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Employee Engagement as An Effort to Improve Work Performance: Literature Review

Employee Engagement as An Effort to Improve Work Performance: Literature Review Ilomata International Journal of Social Science (IJSS) P-ISSN: 2714-898X; E-ISSN: 2714-8998 Volume 2, Issue 1 January 2021 Page No. 41-49 https://www.ilomata.org/index.php/ijss Employee Engagement as An Effort to Improve Work Performance: Literature Review Dian Bagus Mitreka Satata Master Program of Psychology, Muhammadiyah University of Malang Correspondent: dbagusms@webmail.umm.ac.id Submitted : October 1, 2020 Revised : November 5, 2020 Published : January 31, 2021 ABSTRACT Employee engagement is a physical and psychological condition related to work cognitively, emotionally, and behavior to achieve the goals of the organization. The purpose of writing this review article is to summarize and discuss employee engagement as an effort factor in improving work performance within the organization. The method used is a literature review, which is a literature review search for both international journals and national journals between 2013 – 2020 as many as 15 journal articles from the results of previous research. The results of the literature review show that employee engagement influences individual work performance so that organizational goals can be achieved. Keywords: employee engagement, work performance, organization INTRODUCTION Employee engagement is a widely discussed topic in the fields of organizational development, management, and industrial psychology (Jeung, 2011; Kim, Kolb, & Kim, 2013; Mercurio, 2015) This cannot be separated from the complex management of Human Resources (HR). The changing times require HRD (Human Resource Development) practitioners to be able to contribute innovatively to improve the quality of individual work with various characters (Kim et al, 2017; Sekhar, Patwardhan & Vyas, 2017) such as skills and levels of education in the organization. This is a challenge that employee engagement must be built and maintained so that burnout does not occur (Bakker, Demerouti & Sanz-Vergel, 2014; Hanaken & Schaufeli, 2012). Some researchers consider employee engagement and work engagement to be key terms in the HRD field (Lee et al., 2016). It is stated that the notions of employee engagement and work engagement are similar because they are interrelated with job demands and work resources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). However, in general, employee engagement and work engagement do not have significant differences in terms of theoretical and scientific findings (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter & Taris, 2008), so that in this article the author uses the term employee engagement to facilitate literacy. Employee engagement refers to things that are positively effective related to carrying out work that has aspects of vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006). This sense of engagement is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral condition of the individual directed towards organizational goals (Farndale & Murrer, 2015; Shuck & Wollard, 2010). Employee engagement is a positive individual attachment, commitment, loyalty to one or one line of work (Xiao & Duan, 2014), or the individual's positive psychological state regarding their work (Saks & Gruman, 2014). 41 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata It can be stated that work is a motivational boost to achieve a variety of needs (from the wages) and must be met psychologically and physiologically (Maslow,1943; McClelland, 1990; Alderfer, 1969). The need is an impetus that will spur change on the cognitive side of the individual so that it will motivate the enthusiasm for work (Mokaya & Kipyegon, 2014). From the encouragement of fulfilling these needs, employee engagement can increase over time, which in turn will affect the quality of individual work (Rich, Lepine & Crawford, 2010). Work quality is very important in achieving organizational goals so that it can generate employee engagement for each individual (Alqarni, 2016). In the industrial sector, employee engagement has a major effect on the sustainability of the company and leads to better performance changes (Mokaya & Kipyegon, 2014). A person can be professional when they have engaged in their work. The higher the employee engagement, the better the quality of work obtained. Besides, cognitive, emotional, and physical conditions while working also needs to be considered (Khan, 1990). However, the company “fleas” often occur which results in decreased quality of the organization and hinders the vision and mission. The lack of individuals when they are not satisfied with the job they think fits the criteria is a factor in the number of turnover intentions (Biron & Boon, 2013; Caesen, Stinglhamber & Marmier, 2014). But often HR that is not appropriate in implementing job desc in the organization can affect the level of quality of the individual's performance. Quality human resources have a big impact on organizational goals, so there is a binding agreement that aims to foster organizational commitment (Cesario & Chambel, 2017). Externally, employee engagement can be influenced by several factors, including the provision of appropriate and satisfying wages according to job level (Pang & Lu, 2018). Consistent communication within the organization can increase employee engagement to provide the best performance at work (García-Carbonell et al, 2018). A conducive work environment can provide good performance results for individuals (Lazauskaite-Zabielske, Urbanaviciute & Balsiene, 2018) as well as supportive colleagues in the workplace can increase job satisfaction and work performance (Yousef, 2017). Meanwhile, internally, employee engagement can be influenced by several factors, including self-efficacy (Sofiah & Kurniawan, 2019). Other findings show that a good quality of work-life increases employee engagement with their work (Alqarni, 2016). Besides, it was found that passion or obsession can also form a sense of engagement in their work (Burke, Astakhova & Hang, 2015; Ho, Wong & Lee, 2011; Purba & Ananta, 2018). Employee engagement plays an important role in the organization so that it can improve individual performance which in turn can provide job satisfaction (Garg, Dar & Mishra, 2018). Training in service to other individuals is a supporting aspect at the employee engagement level (Johnson, Park & Bartlett, 2018). Various other aspects such as the character of the individual being served determine the level of engaged individuals in the organization (Wang & Chen, 2019). It has been identified various factors in shaping employee engagement behavior in an organization so that it can run well within the organization and how to improve the work performance of employee engagement that has been formed by individuals. Based on the background stated, the authors are interested in discussing employee engagement as a factor in efforts to improve the quality of performance in organizations. 42 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata METHODS The method used in writing this article is by using the literature review method, which is a search for scientific literature studies, both international journals and national journals, which is done using a database of several scientific publications, namely SAGE Journals, Emerald, and Proquest. The process of collecting articles is carried out by sorting from the literature based on the criteria determined by the author of each journal taken, 15 related journals have been reviewed. Articles were reviewed between 2013 - 2020 using the keywords employee engagement, work engagement, employee engagement, and work performance and employee engagement outcomes. For each journal that has been selected based on criteria, a conclusion is written that describes an explanation regarding the effect of employee engagement on the quality of individual performance. Before making conclusions, the authors previously identified a journal article in a summary form in the form of a table consisting of the author's name, research methods, samples, instruments, theory, and the results of the discussion. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Based on the results of journal articles that have been collected, then reviewed with the main focus on the effect of employee engagement on work performance, it is analyzed and divided in Table 1 below. Table 1. Summarize the results of the journal review Author Method Sample Instrument Theory Result (Year) Karatepe Quantitative 110 Questionnaire individuals who receive Employees who feel (2013) income and socio- engaged in their emotional from the work will be organization tend to motivated to provide feel obligated to pay extra services the organization through better engagement and performance Anitha Quantitative 383 Questionnaire engagement can lead to Employee (2014) improved performance engagement has a from various factors. significant effect on employee performance Gupta, Quantitative 261 Questionnaire If the employee is not Findings about Acharya, & engaged, it will lead to engagement that Gupta negative and improves (2015) unsatisfactory behavior performance in for customers service delivery Dajani Quantitative 245 Questionnaire Social exchange theory Employee (2015) states that individuals engagement has a will be motivated to significant impact on engage in their work job performance when it is based on a fair and balanced exchange system Rashid & Qualitative Manager Interview The literature review Employee Azhar (2015) reveals six engagement is a 43 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata Author Method Sample Instrument Theory Result (Year) organizational-level factor in determining results from employee individual engagement, namely performance and employee retention, supporting the profitability, organizational attendance, customer programs that have satisfaction, been designed productivity, and business growth Ghuman Quantitative 65 Questionnaire The effect of It has been (2016) leadership and job researched that there satisfaction is another is a relationship factor in building between employee individual performance engagement and employee performance Cesario & Quantitative 274 Questionnaire critical attitude There is a Chambel antecedents of firm relationship between (2017) performance highlight the relevance of the positive work engagement to relationship between employee work commitment performance environment and knowledge sharing culture as strong predictors of individual performance Sekhar, Quantitative 244 Questionnaire Individuals who are The results showed a Patwardhan, effectively engaged relationship between & Vyas with the organization employee (2017) have a higher sense of engagement and job and involvement in performance organizational activities. Ismail, Quantitative 186 Questionnaire Employee engagement The results showed Iqbal & leads to higher job that employee Nasr (2018) performance by engagement had a generating positive significant positive emotions and effect on job increasing motivation performance to perform job duties and responsibilities Sendawula, Quantitative 150 Questionnaire Employee engagement The correlation et al. (2018) is a positive attitude results indicate that that employees have there is a significant towards the positive relationship organization and its between employee values engagement and employee performance Kim, Han & Quantitative 571 Questionnaire The JD R model Work engagement Park (2019) assumes that job plays an important characteristics can role concerning job 44 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata Author Method Sample Instrument Theory Result (Year) increase job performance in engagement, which in addition to that; turn, improves personal resources, organizational job resources, and outcomes turnover intention Othman & Quantitative 252 Questionnaire Social cognitive career The results showed Mahmood theory and social that high potential (2019) engagement theory employee engagement had a positive and significant effect on individual work performance. Wang & Quantitative 312 Questionnaire Customer behavior in Work engagement Chen (2019) the workplace affects has a positive effect burnout and turnover on job performance intentions Ngwenya, Quantitative 257 Questionnaire Individual Employee & Pelser performance levels engagement has a (2020) depend on how positive relationship engaged and how with employee satisfied the employees performance are with their work Adrianto & Quantitative 160 Questionnaire Employee engagement Positive relationship Riyanto is a sense of emotional between employee (2020) attachment to work engagement and and organization individual performance In the results of table 1, it is found that employee engagement affects the individual performance results of various respondents, namely employees. It is stated that the performance results resulting from employee engagement have a positive impact on other individuals. Besides, with the increase in employee engagement, the results of the work that have been done have been very satisfying, in line with Pang and Lu's (2018) theory, an organization will work well because of the high employee engagement that has been formed for each individual (Rashid & Azhar, 2015). The findings of Gupta, Acharya & Gupta (2014) state that with the formation of high employee engagement, performance will increase, then individuals who work will voluntarily provide more service to their customers. Likewise, the findings by Karatepe (2013) state that employee engagement can improve individual performance, and individuals who feel engaged in their work will be motivated to provide extra services from their main job to customers. Analysis of the results of table 1, many of the findings state that high employee engagement has a significant impact on individual performance, such as the results of research by Dajani (2015); Sekhar, Patwardhan, & Vyas (2017) and Ismail, Iqbal & Nasr (2018). In line with Bakker et al., (2008), it is said that individuals who feel engaged with work will feel the psychological health impact. However, it needs to be seen again from the various determining factors that can increase the sense of engagement in a job, such as job demands and job resources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007), so that the quality of work is better and more satisfying (Alqarni, 2016; Cesario & Chambel, 2017; Yeh, 2013). 45 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata In the findings of Kim, Han & Park (2019), employee engagement is also able to mediate in the relationship between variables and can reduce the occurrence of turnover intention in individuals in addition to work performance results. From the findings of these findings, it has been proven that high employee engagement can have a good and positive impact on work performance (Adrianto & Riyanto, 2020), this is based on strengthening the previous theory (Demerouti & Cropanzano, 2010). The findings of Sekhar, Patwardhan & Vyas (2017) that individuals who feel engaged with their work and have a higher sense and involvement in activities in their organization will produce good job performance (Ngwenya, & Pelser, 2020). This is in line with existing findings that indicate employee engagement, directly and indirectly, affects individual performance (Azizah & Gustomo, 2015). Several aspects such as the nature of the customer can affect the level of employee engagement, if the customer is less cooperative with individuals in the organization, it can cause burnout to turnover intention (Wang & Chen, 2019). The findings of Ismail, Iqbal & Nasr (2018) that positive emotions can foster employee engagement so that it can improve good work performance (Cesario & Chambel, 2017) with good service output, of course (Gupta, Acharya, & Gupta, 2015). CONCLUSION From the results of the discussion, it can be concluded that employee engagement influences the quality of individual performance in the organization. This is in line with several literature findings that imply that individual performance is influenced by employee engagement from various internal and external aspects. Thanks to employee engagement, the productivity and job satisfaction produced by individuals in the achievement of company organizations have better quality because individuals feel that they can work consistently, are absorbed in work (absorption), and are more physically and psychologically competitive. REFERENCES Adrianto & Riyanto, S. (2020). The effect of organizational commitment, employee engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior on employee performance at pt. titan infra energy - head office. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 25 (1) 22 – 31. DOI: 10.9790/0837-2501092231 Alderfer C. P. (1969). 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Educational and Psychological Measurement. 66, 701 – 716. doi:10.1177/0013164405282471 Sekhar, C., Patwardhan, M., & Vyas, V. (2017). Linking work engagement to job performance through flexible human resource management. Advances in Developing Human. 1 – 16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422317743250. Sendawula, K., Kiwuli, S. N., Bananuka, J. & Muganga, G. N. (2018). Training, employee engagement, and employee performance: Evidence from Uganda’s health sector. Cogent Business & Management. 5, 1 – 12. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2018.1470891 Shuck, B., & Wollard, K. (2010). Employee engagement and HRD: A seminal review of the foundations. Human Resource Development Review. 9, 89 – 110. doi:10.1177/1534484309353560 Sofiah, D & Kurniawan, G. Hubungan self-efficacy dengan work engagement pada karyawan. Jurnal Fenomena. 28 (1) 54 – 61. DOI: 10.30996/fn.v28i1.2641. Stimpson, P., & Smith, A. (2011). Business and Management for the IB Diploma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pang, K., & Lu, C.S. (2018). Organizational motivation, employee job satisfaction, and organizational performance: An empirical study of container shipping companies in Taiwan. Maritime Business Review. 3 (1) 36 – 52. Purba, S. D., & Ananta, A. N. D. (2018). The effects of work passion, work engagement, and job satisfaction on turnover intention of the millennial generation. Jurnal Manajemen dan Pemasaran. 11 (2) 263 – 274. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.25105/jmpj.v11i2.2954 Rashid, S. & Azhar, M. A. (2015). Employee engagement: a qualitative research on critical factors within Malaysia's SME businesses. First Asia Pacific Conference on Contemporary Research. 54 – Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal. 53, 617 – 635. doi:10.5465/ AMJ.2010.51468988 Wang, C. & Chen, H. (2019). Relationship among workplace incivility, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. DOI 10.1108/JHTI-09-2019-0105 Xiao, M. L., & Duan, L. (2014). Job engagement of employees in state-owned enterprises: Construct clarification and scale development. Organizational management. 1, 35 – 41. http://dx.doi.org/10.16471/j.cnki.11-2822/c.2014.01.017 Yeh, C. M. (2013). Tourism involvement, work engagement, and job satisfaction among frontline hotel employees. Annals of Tourism Research. 42, 214-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.02.002 Yousef, D. A. (2017). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and attitudes toward organizational change: a study in the local government. International Journal of Public Administration. 40 (1) 77 – 88. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2015.1072217 49 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Unpaywall

Employee Engagement as An Effort to Improve Work Performance: Literature Review

Ilomata International Journal of Social ScienceJan 28, 2021

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Ilomata International Journal of Social Science (IJSS) P-ISSN: 2714-898X; E-ISSN: 2714-8998 Volume 2, Issue 1 January 2021 Page No. 41-49 https://www.ilomata.org/index.php/ijss Employee Engagement as An Effort to Improve Work Performance: Literature Review Dian Bagus Mitreka Satata Master Program of Psychology, Muhammadiyah University of Malang Correspondent: dbagusms@webmail.umm.ac.id Submitted : October 1, 2020 Revised : November 5, 2020 Published : January 31, 2021 ABSTRACT Employee engagement is a physical and psychological condition related to work cognitively, emotionally, and behavior to achieve the goals of the organization. The purpose of writing this review article is to summarize and discuss employee engagement as an effort factor in improving work performance within the organization. The method used is a literature review, which is a literature review search for both international journals and national journals between 2013 – 2020 as many as 15 journal articles from the results of previous research. The results of the literature review show that employee engagement influences individual work performance so that organizational goals can be achieved. Keywords: employee engagement, work performance, organization INTRODUCTION Employee engagement is a widely discussed topic in the fields of organizational development, management, and industrial psychology (Jeung, 2011; Kim, Kolb, & Kim, 2013; Mercurio, 2015) This cannot be separated from the complex management of Human Resources (HR). The changing times require HRD (Human Resource Development) practitioners to be able to contribute innovatively to improve the quality of individual work with various characters (Kim et al, 2017; Sekhar, Patwardhan & Vyas, 2017) such as skills and levels of education in the organization. This is a challenge that employee engagement must be built and maintained so that burnout does not occur (Bakker, Demerouti & Sanz-Vergel, 2014; Hanaken & Schaufeli, 2012). Some researchers consider employee engagement and work engagement to be key terms in the HRD field (Lee et al., 2016). It is stated that the notions of employee engagement and work engagement are similar because they are interrelated with job demands and work resources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). However, in general, employee engagement and work engagement do not have significant differences in terms of theoretical and scientific findings (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter & Taris, 2008), so that in this article the author uses the term employee engagement to facilitate literacy. Employee engagement refers to things that are positively effective related to carrying out work that has aspects of vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006). This sense of engagement is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral condition of the individual directed towards organizational goals (Farndale & Murrer, 2015; Shuck & Wollard, 2010). Employee engagement is a positive individual attachment, commitment, loyalty to one or one line of work (Xiao & Duan, 2014), or the individual's positive psychological state regarding their work (Saks & Gruman, 2014). 41 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata It can be stated that work is a motivational boost to achieve a variety of needs (from the wages) and must be met psychologically and physiologically (Maslow,1943; McClelland, 1990; Alderfer, 1969). The need is an impetus that will spur change on the cognitive side of the individual so that it will motivate the enthusiasm for work (Mokaya & Kipyegon, 2014). From the encouragement of fulfilling these needs, employee engagement can increase over time, which in turn will affect the quality of individual work (Rich, Lepine & Crawford, 2010). Work quality is very important in achieving organizational goals so that it can generate employee engagement for each individual (Alqarni, 2016). In the industrial sector, employee engagement has a major effect on the sustainability of the company and leads to better performance changes (Mokaya & Kipyegon, 2014). A person can be professional when they have engaged in their work. The higher the employee engagement, the better the quality of work obtained. Besides, cognitive, emotional, and physical conditions while working also needs to be considered (Khan, 1990). However, the company “fleas” often occur which results in decreased quality of the organization and hinders the vision and mission. The lack of individuals when they are not satisfied with the job they think fits the criteria is a factor in the number of turnover intentions (Biron & Boon, 2013; Caesen, Stinglhamber & Marmier, 2014). But often HR that is not appropriate in implementing job desc in the organization can affect the level of quality of the individual's performance. Quality human resources have a big impact on organizational goals, so there is a binding agreement that aims to foster organizational commitment (Cesario & Chambel, 2017). Externally, employee engagement can be influenced by several factors, including the provision of appropriate and satisfying wages according to job level (Pang & Lu, 2018). Consistent communication within the organization can increase employee engagement to provide the best performance at work (García-Carbonell et al, 2018). A conducive work environment can provide good performance results for individuals (Lazauskaite-Zabielske, Urbanaviciute & Balsiene, 2018) as well as supportive colleagues in the workplace can increase job satisfaction and work performance (Yousef, 2017). Meanwhile, internally, employee engagement can be influenced by several factors, including self-efficacy (Sofiah & Kurniawan, 2019). Other findings show that a good quality of work-life increases employee engagement with their work (Alqarni, 2016). Besides, it was found that passion or obsession can also form a sense of engagement in their work (Burke, Astakhova & Hang, 2015; Ho, Wong & Lee, 2011; Purba & Ananta, 2018). Employee engagement plays an important role in the organization so that it can improve individual performance which in turn can provide job satisfaction (Garg, Dar & Mishra, 2018). Training in service to other individuals is a supporting aspect at the employee engagement level (Johnson, Park & Bartlett, 2018). Various other aspects such as the character of the individual being served determine the level of engaged individuals in the organization (Wang & Chen, 2019). It has been identified various factors in shaping employee engagement behavior in an organization so that it can run well within the organization and how to improve the work performance of employee engagement that has been formed by individuals. Based on the background stated, the authors are interested in discussing employee engagement as a factor in efforts to improve the quality of performance in organizations. 42 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata METHODS The method used in writing this article is by using the literature review method, which is a search for scientific literature studies, both international journals and national journals, which is done using a database of several scientific publications, namely SAGE Journals, Emerald, and Proquest. The process of collecting articles is carried out by sorting from the literature based on the criteria determined by the author of each journal taken, 15 related journals have been reviewed. Articles were reviewed between 2013 - 2020 using the keywords employee engagement, work engagement, employee engagement, and work performance and employee engagement outcomes. For each journal that has been selected based on criteria, a conclusion is written that describes an explanation regarding the effect of employee engagement on the quality of individual performance. Before making conclusions, the authors previously identified a journal article in a summary form in the form of a table consisting of the author's name, research methods, samples, instruments, theory, and the results of the discussion. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Based on the results of journal articles that have been collected, then reviewed with the main focus on the effect of employee engagement on work performance, it is analyzed and divided in Table 1 below. Table 1. Summarize the results of the journal review Author Method Sample Instrument Theory Result (Year) Karatepe Quantitative 110 Questionnaire individuals who receive Employees who feel (2013) income and socio- engaged in their emotional from the work will be organization tend to motivated to provide feel obligated to pay extra services the organization through better engagement and performance Anitha Quantitative 383 Questionnaire engagement can lead to Employee (2014) improved performance engagement has a from various factors. significant effect on employee performance Gupta, Quantitative 261 Questionnaire If the employee is not Findings about Acharya, & engaged, it will lead to engagement that Gupta negative and improves (2015) unsatisfactory behavior performance in for customers service delivery Dajani Quantitative 245 Questionnaire Social exchange theory Employee (2015) states that individuals engagement has a will be motivated to significant impact on engage in their work job performance when it is based on a fair and balanced exchange system Rashid & Qualitative Manager Interview The literature review Employee Azhar (2015) reveals six engagement is a 43 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata Author Method Sample Instrument Theory Result (Year) organizational-level factor in determining results from employee individual engagement, namely performance and employee retention, supporting the profitability, organizational attendance, customer programs that have satisfaction, been designed productivity, and business growth Ghuman Quantitative 65 Questionnaire The effect of It has been (2016) leadership and job researched that there satisfaction is another is a relationship factor in building between employee individual performance engagement and employee performance Cesario & Quantitative 274 Questionnaire critical attitude There is a Chambel antecedents of firm relationship between (2017) performance highlight the relevance of the positive work engagement to relationship between employee work commitment performance environment and knowledge sharing culture as strong predictors of individual performance Sekhar, Quantitative 244 Questionnaire Individuals who are The results showed a Patwardhan, effectively engaged relationship between & Vyas with the organization employee (2017) have a higher sense of engagement and job and involvement in performance organizational activities. Ismail, Quantitative 186 Questionnaire Employee engagement The results showed Iqbal & leads to higher job that employee Nasr (2018) performance by engagement had a generating positive significant positive emotions and effect on job increasing motivation performance to perform job duties and responsibilities Sendawula, Quantitative 150 Questionnaire Employee engagement The correlation et al. (2018) is a positive attitude results indicate that that employees have there is a significant towards the positive relationship organization and its between employee values engagement and employee performance Kim, Han & Quantitative 571 Questionnaire The JD R model Work engagement Park (2019) assumes that job plays an important characteristics can role concerning job 44 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata Author Method Sample Instrument Theory Result (Year) increase job performance in engagement, which in addition to that; turn, improves personal resources, organizational job resources, and outcomes turnover intention Othman & Quantitative 252 Questionnaire Social cognitive career The results showed Mahmood theory and social that high potential (2019) engagement theory employee engagement had a positive and significant effect on individual work performance. Wang & Quantitative 312 Questionnaire Customer behavior in Work engagement Chen (2019) the workplace affects has a positive effect burnout and turnover on job performance intentions Ngwenya, Quantitative 257 Questionnaire Individual Employee & Pelser performance levels engagement has a (2020) depend on how positive relationship engaged and how with employee satisfied the employees performance are with their work Adrianto & Quantitative 160 Questionnaire Employee engagement Positive relationship Riyanto is a sense of emotional between employee (2020) attachment to work engagement and and organization individual performance In the results of table 1, it is found that employee engagement affects the individual performance results of various respondents, namely employees. It is stated that the performance results resulting from employee engagement have a positive impact on other individuals. Besides, with the increase in employee engagement, the results of the work that have been done have been very satisfying, in line with Pang and Lu's (2018) theory, an organization will work well because of the high employee engagement that has been formed for each individual (Rashid & Azhar, 2015). The findings of Gupta, Acharya & Gupta (2014) state that with the formation of high employee engagement, performance will increase, then individuals who work will voluntarily provide more service to their customers. Likewise, the findings by Karatepe (2013) state that employee engagement can improve individual performance, and individuals who feel engaged in their work will be motivated to provide extra services from their main job to customers. Analysis of the results of table 1, many of the findings state that high employee engagement has a significant impact on individual performance, such as the results of research by Dajani (2015); Sekhar, Patwardhan, & Vyas (2017) and Ismail, Iqbal & Nasr (2018). In line with Bakker et al., (2008), it is said that individuals who feel engaged with work will feel the psychological health impact. However, it needs to be seen again from the various determining factors that can increase the sense of engagement in a job, such as job demands and job resources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007), so that the quality of work is better and more satisfying (Alqarni, 2016; Cesario & Chambel, 2017; Yeh, 2013). 45 | Ilomata International Journal of Social Science Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2021 Satata In the findings of Kim, Han & Park (2019), employee engagement is also able to mediate in the relationship between variables and can reduce the occurrence of turnover intention in individuals in addition to work performance results. From the findings of these findings, it has been proven that high employee engagement can have a good and positive impact on work performance (Adrianto & Riyanto, 2020), this is based on strengthening the previous theory (Demerouti & Cropanzano, 2010). The findings of Sekhar, Patwardhan & Vyas (2017) that individuals who feel engaged with their work and have a higher sense and involvement in activities in their organization will produce good job performance (Ngwenya, & Pelser, 2020). This is in line with existing findings that indicate employee engagement, directly and indirectly, affects individual performance (Azizah & Gustomo, 2015). Several aspects such as the nature of the customer can affect the level of employee engagement, if the customer is less cooperative with individuals in the organization, it can cause burnout to turnover intention (Wang & Chen, 2019). The findings of Ismail, Iqbal & Nasr (2018) that positive emotions can foster employee engagement so that it can improve good work performance (Cesario & Chambel, 2017) with good service output, of course (Gupta, Acharya, & Gupta, 2015). 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