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Glycaemic indices of different varieties of rice grown in Sri Lanka

Glycaemic indices of different varieties of rice grown in Sri Lanka (fibre) content. Objective Varieties of red raw rice are widely believed to The glycaemic index has been developed as an indi­ have a better nutritional quality. The physiological effects cator of the physiological effect of foods (2). The glycaemic of consuming different varieties of rice may not be so. The index indicates how rapidly the blood glucose will rise with glycaemic index has been developed as an indicator of the different foods containing carbohydrate. Blood glucose raising physiological effect of foods. It is the glycaemic response ability of carbohydrates are compared against a standard food of a 50 g carbohydrate portion of food expressed as a (white bread or glucose) and expressed as a percentage. percentage of that of a standard. The objective of this study was to determine the glycaemic indices of different Low glycaemic index foods lead to lowering of the varieties of rice grown in Sri Lanka. postprandial blood glucose level and produce a fall in the fructosamine and cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 Design Digestible carbohydrate content of 11 varieties of diabetes (3). Low glycaemic index foods have been shown rice flour and bread were determined. Fasting blood samples also to be beneficial in coronary heart disease (4). Insulin followed by half-hourly samples for two hours were drawn sensitivity and HDL concentration are two predictors of after giving portions of either cooked rice or bread con­ coronary heart disease that are influenced by the diet (4). taining 50 g carbohydrate each. There is a significant negative relationship between serum Setting Fibre mill in Gampaha district. HDL concentration and glycaemic index of the diet. This Subjects Twenty-two fibre mill workers aged between 25 suggests that inclusion of low glycaemic index foods in the and 50 years. diet will lead to a lower prevalence of coronary heart dis­ ease. Foods with low glycaemic index are useful in obesity Measurements The area under the blood glucose curve (5) and sports medicine (6). Athletes should be encour­ (AUC) for varieties of rice for a subject was calculated. aged to consume foods with low glycaemic indices 30 to 60 Average AUC of 3 values for bread were calculated. min before exercise as it will decrease the likelihood of Glycaemic index of each variety of rice was determined hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia at the onset of ex­ from the above variables. ercise, and increase endurance time. Results Glycaemic indices of varieties of rice differ. The glycaemic indices of varieties of red raw rice varied be­ According to published reports different varieties of tween 56 and 73 and the variety Bg 350 had the lowest rice have variable glycaemic indices (7,8). If the glycaemic glycaemic index. There was no significant difference be­ index of a specific variety of rice is not known, advice given tween mean glycaemic index of varieties of white raw and to patients with diabetes may not be evidence based. The some varieties of red raw rice (p=0.2). Parboiled varieties selection of a variety of rice to be consumed by patients. of red raw rice had a significantly lower glycaemic index with diabetes mellitus should be based on its physiological than white raw rice (p=0.04) and some of the red raw rice effects. (p=0.005). Methods Conclusions The glycaemic index cannot be predicted from the colour of the rice grain. Red parboiled varieties of Study sample rice and Bg 350 can be recommended for patients with Twenty-two volunteers of both sexes aged between diabetes. 25 and 50 years with a normal glucose tolerance test partici­ pated in the study. Subjects were given a brief outline of Introduction the study and requested to report at 08.00 hours, after fast­ ing for 12 hours on the assigned day. The University of Sri Rice is the staple diet in Sri Lanka. We consume rice Jayawardenepura ethical committee approved the study. processed by different methods. The results of a recent survey carried Out in Kandy district showed that a major­ Blood collection ity of consumers preferred varieties of red parboiled rice Capillary blood was collected by finger-prick using (1). Residents of southern coastal regions also preferred sterile lancets. Eppendorf tubes containing the residue of varieties of red raw rice, and those from urban areas pre­ sodium fluoride and potassium oxalate (0.2 ml solution con­ ferred varieties of parboiled white rice (1). Varieties of red taining 12 g/ 100 ml sodium fluoride and 1 g / 100 ml potas­ raw rice are popular among patients with diabetes. Nutri­ sium oxalate) were used for blood collection. After collecting tionists and medical professionals believe that red par­ Departments of Physiology'-2, Biochemistry3, Community Medicine and Family Medicine*, and Medicine5, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayawardenepura. (Revised version accepted 20 January 2001. Financial support from National Science Foundation Grant RG/96/M/10). Vol. 46, No. 1, March 2001 11 Papers a fasting blood sample, each subject was given rice or calculation (Table 1). Rice and bread portions containing bread containing SO g carbohydrate (Table 1) with a spoon­ 50 g carbohydrate were weighed using an electronic balance. ful of gravy and asked to consume the meal within 10 min­ utes. Water (200 ml) was provided for drinking. Finger- prick blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minute intervals after completion of the meal into Eppendorf Table 2. Description of varieties of rice tubes. An identified variety of rice or a standard food (bread) was fed at weekly intervals. The glucose oxidase method Rice breeding Method Rice Colour was used for blood glucose determination (9). Institution of processing varieties of the pericarp Bathalagaoda raw Bg94-1 white Bg450 white Table 1. Moisture content, digestible, carbohydrate Bg350 red content and weight of cooked rice and bread containing 50 g carbohydrates Bathalagoda parboiled Bg94-1 white Bg300 white Rice variety *Moisture ^Digestible Weights of portion carbohydrate containing 50 g Bombuwala Bw302 white raw carbohydrate (g) content (g) Bw400 red Bw302 65 66.5 215 Bw272-6B red Bw351 red Bg450 60 85.1 147 Bg94-1 75.2 65 190 Bombuwala parboiled Bw272-6B red Bw351 red Bw400 65 79.5 180 Bw272-6-B 60 82.6 152 Bw351 65 73.5 195 Bread 72.8 172 Bg 60 White bread was prepared at the CISIR (Industrial Technology Institute) using a standard recipe. The same method was used throughout the study for preparation of Bg300 60 80.1 159 bread. Bg94-1 68 59.9 261 Gravy Bw351 78 60 160 Gravy was prepared by adding garlic (Allium sativum) Bw2726-B 65 73.6 194 (10 g), spices (10 g), chillie powder (Capsicum frutescens) (10 g), goraka (Garcinia cambogia) (10 g) and salt to fresh Standard (bread) 36 73.4 105 Tuna fish (Neothunnus mactropterus) (1 g), and cooking in a large pot on low fire for one hour. (* Determined in 100 g of cooked rice. # Values are expressed as percentage by mass on dry basis.) Calculation of the glycaemic index Different curves were obtained for blood glucose values after different meals at 0, 1,1 Vi and 2 hours. The Rice area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) for a subject for Twelve different varieties of paddy were obtained a variety of rice was calculated (13). The AUC for rice and from the Rice Research Development Institute, Batalagoda bread were calculated by applying the appropriate math­ and Regional Agriculture Development Centre, Bombuwala ematical formula (13). The average of three AUC values of (Table 2) Some of the samples of paddy were steam par­ bread for a subject was obtained. The glycaemic index of a boiled under standard conditions. Dehusking and milling variety of rice for each subject was calculated using the of raw and parboiled varieties of rice were carried out at formula shown below: Rice Processing and Development Centre, Anuradhapura. The digestible carbohydrate content of rice flour and bread was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis (10) followed by AUC of test food Nelson's method (11). The moisture content of cooked rice Glycaemic index = xlOO and bread was calculated by the method of Dean and Stark AUC of reference food (12). Using these data we prepared each portion of cooked rice and bread containing 50 g carbohydrate. The moisture The glycaemic index of each variety of rice was found content of cooked rice and bread was accounted for in this by taking the average of the above ratios. Ceylon Medical Journal 12 Papers Statistical analysis difference was observed between the mean glycaemic in­ dices of parboiled white rice (Bg 94-1, Bg 300) and variet­ Content of carbohydrate and glycaemic indices of ies of raw white (Bg 450, Bg 94-1, Bw 302) rice. different varieties of rice were compared using the Student's t test Discussion The results of this study showed that glycaemic in­ Results dices of different varieties of rice commonly consumed by Sri Lankans differ widely. Studies in other countries Digestible carbohydrate content of different varieties have also shown that there are wide variations in the of rice varied from 74 to 84 g%. There was no difference glycaemic indices of different varieties of rice (7,8). The between the digestible carbohydrate content of different glycaemic indices of varieties of red raw rice used in the varieties of rice. present investigation varied between 56 and 73. This im­ The glycaemic indices of the varieties of rice under plies that the glycaemic index cannot be predicted from investigation are shown in Table 3. The glycaemic index of the colour of the rice grain. There were also no significant white rice ranged from 62 to 68. The mean glycaemic index differences between the mean glycaemic indices of vari­ of varieties of parboiled white rice (Bg 300, Bg 94-1) was 64. eties of white raw and some of the red raw rice. Our re­ The mean glycaemic indices of different varieties of raw sults indicate that the colour of the rice grain is of little white rice (Bg 450, Bg 94-1, Bw 302) was 66. The glycaemic value in predicting its glycaemic index. Patients with dia­ indices of varieties of red rice varied from 56 to 73. Bg 350, betes, nutritionists and medical professionals believe that which is a raw red variety, had the lowest glycaemic index. consuming varieties of red raw rice is better than white The highest glycaemic index was observed in Bw 351, a raw rice. The results of the present study show that all variet­ red variety. The mean glycaemic index of all the varieties of ies of raw red rice do not have a low glycaemic index raw red rice (Bw 400, Bw 272 - 6B, Bw 351, Bg 350) was 65. when compared to white rice. Only certain varieties of red The mean glycaemic index of varieties of parboiled red rice parboiled rice and Bg 350 can be specially recommended (Bw 272-6B, Bw351) was 57. The glycaemic indices of Bg in obesity, patients with diabetes and with coronary heart 94-1 (68), Bw 272- 6B (68), Bw 351 (73), changed to 62,58 disease. There is a need for formulating and implement­ and 56 respectively, followed parboiling (p=0.04). ing a policy on food labelling in Sri Lanka, so that con­ There was a significant difference in the mean sumers can easily obtain information about the glycaemic glycaemic indices between varieties of parboiled red rice indices of different varieties of rice. (Bw 272-6B, Bw351) and some varieties of raw red rice (Bw 400, Bw 351, Bw 272,6B) (p=0.005), and raw white rice (Bg The parboiling process appears to lower the 450, Bw 302, Bg 94-1) (p=0.04). There was no significant glycaemic index, especially of red raw rice, by changing difference between the mean glycaemic indices of varieties in its physico-chemical properties. The effects of parboil­ of parboiled white (Bg 94-1, Bg 300) and varieties of par­ ing of red raw rice on the glycaemic index of raw red rice boiled red (Bw 272-6B, Bw351) rice (p=0.09). No significant need further investigation. Table 3. Glycaemic indices of varieties of rice Pericarp Glycaemic index n CV Rice ±SEM colour variety Bg450 white 67±5 16 30.6 Bg94-1 white 68±6 16 37.1 64±6 Bw302 white 16 36.2 66±5 Bw400 red 15 27.5 Bw2726-B red 68±7 16 39.2 Bw351 red 73±4 19 24.9 Bg350 red 55±6 15 39.2 Bg 300 (parboiled white 66±5 15 29.3 62±6 Bg 94-1 (parboiled) white 15 38.0 Bw 351 (parboiled) red 56±5 17 39.1 Bw 2726-B (parboiled) red 58±5 22 42.9 (The glycaemic indices of white bread = 100. n = number of subjects.) Vol. 46, No. I, March 2001 13 Papers loss and plasma insulin concentration hyperinsulinaemic obese Acknowledgements females. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; 60: 48 - We thank the Rice Research Development Institute 53 . Bathalagoda, the Regional Agriculture Development Cen­ 6. Walton P, Rhodes EC. Glycaemic index and optimal sports tre Bombuwala, for providing the required quantities of performance. Sports Medicine 1997; 3: 164-72. rice, the Rice Processing Research and Development Cen­ tre for dehusking and milling the rice and the CISIR (Indus­ 7 . Miller JB, Pang E, Bramall L. Rice: a high or low glycaemic trial Technology Institute) for allowing us to use their labo­ index food. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 56: 1034-6. ratory for chemical analysis of rice. We are grateful to the National Science Foundation for funding this study. 8. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J. Jenkins A. Giordano C, Guidici S, et al. Comparison of regular and parboiled rice: References explanation of discrepancies between glycaemic responses to rice. Nutrition Research 1986; 6: 349-57. 1. Breckenridge C, Abesekera S, Hussein S, Nadesan MT. Survey to determine rice consumer preference in Kandy District. Tropi­ 9. Hugget Ast G, Nixan DA. Use of glucose oxidase, peroxidase cal Agriculturist 1979; 135: 47-68. and dianisidine in the determination of blood glucose. Lancet 1952; 2: 368-70. 2 . Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden SRN, Baldwin JM , et al. Glycaemic index of food: a physiologi­ 10. Pitipanarachchi RC. Industrial utilization of bread fruit cal basis for carbohydrate exchange. American Journal of Clini­ (A rtocarpus communis). MSc thesis. University of Sri Jayawar­ cal Nutrition 1981; 34 : 362-6. denepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka, 1997. 3 . Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. Dietary advice based on the 11 . Nelson NA. Photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method glycaemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic con­ for the determination of glucose. Journal of Biological Chem­ trol in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine 1994; 4: istry 1944; 153: 375-80. 397-401 . 12. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Methods 4 . Frost G, Leeds AA, Dore CJ, Madeiras S, Dornhorst A. Analysis of the AOAC. 14lhed. AOAC, Washington, DC, 1984; Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholestrol 7:4 . concentration. Lancet 1999; 353: 1045-48. 13. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA. The use of the glycaemic index in 5 . Slabber M, Bernard HC, Kuyl JM, Dannhauser A, Schall R. predicting the blood glucose response to mixed meals. Ameri­ Effect of a low insulin response, energy restricted diet in weight can Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986; 43: 167-72. Ceylon Medical Journal http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ceylon Medical Journal Unpaywall

Glycaemic indices of different varieties of rice grown in Sri Lanka

Ceylon Medical JournalJan 31, 2014

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Unpaywall
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0009-0875
DOI
10.4038/cmj.v46i1.6516
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Abstract

(fibre) content. Objective Varieties of red raw rice are widely believed to The glycaemic index has been developed as an indi­ have a better nutritional quality. The physiological effects cator of the physiological effect of foods (2). The glycaemic of consuming different varieties of rice may not be so. The index indicates how rapidly the blood glucose will rise with glycaemic index has been developed as an indicator of the different foods containing carbohydrate. Blood glucose raising physiological effect of foods. It is the glycaemic response ability of carbohydrates are compared against a standard food of a 50 g carbohydrate portion of food expressed as a (white bread or glucose) and expressed as a percentage. percentage of that of a standard. The objective of this study was to determine the glycaemic indices of different Low glycaemic index foods lead to lowering of the varieties of rice grown in Sri Lanka. postprandial blood glucose level and produce a fall in the fructosamine and cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 Design Digestible carbohydrate content of 11 varieties of diabetes (3). Low glycaemic index foods have been shown rice flour and bread were determined. Fasting blood samples also to be beneficial in coronary heart disease (4). Insulin followed by half-hourly samples for two hours were drawn sensitivity and HDL concentration are two predictors of after giving portions of either cooked rice or bread con­ coronary heart disease that are influenced by the diet (4). taining 50 g carbohydrate each. There is a significant negative relationship between serum Setting Fibre mill in Gampaha district. HDL concentration and glycaemic index of the diet. This Subjects Twenty-two fibre mill workers aged between 25 suggests that inclusion of low glycaemic index foods in the and 50 years. diet will lead to a lower prevalence of coronary heart dis­ ease. Foods with low glycaemic index are useful in obesity Measurements The area under the blood glucose curve (5) and sports medicine (6). Athletes should be encour­ (AUC) for varieties of rice for a subject was calculated. aged to consume foods with low glycaemic indices 30 to 60 Average AUC of 3 values for bread were calculated. min before exercise as it will decrease the likelihood of Glycaemic index of each variety of rice was determined hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia at the onset of ex­ from the above variables. ercise, and increase endurance time. Results Glycaemic indices of varieties of rice differ. The glycaemic indices of varieties of red raw rice varied be­ According to published reports different varieties of tween 56 and 73 and the variety Bg 350 had the lowest rice have variable glycaemic indices (7,8). If the glycaemic glycaemic index. There was no significant difference be­ index of a specific variety of rice is not known, advice given tween mean glycaemic index of varieties of white raw and to patients with diabetes may not be evidence based. The some varieties of red raw rice (p=0.2). Parboiled varieties selection of a variety of rice to be consumed by patients. of red raw rice had a significantly lower glycaemic index with diabetes mellitus should be based on its physiological than white raw rice (p=0.04) and some of the red raw rice effects. (p=0.005). Methods Conclusions The glycaemic index cannot be predicted from the colour of the rice grain. Red parboiled varieties of Study sample rice and Bg 350 can be recommended for patients with Twenty-two volunteers of both sexes aged between diabetes. 25 and 50 years with a normal glucose tolerance test partici­ pated in the study. Subjects were given a brief outline of Introduction the study and requested to report at 08.00 hours, after fast­ ing for 12 hours on the assigned day. The University of Sri Rice is the staple diet in Sri Lanka. We consume rice Jayawardenepura ethical committee approved the study. processed by different methods. The results of a recent survey carried Out in Kandy district showed that a major­ Blood collection ity of consumers preferred varieties of red parboiled rice Capillary blood was collected by finger-prick using (1). Residents of southern coastal regions also preferred sterile lancets. Eppendorf tubes containing the residue of varieties of red raw rice, and those from urban areas pre­ sodium fluoride and potassium oxalate (0.2 ml solution con­ ferred varieties of parboiled white rice (1). Varieties of red taining 12 g/ 100 ml sodium fluoride and 1 g / 100 ml potas­ raw rice are popular among patients with diabetes. Nutri­ sium oxalate) were used for blood collection. After collecting tionists and medical professionals believe that red par­ Departments of Physiology'-2, Biochemistry3, Community Medicine and Family Medicine*, and Medicine5, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayawardenepura. (Revised version accepted 20 January 2001. Financial support from National Science Foundation Grant RG/96/M/10). Vol. 46, No. 1, March 2001 11 Papers a fasting blood sample, each subject was given rice or calculation (Table 1). Rice and bread portions containing bread containing SO g carbohydrate (Table 1) with a spoon­ 50 g carbohydrate were weighed using an electronic balance. ful of gravy and asked to consume the meal within 10 min­ utes. Water (200 ml) was provided for drinking. Finger- prick blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minute intervals after completion of the meal into Eppendorf Table 2. Description of varieties of rice tubes. An identified variety of rice or a standard food (bread) was fed at weekly intervals. The glucose oxidase method Rice breeding Method Rice Colour was used for blood glucose determination (9). Institution of processing varieties of the pericarp Bathalagaoda raw Bg94-1 white Bg450 white Table 1. Moisture content, digestible, carbohydrate Bg350 red content and weight of cooked rice and bread containing 50 g carbohydrates Bathalagoda parboiled Bg94-1 white Bg300 white Rice variety *Moisture ^Digestible Weights of portion carbohydrate containing 50 g Bombuwala Bw302 white raw carbohydrate (g) content (g) Bw400 red Bw302 65 66.5 215 Bw272-6B red Bw351 red Bg450 60 85.1 147 Bg94-1 75.2 65 190 Bombuwala parboiled Bw272-6B red Bw351 red Bw400 65 79.5 180 Bw272-6-B 60 82.6 152 Bw351 65 73.5 195 Bread 72.8 172 Bg 60 White bread was prepared at the CISIR (Industrial Technology Institute) using a standard recipe. The same method was used throughout the study for preparation of Bg300 60 80.1 159 bread. Bg94-1 68 59.9 261 Gravy Bw351 78 60 160 Gravy was prepared by adding garlic (Allium sativum) Bw2726-B 65 73.6 194 (10 g), spices (10 g), chillie powder (Capsicum frutescens) (10 g), goraka (Garcinia cambogia) (10 g) and salt to fresh Standard (bread) 36 73.4 105 Tuna fish (Neothunnus mactropterus) (1 g), and cooking in a large pot on low fire for one hour. (* Determined in 100 g of cooked rice. # Values are expressed as percentage by mass on dry basis.) Calculation of the glycaemic index Different curves were obtained for blood glucose values after different meals at 0, 1,1 Vi and 2 hours. The Rice area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) for a subject for Twelve different varieties of paddy were obtained a variety of rice was calculated (13). The AUC for rice and from the Rice Research Development Institute, Batalagoda bread were calculated by applying the appropriate math­ and Regional Agriculture Development Centre, Bombuwala ematical formula (13). The average of three AUC values of (Table 2) Some of the samples of paddy were steam par­ bread for a subject was obtained. The glycaemic index of a boiled under standard conditions. Dehusking and milling variety of rice for each subject was calculated using the of raw and parboiled varieties of rice were carried out at formula shown below: Rice Processing and Development Centre, Anuradhapura. The digestible carbohydrate content of rice flour and bread was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis (10) followed by AUC of test food Nelson's method (11). The moisture content of cooked rice Glycaemic index = xlOO and bread was calculated by the method of Dean and Stark AUC of reference food (12). Using these data we prepared each portion of cooked rice and bread containing 50 g carbohydrate. The moisture The glycaemic index of each variety of rice was found content of cooked rice and bread was accounted for in this by taking the average of the above ratios. Ceylon Medical Journal 12 Papers Statistical analysis difference was observed between the mean glycaemic in­ dices of parboiled white rice (Bg 94-1, Bg 300) and variet­ Content of carbohydrate and glycaemic indices of ies of raw white (Bg 450, Bg 94-1, Bw 302) rice. different varieties of rice were compared using the Student's t test Discussion The results of this study showed that glycaemic in­ Results dices of different varieties of rice commonly consumed by Sri Lankans differ widely. Studies in other countries Digestible carbohydrate content of different varieties have also shown that there are wide variations in the of rice varied from 74 to 84 g%. There was no difference glycaemic indices of different varieties of rice (7,8). The between the digestible carbohydrate content of different glycaemic indices of varieties of red raw rice used in the varieties of rice. present investigation varied between 56 and 73. This im­ The glycaemic indices of the varieties of rice under plies that the glycaemic index cannot be predicted from investigation are shown in Table 3. The glycaemic index of the colour of the rice grain. There were also no significant white rice ranged from 62 to 68. The mean glycaemic index differences between the mean glycaemic indices of vari­ of varieties of parboiled white rice (Bg 300, Bg 94-1) was 64. eties of white raw and some of the red raw rice. Our re­ The mean glycaemic indices of different varieties of raw sults indicate that the colour of the rice grain is of little white rice (Bg 450, Bg 94-1, Bw 302) was 66. The glycaemic value in predicting its glycaemic index. Patients with dia­ indices of varieties of red rice varied from 56 to 73. Bg 350, betes, nutritionists and medical professionals believe that which is a raw red variety, had the lowest glycaemic index. consuming varieties of red raw rice is better than white The highest glycaemic index was observed in Bw 351, a raw rice. The results of the present study show that all variet­ red variety. The mean glycaemic index of all the varieties of ies of raw red rice do not have a low glycaemic index raw red rice (Bw 400, Bw 272 - 6B, Bw 351, Bg 350) was 65. when compared to white rice. Only certain varieties of red The mean glycaemic index of varieties of parboiled red rice parboiled rice and Bg 350 can be specially recommended (Bw 272-6B, Bw351) was 57. The glycaemic indices of Bg in obesity, patients with diabetes and with coronary heart 94-1 (68), Bw 272- 6B (68), Bw 351 (73), changed to 62,58 disease. There is a need for formulating and implement­ and 56 respectively, followed parboiling (p=0.04). ing a policy on food labelling in Sri Lanka, so that con­ There was a significant difference in the mean sumers can easily obtain information about the glycaemic glycaemic indices between varieties of parboiled red rice indices of different varieties of rice. (Bw 272-6B, Bw351) and some varieties of raw red rice (Bw 400, Bw 351, Bw 272,6B) (p=0.005), and raw white rice (Bg The parboiling process appears to lower the 450, Bw 302, Bg 94-1) (p=0.04). There was no significant glycaemic index, especially of red raw rice, by changing difference between the mean glycaemic indices of varieties in its physico-chemical properties. The effects of parboil­ of parboiled white (Bg 94-1, Bg 300) and varieties of par­ ing of red raw rice on the glycaemic index of raw red rice boiled red (Bw 272-6B, Bw351) rice (p=0.09). No significant need further investigation. Table 3. Glycaemic indices of varieties of rice Pericarp Glycaemic index n CV Rice ±SEM colour variety Bg450 white 67±5 16 30.6 Bg94-1 white 68±6 16 37.1 64±6 Bw302 white 16 36.2 66±5 Bw400 red 15 27.5 Bw2726-B red 68±7 16 39.2 Bw351 red 73±4 19 24.9 Bg350 red 55±6 15 39.2 Bg 300 (parboiled white 66±5 15 29.3 62±6 Bg 94-1 (parboiled) white 15 38.0 Bw 351 (parboiled) red 56±5 17 39.1 Bw 2726-B (parboiled) red 58±5 22 42.9 (The glycaemic indices of white bread = 100. n = number of subjects.) Vol. 46, No. I, March 2001 13 Papers loss and plasma insulin concentration hyperinsulinaemic obese Acknowledgements females. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; 60: 48 - We thank the Rice Research Development Institute 53 . Bathalagoda, the Regional Agriculture Development Cen­ 6. Walton P, Rhodes EC. Glycaemic index and optimal sports tre Bombuwala, for providing the required quantities of performance. Sports Medicine 1997; 3: 164-72. rice, the Rice Processing Research and Development Cen­ tre for dehusking and milling the rice and the CISIR (Indus­ 7 . Miller JB, Pang E, Bramall L. Rice: a high or low glycaemic trial Technology Institute) for allowing us to use their labo­ index food. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 56: 1034-6. ratory for chemical analysis of rice. We are grateful to the National Science Foundation for funding this study. 8. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J. Jenkins A. Giordano C, Guidici S, et al. Comparison of regular and parboiled rice: References explanation of discrepancies between glycaemic responses to rice. Nutrition Research 1986; 6: 349-57. 1. Breckenridge C, Abesekera S, Hussein S, Nadesan MT. Survey to determine rice consumer preference in Kandy District. Tropi­ 9. Hugget Ast G, Nixan DA. Use of glucose oxidase, peroxidase cal Agriculturist 1979; 135: 47-68. and dianisidine in the determination of blood glucose. Lancet 1952; 2: 368-70. 2 . Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden SRN, Baldwin JM , et al. Glycaemic index of food: a physiologi­ 10. Pitipanarachchi RC. Industrial utilization of bread fruit cal basis for carbohydrate exchange. American Journal of Clini­ (A rtocarpus communis). MSc thesis. University of Sri Jayawar­ cal Nutrition 1981; 34 : 362-6. denepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka, 1997. 3 . Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. Dietary advice based on the 11 . Nelson NA. Photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method glycaemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic con­ for the determination of glucose. Journal of Biological Chem­ trol in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine 1994; 4: istry 1944; 153: 375-80. 397-401 . 12. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Methods 4 . Frost G, Leeds AA, Dore CJ, Madeiras S, Dornhorst A. Analysis of the AOAC. 14lhed. AOAC, Washington, DC, 1984; Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholestrol 7:4 . concentration. Lancet 1999; 353: 1045-48. 13. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA. The use of the glycaemic index in 5 . Slabber M, Bernard HC, Kuyl JM, Dannhauser A, Schall R. predicting the blood glucose response to mixed meals. Ameri­ Effect of a low insulin response, energy restricted diet in weight can Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986; 43: 167-72. Ceylon Medical Journal

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Ceylon Medical JournalUnpaywall

Published: Jan 31, 2014

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