble in most organic solvents. In soil is moderately persistent; its half-life Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 199 is reported between 1 to 174 days (Bennicelli et al., 2009). Glyphosate in soil is transformed to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), which is non-persistent metabolite. As a effect of mentioned transformations and in presence of dehydrogenases (microorganisms), Glyphosate give CO2 and H2O (Forlani et al., 1999). Glyphosate degradation in soil is mainly the reason of microbial activity, while the chemical decomposition and photolysis play a minor role (Bennicelli et al., 2009). As was reported by Zabaloy et al. (2008), Glyphosate, as an organophosphonate can be used as a source of P, C or N by either gram-positive as gram negative bacteria. The purpose of our study was to research the influence of Glyphosate on soil DHA in the Mollic Gleysol (from Wieprz river valley), Eutric Fluvisol (from Vistula river valley) and Terric Histosol (from Bystrzyca river valley), taken from surface layer (0-20 cm). Soil samples were enriched with Glyphosate, as follows: with 1 µg (first combination), and 10 µg (next version), and 0 µg (control) of pesticide per 1g of soil. Thus prepared samples were incubated in thermostatic chamber at 20ºC. Received results are presented in Fig. 12. Figure 12. Mean DHA in Terric Histosols, Eutric Fluvisols and Mollic Gleysols, in three combinations of -1 -1 Glyphosate doses: 0-control; 1-1µg g ; 10-10µg g (according to Bennicelli et al., 2009) We found that both 1 and 10 µg of Glyphosate additions to soils caused a decrease of DHA, dependently on the pesticide doses. The strongest effect of Glyphosate was observed in -1 Terric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisol (10 µg g of soil),where reduction of DHA by 33-47%, relative to control soils (non-amended with Glyphosate), was noted. The most resistant to -1 Glyphosate supplement seemed to be Mollic Gleysol, in 10 µg g of soil dose, where DHA dropped by c.a. 24%. -1 -1 -6 DHA (µg TPF g min *10 ) 200 Dehydrogenases Suggested by us inhibition effect, may be supported by founding’s of Zabaloy et al. (2008), who in typical Ardiudoll from Argentina observed reduction of DHA for about 48%, as an effect of Glyphosate contamination, in comparison to control sample. Results, suggesting inhibitory pesticide effect on DHA level are also in agreement with those obtained by other plaguicides such as: chlorpyrifos (Kadian et al., 2012), or vermicompost (Romero et al., 2010). Moreover, Muñoz-Leoz et al. (2011) noted that DHA -1 was inhibited by 14%, as a effect of application 5 mg kg tebuconazole fungicide dosage. Conversely, others have found also different results. For example, Tejada et al. (2011) noted insignificant (by 10%) growth of DHA, when the Prochloraz fungicide applied to the soil increased, possibly because the fungicide is commonly used by bacterial communities, as a source of energy and nutrients. Also Andreá et al. (2003), noted that DHA was slight higher after month from Glyphosate application. In that case authors reported, that Glyphosate stimulated DHA, which means that the herbicide might stimulate the soil oxidative processes. 4.3. Heavy metals presence Heavy metals, even though they are natural constituents of soil, could have long-term hazardous impacts on the health of soil ecosystems, and adverse influences on soil biological processes (Pan & Yu, 2011). Generally, it was assumed that heavy metals can reduce enzyme activity by interacting with the enzyme-substrate complex, denaturing the enzyme protein or interacting with the protein-active groups, they could also affect the synthesis of enzyme microbial cells (Pan & Yu, 2011). -1 Xie et al. (2009) noted that Cu of 100 mg kg could suppress DHA significantly, while Cd of -1 5 mg kg had relative greater influence on soil microbial diversity, what suggest that the effect of each soil pollutant on soil microbes and their enzymatic activities was specific. On the contrary, a study by Fernandez-Calviño et al. (2010) indicated adverse effect of Cu on DHA (r=-0.24, P<0.01). Threshold Cu concentrations at which changes in the enzyme -1 -1 activities became evident were 150-200 mg total Cu kg and 60-80 mg bioavailable Cu kg . A study by Pan & Yu (2011) undertaken with brown soil, showed that DHA was significantly lower by 37.8% and by 51.1% in Cd and Pb treatments, than in control. Moreover, mentioned researchers noted that the effect of Cd and Pb combined on DHA were higher, than Cd or Pb alone. -1 We also investigated effect posed by Cd (2 and 20 mg kg ) on soil DHA (Fig. 13). Incubation of soil material with mentioned Cd doses lasted 42 days. After that DHA was determined via Casida et al. (1964) method. -1 We observed that Cd presence at concentration of 2 mg kg had stimulating effect on soil DHA level, and we noted increase of DHA by 8.8%, in comparison with control sample -1 (without Cd contamination). However, 10-fold higher Cd amendment (20 mg kg ) Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 201 consequence with strong DHA inhibition, by as follows: 29.4% and 35%, in relation to -1 control and 2 mg kg sample, respectively. Observed inhibition effect was probably caused by Cd interaction with enzyme-substrate complex, what resulted with strong decrease of DHA level. Figure 13. Effect of Cd on DHA in Eutric Fluvisol (according to Stępniewska & Wolińska, unpublished data) from Cd introduction into the soil. Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Our results, may be supported by findings of Moreno et al. (2001), who by investigating the influence of Cd on DHA stated, that Cd content strongly affected on DHA, by reducing its activity, and this effect is noticeable even after 3 hours. Negative effect of heavy metals on DHA was reported also by Kizilkaya et al. (2004), who organized the following order of this inhibition: Cu > Cd > Co. Analogically, strong reduction of DHA by Cd contamination was indicated by Welp (1999), who tested the effect of Co, As, Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu on soil DHA, and demonstrated that the strongest effect was displayed by Hg and Cd. Stępniewska & Wolińska (2005) found that the application of trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds had a noticeable negative effect on soil DHA (Fig. 14). The soil sample (Haplic Luvisol) was amended with Cr (III), as a CrCl3 and with Cr (VI), as a K2Cr2O7 −1 -1 in the concentration range from 0 to 20 mg kg and 0-100 µg kg , for Cr (III) and Cr (VI), respectively. The differences in Cr (III) and Cr (VI) doses resulted from the fact that Cr (VI) is highly toxic and much mobile form of Cr, and is considered to cause much stronger effect on living organisms, than Cr (III). 202 Dehydrogenases Figure 14. The variations of DHA in Haplic Luvisol at different Cr (III) and Cr (VI) concentrations (according to Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2005). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented Non-amended soil samples were used as a control, and their enzymatic activity were estimated as 100%. Effect posed by Cr content was calculated as a decrease of its level, in relation to the control value. We found that the lowest values of DHA were the effect of increasing Cr(III) and Cr(VI) doses. Haplic Luvisol seemed to be very sensitive on Cr contamination. DHA was reduced to 18-20% in the samples enriched in Cr (III) forms. Surprisingly, the more dangerous form of Cr (VI) was less harmful for DHA in the Haplic -1 Luvisol, because enzymatic activity remained on the level of 84%, with a 1µg kg addition and decreased to the value of 14% with the highest supplement of Cr (VI). One possible explanation for this fact is that. the more dangerous form of Cr (VI) was reduced to the less toxic form of Cr (III) by microorganisms, living in the soil (Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2005). In the same way we investigated effect of Cr forms on Eutric Cambisol (Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2004). Received results are shown in Fig. 15. We stated that excess of Cr forms in soil disturb homeostatic metabolism of microbes, what reflect their enzymatic activity. DHA demonstrated a tendency to decrease with increase of Cr concentration. The lowest content -1 of both Cr (III) and Cr (VI), at the level of 2 mg kg reduced soil DHA to 51-66%, respectively. But at the same time the highest Cr (III) and Cr (VI) supplement at the level of -1 20 mg kg limited DHA to 6-15%, in relation to the control. Inhibition of DHA by applied Cr compounds was also reported by Wyszkowska et al. (2001), who noted that decrease of enzymatic activity in soil should be considered as very unfavourable in terms of soil fertility, because soils of good quality and high content of soil OM show high enzymatic activity. The decrease of soil DHA by several metallic elements (Al, Be, Cu, U) was also discussed by Antunes et al. (2011), whereas a study by Nowak et al. (2002) found that DHA decreased by up to 85% at 5 mM selenic acid (IV) presence. Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 203 Figure 15. The variations of DHA in Eutric Cambisol at different Cr (III) and Cr (VI) concentrations (according to Stępniewska & Wolińska, 2004). Averaged values of three replicates with standard deviations are presented 5. Conclusions Soil is a part of the terrestrial compartment, and supports all terrestrial life forms. Thus, without proper soil protection policies, numerous problems may arise, like reduction of soil fertility, erosion, groundwater contamination, insufficient water holding capacity and loss of biodiversity. To asses soil quality, it is essential to measure all potential changes in biological soil properties, because they are highly sensitive to any environmental perturbations and stresses. A usual approach to diagnose soil quality, is to use a soil microbial indicators, which are very sensitive and respond quickly to environmental alterations. Among different soil indicators, DHA is one of the most adequate, important and one of the most sensitive bioindicators, relating to soil quality and fertility. Moreover, their routine measurement is simple and low-cost under laboratory condition. However, we should not remind about limitations, resulting from laboratory conditions, when we are able to measure and estimate only potential DHA, similarly like we are able to cultivate only small percentage of soil microorganisms, on artificial media. Soil enzymes are strongly associated with microorganisms. Soil enzymatic activity plays an important role in catalyzing reactions indispensable in life processes of soil microorganisms, decomposition of organic residues, circulation of nutrients, as well as forming organic matter and soil structure. Thus, it is possible to say that without proper soil enzymes system, soil life processes will be disturbed. 204 Dehydrogenases DHA is related to quantitative changes in microorganisms populations, as only strictly intracellular enzymes can truly reflect microbial activity, because with respect to the degradation processes of extracellular soil enzymes, they will be quickly mineralized by other enzymes (i.e. proteases), unless they are either adsorbed by clays or immobilized by humic molecules. It should be also remind, that overall soil DHA level depends most of all from the activities of various types of dehydrogenases, which are fundamental part of the enzyme system of all living soil microorganisms, i.e. the respiratory metabolism, the citrate cycle, and N metabolism. Due to this fact, DHA is proposed as the best indicator of the microbiological redox-systems, and could be considered as good and adequate parameter of microbial oxidative activities in soil. Furthermore, soil DHA is also used as a measure of any soils disruption posed by pesticides, heavy metals, or other soils contaminates and improper management practices. As DHA is strictly connected with living microbial cells, its activity depends from the same environmental factors, which influence on microorganisms abundance, activity and life processes. Consequently, when entertaining soil DHA behavior in the soil environment, we should be not only limited to DHA, but it is necessity to consider on the most important soils factors and conditions, affecting measuring by us DHA level. In the presented chapter we described the most important soil parameters, affecting DHA, which poses ability either for stimulation or inhibition its activity. To sum up the forgoing observations it was demonstrated, that DHA display increasing trend under anaerobic conditions, what suggest that the facultative and anaerobic member of soil microbial community become more important in soil respiration processes. Thus, soil DHA was reported to be negatively correlated with soil water potential, oxygen diffusion rate, and redox potential, what means that DHA reached higher values at lower soil water potential, lower oxygen diffusion rate and lower redox potential conditions. Analogically, negative correlation we also found in the case of soil depth–what was connected with spatial stratification of microorganisms abundance and its preference for inhabiting the surface layers of the soil profiles. Inhibiting effect on DHA level have also pesticides and soil contamination with heavy metals. Important parameter affecting soil biological activity is pH. Our investigations demonstrated, that optimal pH range for DHA is between 5.5-5.73, what was confirmed by correlation coefficient (r=-0.70*). Soil DHA depends also from the season of the year, similarly like dynamics of microbial activity, and reached the highest level in May, as spring season is strongly connected with increase in microbial activity, and intensification of oxido-reduction reactions, what is indirectly linked with DHA. Positive relationships we noted between DHA and two parameters: TOC and temperature, what means that DHA reached higher values at soils with higher TOC content (what is also Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 205 preferred by soil microorganisms), analogically like increase of temperature to 30°C (temperature close to optimum for microorganisms growth and development) resulted in DHA stimulation. Presented and discussed above results are based on our several years studies, however additional investigations are needed and recommended to determine the relative contribution of the different environmental effects on soil DHA. However, the discussion highlights the strong interactions between the soil environment, soil enzymes (dehydrogenases especially) and soil microorganisms. Author details Agnieszka Wolińska and Zofia Stępniewska The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Institute of Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Lublin, Poland Acknowledgement The study was partly funded by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (grant N 305 009 32/0514). 6. References Agnelli, A.; Ascher, J.; Corti, G.; Ceccechrini, M.; Nannipieri, P. & Pietramellara, G. (2004). Distribution of Microbial Communities In a Forest Soil Profile Investigated by Microbial Biomass, Soil Respiration and DGGE of Total and Extracellular DNA. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 36, pp. 859-868 Andrea, M.; Peres, T.; Luchini, L.; Bazarin, S.; Papini, S.; Matallo, M. & Savoy V. (2003). Influence of Repeated Applications of Glyphosate on Its Persistence and Soil Bioactivity. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 38, pp. 1329-1335. Antunes, S.; Pereira, R.; Marques, S.; Castro, B. & Gonçalves, F. (2011). Impaired Microbial Activity Caused by Metal Pollution: A Field Study In a Deactivated Uranium Mining Area. Science of the Total Environment, 410, pp. 87-95 Bennicelli, R.; Szafranek-Nakonieczna, A.; Wolińska, A.; Stępniewska, Z. & Bogudzińska, M. (2009). Influence of Pesticide (Glyphosate) on Dehydrogenase Activity, pH, Eh and Gases Production In Soil (Laboratory Conditions). International Agrophysics, 23, pp. 117- Błońska, E. (2010). Enzyme Activity in Forest Peat Soils. Folia Forestalia Polonica, 52, pp.20-25. Brzezińska, M. (2006). Impact of Treated Wastewater on Biological Activity and Accompanying Processes in Organic Soils. Acta Agrophysica, 131, pp. 1-163 (in Polish with English Summary) Brzezińska, M.; Stępniewska, Z. & Stępniewski, W. (1998). Soil Oxygen Status and Dehydrogenase Activity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 30, pp. 1783-1790 206 Dehydrogenases Brzezińska, M.; Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z. & Przywara, G. (2001). Effect of Oxygen Deficiency On Soil Dehydrogenase Activity In a Pot Experiment With Triticale CV. Jago Vegetation. International Agrophysics, 15, pp. 145-149 Casida, L.; Klein, D. & Santoro, T. (1964). Soil Dehydrogenase Activity. Soil Science, 98, pp. 371-376 Chodak, M. & Niklińska, M. (2010). Effect of Texture and Tree Species On Microbial Properties of Mine Soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 46, pp. 268-275 Chu, H.; Lin, X.; Fujii, T.; Morimoto, S.; Yagi K.; Hu, J. & Zhang, J. (2007). Soil Microbial Biomass, Dehydrogenase Activity, Bacterial Community Structure In Response To Long-Term Fertilizer Management. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 2971-2976 Cirilli, F.; Bellincontro, A.; De Santis, D.; Botondi, R.; Colao, M.; Muleo, R. & Mencarelli, F. (2012). Temperature and Water Loss Affect ADH Activity and Gene Expression In Grape Berry During Postharvest Dehydration. Food Chemistry, 132, pp. 447-454 Fernandez-Calviño, D.; Soler-Rovira, P.; Polo, A.; Diaz-Raviña, M.; Arias-Estevez, M. & Plaza C. (2010). Enzyme Activities In Vineyard Soils Long-Term Treated With Copper- Based Fungicides. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 42, pp. 2119-2127 Fierer, N.; Schimel, J. & Holden P. (2003). Variations In Microbial Community Composition Through Two Soil Depth Profiles. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35, pp. 167-176 Fontaine, S.; Marotti, A. & Abbadie, L. (2003). The Priming Effect of Organic Matter: A Question of Microbial Competition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35, pp. 837-843 Forlani, G.; Mangiagalli, A.; Nielsen, E. & Suardi, M. (1999). Degradation Of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate In Soil: Evidence For a Possible Involvement of Unculturable Microorganisms. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 31, pp. 991-997 Frankenberger, W. & Johanson, J. (1982). Effect of pH On Enzyme Stability in Soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 14, pp. 433-437 Gajda, A. (2008). Effect of Different Tillage Systems On Some Microbiological Properties of Soils Under Winter Wheat. International Agrophysics, 22, pp. 201-208 Geisseler, D.; Horwath, W. & Scow, K. (2011). Soil Moisture and Plant Residue Addition Interact In Their Effect On Extracellular Enzyme Activity. Pedobiologia, 54, pp. 71-78 Ghaly, A. & Mahmoud, N. (2006). Optimum Conditions For Measuring Dehydrogenase Activity of Aspergillus niger Using TTC. American Journal of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 2, pp. 186-194 Gu, Y.; Wag, P. & Kong, C. (2009). Urease, Invertase, Dehydrogenase and Polyphenoloxidase Activities In Paddy Soils Influenced By Allelophatic Rice variety. European Journal of Soil Biology, 45, pp. 436-441 Hutchinson, G. (1995). Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange of Gaseous N Oxides. In: Soil and global change, R. Lal, (Ed.), 219-236, CRC Lewis Publisher, Boca Raton, FL, USA. Januszek, K. (1993). Seasonal Changes of Enzyme Activity In Mor, Moder and Mull Humus of Selected Forest Soils In The Western Beskid Mountains. Folia Forestalia Polonica, 35, pp. 59-75 Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 207 Kadian, N.; Malik, A.; Sataya, S. & Dureja, P. (2012). Effect of Organic Amendments on Microbial Activity in Chlorpyrifos Contaminated Soil. Journal of Environmental Management, 95, pp. 199-202 Kizilkaya, R.; Askin, T.; Bayrakli, B. & Saglam, M. (2004). Microbiological Characteristics of Soils Contaminated With Heavy Metals. European Journal of Soil Biology, 40, pp. 95-102 Koper, J.; Piotrowska, A. & Siwik-Ziomek, A. (2008). Dehydrogenase and Inwertase Activities In a Rusty Soil In The Neighborhood of The Włocławek Nitrogen Plant “Anwill”. Proceedings of ECOpole, 2, pp. 197-202 Kumar, J.; Sharma, G. & Mishra, R. (1992). Soil Microbial Population Number and Enzyme Activities In Relation To Altitude and Forest Degradation. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 24, pp. 761-767 Quilchano, C. & Marañon, T. (2002). Dehydrogenase Activity In Mediterranean Forest Soils. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 35, pp. 102-107 Levyk, V.; Maryskevych, O.; Brzezińska, M. & Włodarczyk, T. (2007). Dehydrogenase Activity of Technogenic Soils of Former Sulphur Mines (Yvaoriv and Nemyriv, Ukraine). International Agrophysics, 21, pp. 255-260 Macci, C.; Doni, S.; Peruzzi, E.; Masciandro, G.; Mennone, C. & Ceccanti, B. (2012). Almond Tree and Organic Fertilization for Soil Quality Improvement In Southern Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 95, pp. 215-222 Menon, P.; Gopal, M. & Parsad, R. (2005). Effects of Chlorpyrifos and Quinalphos On 3+ Dehydrogenase Activities and Reduction of Fe In The Soils of Two Semi-Arid Fields of Tropical India. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 108, pp. 73-83 Moeskops, B.; Buchan, D.; Sleutel, S.; Herawaty, L.; Husen, E.; Saraswati, R.; Setyorini, D. & De Neve, S. (2010). Soil Microbial Communities and Activities Under Intensive Organic and Conventional Vegetable Farming In West Java, Indonesia. Applied Soil Ecology, 45, pp. 112-120 Moreno, J.; Aliaga, A.; Navarro, S.; Hernendez, T. & Garcia, C. (2007). Effects of Atrazine On Microbial Activity In Semiarid Soil. Applied Soil Ecology, 35, pp. 120-127 Muñoz-Leoz, B.; Ruiz-Romera, E.; Antigüedad, I. & Garbisu, C. (2011). Tebuconazole Application Decreases Soil Microbial Biomass and Activity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, pp. 2176-2183 Nagatsuka, T. & Furosaka, C. (1980). Effect of Oxygen Tension On Growth, Respiration and Types of Bacteria Isolated From Soil Suspensions. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 12, pp. 397-403 Natywa, M. & Selwet, M. 2011. Respiratory and Dehydrogenase Activities In The Soils Under Maize Growth In The Conditions of Irrigated and Nonirrigated Fields. Agricultura, 10, pp. 93-100 Nayak, D.; Babu, J. & Adhya, T. (2007). Long-Term Application of Compost Influences Microbial Biomass and Enzyme Activities In a Tropical Aeric Endoaquept Planted To Rice Under Flooded Condition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 1897-1906 Nowak, J.; Kaklewski, K. & Klódka, D. (2002). Influence of Various Concentrations of Selenic Acid (IV) On The Activity of Soil Enzymes. The Science of Total Environment, 291, pp. 105-110 208 Dehydrogenases Pan, J. & Yu, L. (2011). Effects of Cd or/and Pb On Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Sructure. Ecological Engineering, 37, pp. 1889-1894 Pascual, J.; Garcia, C.; Hernandez,T.; Moreno, J. & Ros, M. (2000). Soil Microbial Activity As a Biomarker of Degradation and Remediation Processes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 32, pp. 1877-1883 Pett-Ridge, J. & Firestone, M. (2005). Redox Fluctuation Structures Microbial Communities In a Wet-Tropical Soil. Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 71, pp. 6998-7007 Romero, E.; Fernandez-Bayo, J.; Diaz, J. & Nogales, R. (2010). Enzyme Activities and Diuron Persistence In Soil Amended With Vermicompost Derived From Spent Grape Marc and Treated With Urea. Applied Soil Ecology, 44, pp. 198-204 Ros, M.; Hernandez, M. & Garcia, C. (2003). Soil Microbial Activity After Restoration of a Semiarid Soil By Organic Amendments. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35, pp. 463-469 Salazar, S.; Sanchez, L.; Alvarez, J.; Valverde, A.; Galindo, P.; Igual, J.; Peix, A. & Santa- Regina, I. (2011). Correlation Among Soil Enzyme Activities Under Different Forest System Management Practices. Ecological Engineering, 37, pp. 1123-1131 Shuler, M. & Kargi, F. (2010). Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concepts. Prentice-Hall Incorporation, Englewood Cliffs, New Yersey, USA. ISBN-10: 0130819085 Song, Y.; Deng, S.; Acosta-Martinez, V. & Katsalirou, E. (2008). Characterization of Redox- Related Soil Microbial Communities Along a River Floodplain Continuum By Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and 16S rRNA Genes. Applied Soil Ecology, 40, pp. 499-509 Stępniewska, Z. & Wolińska, A. (2004). Enzyme Activity In The Soil Contaminated by Chromium (III, VI) Forms. Multi author work: Modern Physical & Physicochemical Methods & Their Applications in Agroecological Research. Institute of Agrophysics PAS, Lublin, pp. 201-207 Stępniewska, Z. & Wolińska, A. (2005). Soil Dehydrogenase Activity In The Presence of Chromium (III) and (VI). International Agrophysics, 19, pp. 79-83 Stępniewska, Z.; Wolińska, A. & Lipińska, R. (2007). Effect of Fonofos On Soil Dehydrogenase Activity. International Agrophysics, 21, pp. 101-105 Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z.; Gliński, J.; Brzezińska, M., Włodarczyk, T.; Przywara, G.; Varallyay, G. & Rajkai, J. (2000). Dehydrogenase Activity of Some Hungarian Soils as Related To Their Water and Aeration Status. International Agrophysics, 14, pp. 341-354 Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z.; Bennicelli, R. & Gliński, J. (2005). Oxygenology In Outline. Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, pp. 18-33, Lublin, Poland Subhani, A.; Changyong, H.; Zhengmiao, Y.; Min, L. & El-ghamry, A. (2001). Impact of Soil Environment and Agronomic Practices On Microbial/Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity In Soil. A Review. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, pp. 333-338 Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A.; Gomez, I. & Parrado, J. (2010). Application of MCPA Herbicide On Soils Amended With Biostimulants: Short-time Effects On Soil Biological Properties. Chemosphere, 80, pp. 1088-1094 Tejada, M.; Gomez, I.; Garcia-Martinez, A.; Osta, P. & Parado, J. (2011). Effects of Prochloraz Fungicide On Soil Enzymatic Activities and Bacterial Communities. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 74, pp. 1708-1714 Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment 209 Trasar-Cepeda, C.; Gil-Sotres, F. & Leiros, M. (2007). Thermodynamic Parameters of Enzymes In Grassland Soils From Galicia, NW Spain. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 311-319 Trevors, J. (1984). Effect of Substrate Concentration, Inorganic Nitrogen, O2 Concentration, Temperature and pH On Dehydrogenase Activity In Soil. Plant & Soil, 77, pp.285-293 Tripathi, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Chakrabarti, K. & Bandyopadhyay, B. (2007). Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass In Coastal Soils of India. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, pp. 2840-2848 Uhlirova, E.; Elhottova, D.; Triska, J. & Santruckova, H. (2005). Physiology and Microbial Community Structure In Soil At Extreme Water Content. Folia Microbiology, 50, pp. 161- Wall, A. & Heiskanen, J. (2003). Water-Retention Characteristic and Related Physical Properties of Soil On Afforested Agricultural Land In Finland. Forest Ecology & Management, 186, pp. 21-32 Weaver, M.; Zablotowicz, R.; Krutz, L.; Bryson, C. & Locke, M. (2012). Microbial and Vegetative Changes Associated With Development of a Constructed Wetland. Ecological Indicators, 13, pp. 37-45 Welp, G. (1999). Inhibitory Effects of The Total and Water-Soluble Concentrations of Nine Differents Metals On The Dehydrogenase Activity of a Loess Soil. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 30, pp.132-139 Włodarczyk, T. (2000). Some Aspects of Dehydrogenase Activity In Soils. International Agrophysics, 22, pp. 371-375 Włodarczyk, T.; Gliński, J.; Stępniewski, W.; Stępniewska, Z.; Brzezińska, M. & Kuraz, V. (2001). Aeration Properties and Enzyme Activity On The Example of Arenic Chernozem (Tisice). International Agrophysics, 15, pp. 131-138 Włodarczyk, T.; Stępniewski, W. & Brzezińska, M. (2002). Dehydrogenase Activity, Redox Potential, and Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide From Cambisols Under Flooding Conditions. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 36, pp. 200-206 Wolińska, A. (2010). Dehydrogenase Activity of Soil Microorganisms and Oxygen Availability During Reoxidation Process of The Selected Mineral Soils From Poland. Acta Agrophysica, 180, pp. 1-88 (in Polish with English Summary) Wolińska, A. & Bennicelli, R. (2010). Dehydrogenase Activity Response to Soil Reoxidation Process Described as Varied Condition of Water Potential, Air Porosity and Oxygen Availability. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19, pp. 651-657 Wolińska, A. & Stępniewska, Z. (2011). Microorganisms Abundance and Dehydrogenase Activity As a Consequence of Soil Reoxidation Process, In: Soil Tillage & Microbial Activities, M. Miransari, (Ed.), 111-143, Research Singpost, Kerala, India Wyszkowska, J.; Kucharski J.; Jastrzębska, E. & Hlasko, A. (2001). The Biological Properties of Soil As Influenced By Chromium Contamination. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 10, 37-42 Xiang, S.; Doyle, A.; Holden, P. & Schimel, J. (2008). Drying and Rewetting Effects On C and N mineralization and Microbial Activity In Surface and Subsurface California Grassland Soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, pp. 2281-2289 210 Dehydrogenases Xie, W.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.; Chen, X.; Lu, Z.; Yu J. & Chen, X. (2009). Short-Term Effects of Copper, Cadmium and Cypermethrin On Dehydrogenase Activity and Microbial Functional Diversity In Soils After Long-Term Mineral or Organic Fertilization. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 129, pp. 450-456 Yang, L.; Li, T. & Fu, S. (2005). Effect of Manure and Chemical Fertilizer On The Dynamics of Soil Enzymatic Activities In Vegetable Soil. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 36, pp. 223- Yuan, B. & Yue, D. (2012). Soil Microbial and Enzymatic Activities Across a Chronosequence of Chinese Pine Plantation Development On The Loess Plateau of China. Pedosphere, 22, pp. 1-12 Zabaloy, M.; Garland, J. & Gomez, M. (2008). An Integrated Approach To Evaluate The Impacts of The Herbicides Glyphosate, 2,4-D and Metsulfuron-Methyl On Soil Microbial Communities In The Pampas Region, Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology, 40, pp. 1-12 Zhang, N.; He, X.; Gao, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, H.; Ma, D.; Zhang, R. & Yang, S. (2010). Pedogenic Carbonate and Soil Dehydrogenase Activity In Response To Soil Organic Matter in Artemisia ordosica Community. Pedosphere, 20, pp. 229-235 Zhao, B.; Chen, J.; Zhang, J. & Qin S. (2010). Soil Microbial Biomass and Activity Response To Repeated Drying-Rewetting Cycles Along a Soil Fertility Gradient Modified By Long-Term Fertilization Management Practices. Geoderma, 160, pp. 218-224

Published: Nov 14, 2012

There are no references for this article.