Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Green Method for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract under UV Light and Their Catalytic Activity to Reduce Methylene Blue

Green Method for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract under... Hindawi Journal of Nanomaterials Volume 2017, Article ID 3079636, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3079636 Research Article Green Method for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract under UV Light and Their Catalytic Activity to Reduce Methylene Blue Yoki Yulizar, Tresye Utari, Harits Atika Ariyanta, and Digha Maulina Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia Correspondence should be addressed to Yoki Yulizar; yokiy@ui.ac.id Received 9 February 2017; Accepted 19 September 2017; Published 28 November 2017 Academic Editor: Ilaria Fratoddi Copyright © 2017 Yoki Yulizar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The aqueous fraction of Polyscias scutellaria leaf extract (PSE) has been used as a reducing agent and stabilizer in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). UV-Vis spectrophotometry, particle size analyzer (PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy-selected area electron diffraction (TEM-SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize AuNPs. eTh AuNPs have a size of 5–20 nm and have a face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure 3+ and are stable for 21 days. Phenolic compounds, which are secondary metabolites of PSE, act as an active compound to reduce Au ion to Au , as well as stabilize the AuNPs through their surface interaction with carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of phenols. AuNPs exhibit excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of methylene blue with NaBH . eTh reduction of methylene blue using AuNPs −1 catalysts is a pseudo-first-order reaction with a reduction rate constant (𝑘 ) of 0.0223 min . obs 1. Introduction lanata leaf [12], Coriandrum sativum leaf [13], Phyllanthus [14],and hennaleaf[15]asreducingagentsinAuNPs In recent years, research on the synthesis of nanoparticles synthesis. On the other hand, Indonesia has abundant natural using green materials, commonly called green synthesis, resources, including a biological diversity [16–19]. Many types has been growing. eTh proposed materials are types of of plants can be explored and used as a nanoparticles green microorganisms, enzymes, plants, or plant extracts [1]. eTh synthesis material. One of the plants which is easily found reported biological resources can be used as a reducing and in Indonesia and has not been reported as a nanoparticles stabilizing agent in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles [2–5]. synthesis material is Polyscias scutellaria. Polyscias scutellaria eTh role of plants in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles leaves contain alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and polyphe- depends on the content of secondary metabolites. Specific nols [20]. er Th efore, Polyscias scutellaria leaf is an appropriate plants contain specific chemical compounds which can act as choice as a reducing and stabilizing agent in green synthesis active substances in the process of reduction and stabilization of AuNPs. of nanoparticles. These compounds are alternative environ- AuNPs are interesting to study, especially their catalytic mentally friendly materials in nanoparticle production due properties [21–25], due to their excellent stability. eTh y have to their function to reduce the use of hazardous chemicals, been known as excellent catalysts in redox reactions due to including wastes [6]. Biomolecules in plant extracts that their large surface area. In a previous study, AuNPs have been can reduce metal ions into nanoparticles include proteins, widely used as a good catalyst in reducing methylene blue polysaccharides, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phe- (MB) in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH ). The nolic acids [7, 8]. existence of AuNPs as a catalyst makes the reduction of MB Several studies of green synthesis have used the extracts run faster [26]. of J. sambac leaf [5], Rosa rugosa leaf [9], Magnolia kobus and In this work, AuNPs were synthesized using Polyscias Diospyros kaki leaves [10], Ocimum sanctum leaf [11], Aerva scutellaria leaf extract (PSE) with the assistance of UV 2 Journal of Nanomaterials radiation. Moreover, reduction of MB was used as a model reaction to evaluate the catalytic activity of AuNPs. 2. Experimental 2.1. Chemicals and Materials. Polyscias scutellaria was obtained from Tegalwaru, Bogor, and has been determined at 10 C-O-C LIPI, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. NaBH and methylene blue 1609 C-O were obtained from Merck. Methanol, n-hexane, and ethyl C-H 3371 C=C acetate were obtained from PT. Brataco. HAuCl solution 8 O-H used in this research was synthesized by dissolving 99.99% of pure Au metal (PT Antam) in aqua regia (HNO :HCl = 1:3) 4000 3000 2000 1000 −1 solution. All chemicals were of analytical grade and were Wavenumber (cm ) −1 used without further puricfi ation. MilliQ water (18.2 Ω cm ) PSE aqueous extract wasusedtomakeaqueous solutions. Figure 1: FTIR spectrum of PSE aqueous extract. 2.2. Preparation of Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract. Five kilograms of Polyscias scutellaria leaves was washed with aqueous fraction showed a positive result of flavonoids, waterand driedinthe openair. 50gofdried Polyscias alkaloids, and saponins. scutellaria leaf powder was macerated in 250 mL of methanol FTIR characterization was conducted to determine the for 7 days. eTh mixture was filtered to obtain a greenish functional groups of PSE aqueous fraction as shown in Fig- concentrated solution. It was partitioned using n-hexane with ure 1. eTh stretch of -OH group was observed at wavenumber the volume ratio of 1 : 1. The methanol fraction was collected −1 −1 and concentrated using a vacuum rotatory evaporator at 3371 cm , C-H group at 2946 cm , C=C aromatic group −1 −1 50 C. It was repartitioned using water and ethyl acetate at 1609 cm , -C-O aromatic ring at 1402 cm , and C-O- −1 solvents in a volume ratio of 1 : 1. The final water fraction of Cgroup at1093cm . es Th e results are consistent with the Polyscias scutellaria leaf extract (PSE) was then collected and flavonoids FTIR character of Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract concentrated using a vacuum rotatory evaporator. eTh water from Das and Velusamy’s research in 2014 [26]. er Th efore, fraction of PSE was tested phytochemically and characterized the active compound in the aqueous PSE indicated a type of using FTIR spectroscopy (Prestige 21, Shimadzu) to deter- flavonoid compounds. mine the content of secondary metabolites for the synthesis of AuNPs. 3.2. PSEConcentration Eeff ctinAuNPs Synthesis. AuNPs were synthesized using PSE under UV radiation for 2 hours 2.3. Synthesis of Au Nanoparticles. Nine millilitres of 1.0 due to containing less active compounds at room conditions. −4 × 10 MHAuCl solution wasaddedto1.0mL of water Therefore, the higher energy of UV light is required to excite fraction of PSE with various concentrations from 0.001 to 3+ theelectrons in theactivecompoundforreducing Au 0.050% (m/v). Each mixture was irradiated under a UV lamp to Au . AuNPs formation was observed through the color for 2 hours. The synthesis results were characterized using a changes from yellow to pink at 𝜆 of 510–580 nm [27]. UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimadzu 2600), FTIR, particle max AuNPs synthesis was conducted in various concentrations of size analyzer (PSA, Malvern ZEN 1600), XRD (Shimadzu 7000), and TEM-SAED (JEM 1400). PSE to determine the optimum concentration for reducing and stabilizing AuNPs. eTh higher the concentration of PSE, the more intense the color of the colloid generated in the 2.4. Catalytic Activity of AuNPs. The mixture of 4.0 mL of −5 3.0 × 10 M methylene blue and 0.5 mL of 0.1 M NaBH system, due to the increase of the reducing agent. However, solution was added to AuNPs colloid as a catalyst at various in high concentrations of PSE, faster growth of AuNPs core volumes of 50–150𝜇Lorequivalenttotheconcentrationof occurred, causing an increase in the nanoparticles collisions 1.10–3.23% (v/v). The mixture was shaken and its reaction frequency to form agglomeration. was observed through absorbance change using a UV-Vis The optimum concentration of PSE in AuNPs synthesis spectrophotometer against reaction time for 30 minutes. was indicated from the high absorbance value, smallest maximum wavelength (𝜆 ), and sharpest peak shape. max Absorbance indicates the amount of substance to absorb 3. Results and Discussion light. Wavelength indicates the amount of energy needed 3.1. Identification of Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract. Aque- by nanoparticles to conduct surface plasmon resonance ous and methanol leaf extracts of Polyscias scutellaria (PSE) (SPR). The great size of nanoparticles results in a smaller were phytochemically tested to determine its active com- bandgap. eTh refore, the energy required to conduct elec- pounds. eTh methanol fraction showed a positive result of tronic transition was getting smaller and𝜆 shifted towards max flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, and saponins, whereas the a higher value. Sharp absorption peaks indicate that the Transmitance (%) Journal of Nanomaterials 3 0.6 Size distribution by number 0.5 0.4 0.3 1 10 100 Size (d (nm)) 0.2 Figure 4: Particle size distribution analysis of AuNPs at 0.01% PSE concentration. 0.1 Zeta potential distribution ×10 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm) PSE 0.001% PSE 0.01% PSE 0.003% PSE 0.03% PSE 0.005% PSE 0.05% 0 PSE 0.007% Figure 2: UV-Vis absorption spectra of AuNPs formation with PSE Apparent zeta potential (mV) concentrations of 0.001 to 0.05% (w/v). Figure 5: Zeta potential distribution analysis of AuNPs at 0.01% PSE concentration. 548 1 546 0.9 544 0.8 a single peak, 15.49 nm. The resulting size indicated that the 542 0.7 3+ 0 PSE had sucffi ient strength to reduce Au to Au .This was 540 0.6 also confirmed from the zeta potential value of −19.6 mV that 538 0.5 explained the charge of PSE stabilizer capped AuNPs surface 536 0.4 (Figure 5). The more negative the zeta potential value, the 534 0.3 more frequent the interparticle repulsion, so that the particle 532 0.2 becomes more stable [29]. It is concluded that the PSE is a 530 0.1 good stabilizing agent for AuNPs. 0 5 1015202530 3.4. FTIR Analysis. FTIR characterization was conducted to Time (days) investigate the interaction between functional groups of PSE Wavelength and AuNPs in the PSE capped AuNPs. FTIR spectra show the Absorbance wavenumber shift of PSE functional groups before and aer ft Figure 3: AuNPs stability at PSE concentration of 0.01% observed AuNPs formation as shown in Figure 6. eTh vibrations of the −1 for 30 days. -OH group shifted from 3371 to 3427 cm and those of the −1 C=C aromatic group shieft d from 1609 to 1634 cm .These small shisft are due to the interaction of functional groups formed nanoparticles have a homogeneous size. The UV- (-OH and C=C) in PSE compounds on AuNPs surface. This Vis absorption spectra of AuNPs formation against various indicatesthatAuNPsarecappedbytheflavonoidsinPSE.The PSE concentrations are shown in Figure 2. eTh optimum oxidation of flavonoids in aqueous solutions under UV light 3+ concentration of PSE in AuNPs synthesis was 0.01% (w/v), may produce keto forms and act as a reducing agent for Au and AuNPs had a good stability for 21 days observed at to Au [26, 30]. 𝜆 of 532–534 nm as shown in Figure 3. eTh observation max of stability after 21 days showed larger 𝜆 shift and a max 3.5. TEM-SAED Analysis. TEM-SAED characterization was significant decrease of absorbance, indicating the occurrence conductedtoobservethemorphology, particle size,and of agglomeration [28]. crystal structure of AuNPs. Figure 7 shows the TEM images of the synthesized particle with a magnicfi ation of 150,000x. 3.3. Particle Size Analysis. PSA characterization was con- The morphology of AuNPs was spheres with a diameter ducted to determine the particle size and size distribution of of 5–20 nm. It was in accordance with the result of PSA AuNPs as shown in Figure 4. AuNPs size was distributed in characterization. Maximum wavelength (nm) Absorbance Absorbance Total counts Number (percent) −140 −120 −100 −80 −60 −40 −20 100 4 Journal of Nanomaterials Miller indices (111) 8 (200) (220) 4000 3000 2000 1000 (311) −1 Wavenumber (cm ) (222) PSE PSE-AuNPs Figure 8: SAED pattern of the synthesized AuNPs. Figure 6: FTIR spectra of PSE and PSE capped AuNPs at 0.01% PSE concentration. 40 50 60 70 80 2 theta (degree) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2 theta (degree) Figure 9: X-ray diffractogram of the synthesized AuNPs. Figure 7: TEM images of synthesized AuNPs with a magnification of 150,000x. 3.7. Catalytic Activity of AuNPs for the Methylene Blue Reduction. The catalytic activity of the synthesized AuNPs was tested in the reduction of methylene blue by NaBH . Reduction of methylene blue was observed from the fading of To conrfi m AuNPs formation and its crystal phase, the blue color solution due to the decrease of UV-Vis absorption Miller indices are adjusted with data join committee on spectrum at 𝜆 of 664 nm [32, 33]. In comparison, in max powder diffraction standards of Au (JCPDS number 04-0748) the same circumstances, methylene blue was reacted with bySAEDanalysis as showninFigure8.TheMillerindices NaBH in the absence of AuNPs catalyst and showed a very were (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222), indicating that the small decrease in absorbance of methylene blue as shown in synthesized AuNPs have a phase crystal of face centered cubic Figure 10. [26, 30, 31]. eTh reduction reaction was as follows: + − 3.6. XRD Analysis. XRD characterization was conducted to 4C H N S+ H + BH +3H O󳨀→ 16 18 3 4 2 (1) determine the crystallinity of AuNPs to support the data 4C H N S+ H BO 16 20 3 3 3 of TEM-SAED. Typical diffractogram peaks of AuNPs were determined by comparing the value of diffraction angle (2 𝜃) againstJCPDS Audata as showninFigure9.Fromtheresults, The reaction was assumed to follow pseudo-first-order kinet- there are some peaks of 2𝜃 values: 38.013, 44.190, 64.448, ics. It used the excess concentration of NaBH compared to 77.418, and 81.572 matched with JCPDS Au number 04- the concentration of methylene blue, so the concentration 0748: 38.184, 44.392, 64.576, 77.547, and 81.721, respectively of NaBH was considered to be fixed during the reaction. [26, 30, 31]. The pseudo-first-order rate constant was calculated from the Transmitance (%) Intensity (a.u.) Intensity (a.u.) Journal of Nanomaterials 5 Acknowledgments This work was funded by Hibah PITTA 2016 from Universitas −0.1 Indonesia through the directorate of research and com- munity services, Universitas Indonesia (no. 2040/UN2.R12/ −0.2 HKP.05.00/2016). −0.3 References [1] P. Mohanpuria,N.K.Rana,andS.K.Yadav,“Biosynthesis of −0.4 nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research,vol.10,no.3,pp.507–517,2008. −0.5 [2] A.Rajan,A.R.Rajan,and D.Philip,“Elettariacardamomum seed mediated rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its biological activities,” OpenNano,vol.2,pp. 1–8,2017. −0.6 [3] P. Singh, Y.-J. Kim, D. Zhang, and D.-C. Yang, “Biological 0 10 20 synthesis of nanoparticles from plants and microorganisms,” Re action time (mi n) Trends in Biotechnology,vol.34, no.7,pp. 588–599, 2016. 0.00% of AuNPs 2.70% of AuNPs [4] P.D.Shankar,S.Shobana,I.Karuppusamyetal., “A review 1.10% of AuNPs 3.23% of AuNPs on the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (gold and silver) 2.17% of AuNPs using bio-components of microalgae: Formation mechanism and applications,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology,vol.95, pp. Figure 10: Plots of ln(𝐴 /𝐴 ) versus reaction time with various 𝑡 0 28–44, 2016. concentrations of PSE-AuNPs. [5] S. Yallappa, J. Manjanna, and B. L. Dhananjaya, “Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. Sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in slope of the linear line equation plotting [31, 34] ln(𝐶 /𝐶 ) 𝑡 0 presence of organic antimicrobials,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: versus time (𝑡)withakineticequation: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy,vol.137,no.1,pp.236– 𝑑𝐶 243, 2015. =−𝑘𝐶 𝐶 =−𝑘 𝐶 NaBH 𝑡 obs 𝑡 [6] W. Handayani, C. Imawan, and S. Purbaningsih, “Potensi (2) ekstrak beberapa jenis tumbuhan sebagai agen pereduksi untuk 𝐶 𝐴 𝑡 𝑡 biosintesis nanopartikel perak,” Seminar Nasional Biologi,pp. ln( )= ln( )=−𝑘 𝑡. obs 𝐶 𝐴 558–567, 2010. 0 0 [7] P.Kuppusamy,M.M.Yuso,G ff .P.Maniam,andN.Govindan, The plotting results of ln (𝐴 /𝐴 ) versus reaction time (𝑡) 𝑡 0 “Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives in various concentrations of AuNPs are shown in Figure 10. and their new avenues in pharmacological applications—an Pseudo-first-order rate constants on AuNPs catalyst concen- updated report,” Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal,vol.24,pp.473– trations of 0.00, 1.10, 2.17, 2.70, and 3.23% were 0.00054, 484, 2016. −1 0.0037, 0.0109, 0.0170, and 0.0223 min ,respectively, with [8] S.Iravani,“Greensynthesisofmetalnanoparticlesusingplants,” maximum reduction percent of methylene blue at 71.10%. Green Chemistry,vol.13, no.10, pp.2638–2650,2011. eTh se results indicated that the synthesized AuNPs have a [9] S.P.Dubey,M.Lahtinen, andM.Sillanpa¨a, ¨ “Green synthesis good catalytic activity to reduce methylene blue. and characterizations of silver and gold nanoparticles using leaf extract of Rosa rugosa,” Colloids andSurfacesA:Physicochemi- cal and Engineering Aspects,vol.364,no.1–3, pp.34–41,2010. 4. Conclusion [10] J. Y. Song, H.-K. Jang, and B. S. Kim, “Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus and Diopyros kaki leaf The AuNPs were successfully synthesized using a cheap and extracts,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1133–1138, environmentally friendly route. PSE can be effectively used as reducing agent and stabilizer to produce AuNPs with [11] D. Philip and C. Unni, “Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and diameters of 5–20 nm and stable for 21 days. The synthesized silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) AuNPs were then used as a reduction catalyst of methylene leaf,” Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, blue in thepresenceofNaBH . It was found that AuNPs are vol.43,no. 7,pp.1318–1322,2011. able to play a role as good catalysts with a pseudo-first-order [12] S. Joseph and B. Mathew, “Microwave assisted facile green −1 rate constant of 0.0223 min . AuNPs synthesis through this synthesis of silver and gold nanocatalysts using the leaf extract green method can contribute to the other fields such as green of Aerva lanata,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and photocatalyst, drug delivery, antimicroorganism, adsorbent, Biomolecular Spectroscopy,vol.136,pp. 1371–1379, 2015. detector, and green separation science and technology. [13] K. B. Narayanan and N. Sakthivel, “Coriander leaf mediated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles,” Materials Letters,vol.62,no. 30, pp. 4588–4590, 2008. Conflicts of Interest [14] J. Kasthuri, K. Kathiravan, and N. Rajendiran, “Phyllanthin- eTh authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. assisted biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: a novel FH(A /A ) t o 𝑑𝑡 6 Journal of Nanomaterials biological approach,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 11, [30] S. P. Dubey, M. Lahtinen, H. Sark ¨ ka¨, and M. Sillanpa¨a, ¨ “Bio- no. 5, pp. 1075–1085, 2009. prospective of Sorbus aucuparia leaf extract in development of silver and gold nanocolloids,” Colloids and Surfaces B: [15] J. Kasthuri, S. Veerapandian, and N. Rajendiran, “Biological Biointerfaces,vol.80, no.1,pp. 26–33, 2010. synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using apiin as reduc- ing agent,” Colloids andSurfacesB:Biointerfaces,vol.68,no.1, [31] Y. Yulizar, G. T. M. Kadja, and M. Safaat, “Well-exposed gold pp.55–60,2009. nanoclusters on Indonesia natural zeolite: a highly active and reusable catalyst for the reduction of p-nitrophenol,” Reaction [16] N. Andarwulan, R. Batari, D. A. Sandrasari, B. Bolling, and Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis,vol.117,no.1,pp.353–363, H. Wijaya, “Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia,” Food Chemistry,vol.121,no.4,pp. 1231–1235, 2010. [32] V. S. Suvith and D. Philip, “Catalytic degradation of methy- lene blue using biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles,” [17] E. Suhartono, E. Viani, M. A. Rahmadhan, I. S. Gultom, M. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spec- F. Rakhman, and D. Indrawardhana, “Total flavonoid and troscopy,vol.118,pp. 526–532, 2014. antioxidant activity of some selected medicinal plants in South [33] A.U.Khan,Q.Yuan, Y.Weietal.,“Photocatalytic andantibac- Kalimantan of Indonesian,” APCBEE Procedia,vol.4,pp.235– 239, 2012. terial response of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology,vol.162,pp.273– [18] Elfahmi, H. J. Woerdenbag, and O. Kayser, “Jamu: indonesian 277, 2016. traditional herbal medicine towards rational phytopharmaco- [34] H. A. Ariyanta and Y. Yulizar, “eTh shape conversion of silver logical use,” JournalofHerbalMedicine,vol.4,no.2, pp.51–73, 2014. nanoparticles through heating and its application as homoge- neous catalyst in reduction of 4- nitrophenol,” IOP Conference [19] S.Sukrasno,D.L.Aulifa, Y.Karlina, andN.P.Aryantha, Series: Materials Science and Engineering,vol.107,ArticleID “Antiphytophthora and antifusarium from Indonesian medici- 012002, 2016. nal plants,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.28-29,2016. [20] R. Batari, “Identifikasi senyawa flavonoid pada sayuran indigenous Jawa Barat,” Food Science and Technology,2007, http://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/11947. [21] S. Maity, I. Kumar Sen, and S. Sirajul Islam, “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using gum polysaccharide of Cochlosper- mum religiosum (katira gum) and study of catalytic activity,” Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures,vol.45, pp. 130–134, 2012. [22] J.Zeng,Q.Zhang,J.Chen, andY.Xia,“Acomparisonstudyof the catalytic properties of Au-based nanocages, nanoboxes, and nanoparticles,” Nano Letters,vol.10,no.1,pp. 30–35, 2010. [23] S. Wunder, Y. Lu, M. Albrecht, and M. Ballau,ff “Catalytic activity of faceted gold nanoparticles studied by a model reaction: evidence for substrate-induced surface restructuring,” ACS Catalysis,vol.1,no.8, pp.908–916,2011. [24] A. Corma and H. Garcia, “Supported gold nanoparticles as catalysts for organic reactions,” Chemical Society Reviews,vol. 37,no. 9,pp.2096–2126,2008. [25] S. Panigrahi, S. Basu, S. Praharaj et al., “Synthesis and size- selective catalysis by supported gold nanoparticles: study on heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic process,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 4596–4605, 2007. [26] J. Das and P. Velusamy, “Catalytic reduction of methylene blue using biogenic gold nanoparticles from Sesbania grandiflora L,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers,vol.45,no. 5, pp. 2280–2285, 2014. [27] P. Daizy, “Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis,” Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures,vol.42, no.5,pp.1417–1424, 2010. [28] Y. Yulizar, H. A. Ariyanta, and L. Abduracman, “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract, and its interaction study with melamine,” Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis,vol.12,no.2,pp. 212–218, 2017. [29] L. H. Bac, J. S. Kim, and J. C. Kim, “Size, Optical and stability properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized by electrical explo- sion of wire in different aqueous media,” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science,vol.28, pp.117–121,2011. PDLD Journal of International Journal of International Journal of Journal of Smart Materials Nanotechnology Corrosion Polymer Science Research Composites Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Metallurgy BioMed Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at https://www.hindawi.com Journal of Journal of Materials Nanoparticles Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 IROXR- VOUHWRQD1 The Scientific Advances in International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering Scientifica World Journal Biomaterials Hindawi Publishing Corporation +LQGDZL3XEOLVKLQJ&RUSRUDWLRQ Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 KWWSZZZKLQGDZLFRP 9ROXPH http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 DQ WH Journal of Journal of Journal of Journal of Journal of Nanoscience Coatings Crystallography Ceramics Textiles Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 PDLD UQD http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Nanomaterials Unpaywall

Green Method for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract under UV Light and Their Catalytic Activity to Reduce Methylene Blue

Journal of NanomaterialsJan 1, 2017

Loading next page...
 
/lp/unpaywall/green-method-for-synthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-using-polyscias-Di5J73gIlC

References

References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.

Publisher
Unpaywall
ISSN
1687-4110
DOI
10.1155/2017/3079636
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hindawi Journal of Nanomaterials Volume 2017, Article ID 3079636, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3079636 Research Article Green Method for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract under UV Light and Their Catalytic Activity to Reduce Methylene Blue Yoki Yulizar, Tresye Utari, Harits Atika Ariyanta, and Digha Maulina Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia Correspondence should be addressed to Yoki Yulizar; yokiy@ui.ac.id Received 9 February 2017; Accepted 19 September 2017; Published 28 November 2017 Academic Editor: Ilaria Fratoddi Copyright © 2017 Yoki Yulizar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The aqueous fraction of Polyscias scutellaria leaf extract (PSE) has been used as a reducing agent and stabilizer in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). UV-Vis spectrophotometry, particle size analyzer (PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy-selected area electron diffraction (TEM-SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize AuNPs. eTh AuNPs have a size of 5–20 nm and have a face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure 3+ and are stable for 21 days. Phenolic compounds, which are secondary metabolites of PSE, act as an active compound to reduce Au ion to Au , as well as stabilize the AuNPs through their surface interaction with carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of phenols. AuNPs exhibit excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of methylene blue with NaBH . eTh reduction of methylene blue using AuNPs −1 catalysts is a pseudo-first-order reaction with a reduction rate constant (𝑘 ) of 0.0223 min . obs 1. Introduction lanata leaf [12], Coriandrum sativum leaf [13], Phyllanthus [14],and hennaleaf[15]asreducingagentsinAuNPs In recent years, research on the synthesis of nanoparticles synthesis. On the other hand, Indonesia has abundant natural using green materials, commonly called green synthesis, resources, including a biological diversity [16–19]. Many types has been growing. eTh proposed materials are types of of plants can be explored and used as a nanoparticles green microorganisms, enzymes, plants, or plant extracts [1]. eTh synthesis material. One of the plants which is easily found reported biological resources can be used as a reducing and in Indonesia and has not been reported as a nanoparticles stabilizing agent in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles [2–5]. synthesis material is Polyscias scutellaria. Polyscias scutellaria eTh role of plants in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles leaves contain alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and polyphe- depends on the content of secondary metabolites. Specific nols [20]. er Th efore, Polyscias scutellaria leaf is an appropriate plants contain specific chemical compounds which can act as choice as a reducing and stabilizing agent in green synthesis active substances in the process of reduction and stabilization of AuNPs. of nanoparticles. These compounds are alternative environ- AuNPs are interesting to study, especially their catalytic mentally friendly materials in nanoparticle production due properties [21–25], due to their excellent stability. eTh y have to their function to reduce the use of hazardous chemicals, been known as excellent catalysts in redox reactions due to including wastes [6]. Biomolecules in plant extracts that their large surface area. In a previous study, AuNPs have been can reduce metal ions into nanoparticles include proteins, widely used as a good catalyst in reducing methylene blue polysaccharides, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phe- (MB) in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH ). The nolic acids [7, 8]. existence of AuNPs as a catalyst makes the reduction of MB Several studies of green synthesis have used the extracts run faster [26]. of J. sambac leaf [5], Rosa rugosa leaf [9], Magnolia kobus and In this work, AuNPs were synthesized using Polyscias Diospyros kaki leaves [10], Ocimum sanctum leaf [11], Aerva scutellaria leaf extract (PSE) with the assistance of UV 2 Journal of Nanomaterials radiation. Moreover, reduction of MB was used as a model reaction to evaluate the catalytic activity of AuNPs. 2. Experimental 2.1. Chemicals and Materials. Polyscias scutellaria was obtained from Tegalwaru, Bogor, and has been determined at 10 C-O-C LIPI, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. NaBH and methylene blue 1609 C-O were obtained from Merck. Methanol, n-hexane, and ethyl C-H 3371 C=C acetate were obtained from PT. Brataco. HAuCl solution 8 O-H used in this research was synthesized by dissolving 99.99% of pure Au metal (PT Antam) in aqua regia (HNO :HCl = 1:3) 4000 3000 2000 1000 −1 solution. All chemicals were of analytical grade and were Wavenumber (cm ) −1 used without further puricfi ation. MilliQ water (18.2 Ω cm ) PSE aqueous extract wasusedtomakeaqueous solutions. Figure 1: FTIR spectrum of PSE aqueous extract. 2.2. Preparation of Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract. Five kilograms of Polyscias scutellaria leaves was washed with aqueous fraction showed a positive result of flavonoids, waterand driedinthe openair. 50gofdried Polyscias alkaloids, and saponins. scutellaria leaf powder was macerated in 250 mL of methanol FTIR characterization was conducted to determine the for 7 days. eTh mixture was filtered to obtain a greenish functional groups of PSE aqueous fraction as shown in Fig- concentrated solution. It was partitioned using n-hexane with ure 1. eTh stretch of -OH group was observed at wavenumber the volume ratio of 1 : 1. The methanol fraction was collected −1 −1 and concentrated using a vacuum rotatory evaporator at 3371 cm , C-H group at 2946 cm , C=C aromatic group −1 −1 50 C. It was repartitioned using water and ethyl acetate at 1609 cm , -C-O aromatic ring at 1402 cm , and C-O- −1 solvents in a volume ratio of 1 : 1. The final water fraction of Cgroup at1093cm . es Th e results are consistent with the Polyscias scutellaria leaf extract (PSE) was then collected and flavonoids FTIR character of Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract concentrated using a vacuum rotatory evaporator. eTh water from Das and Velusamy’s research in 2014 [26]. er Th efore, fraction of PSE was tested phytochemically and characterized the active compound in the aqueous PSE indicated a type of using FTIR spectroscopy (Prestige 21, Shimadzu) to deter- flavonoid compounds. mine the content of secondary metabolites for the synthesis of AuNPs. 3.2. PSEConcentration Eeff ctinAuNPs Synthesis. AuNPs were synthesized using PSE under UV radiation for 2 hours 2.3. Synthesis of Au Nanoparticles. Nine millilitres of 1.0 due to containing less active compounds at room conditions. −4 × 10 MHAuCl solution wasaddedto1.0mL of water Therefore, the higher energy of UV light is required to excite fraction of PSE with various concentrations from 0.001 to 3+ theelectrons in theactivecompoundforreducing Au 0.050% (m/v). Each mixture was irradiated under a UV lamp to Au . AuNPs formation was observed through the color for 2 hours. The synthesis results were characterized using a changes from yellow to pink at 𝜆 of 510–580 nm [27]. UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimadzu 2600), FTIR, particle max AuNPs synthesis was conducted in various concentrations of size analyzer (PSA, Malvern ZEN 1600), XRD (Shimadzu 7000), and TEM-SAED (JEM 1400). PSE to determine the optimum concentration for reducing and stabilizing AuNPs. eTh higher the concentration of PSE, the more intense the color of the colloid generated in the 2.4. Catalytic Activity of AuNPs. The mixture of 4.0 mL of −5 3.0 × 10 M methylene blue and 0.5 mL of 0.1 M NaBH system, due to the increase of the reducing agent. However, solution was added to AuNPs colloid as a catalyst at various in high concentrations of PSE, faster growth of AuNPs core volumes of 50–150𝜇Lorequivalenttotheconcentrationof occurred, causing an increase in the nanoparticles collisions 1.10–3.23% (v/v). The mixture was shaken and its reaction frequency to form agglomeration. was observed through absorbance change using a UV-Vis The optimum concentration of PSE in AuNPs synthesis spectrophotometer against reaction time for 30 minutes. was indicated from the high absorbance value, smallest maximum wavelength (𝜆 ), and sharpest peak shape. max Absorbance indicates the amount of substance to absorb 3. Results and Discussion light. Wavelength indicates the amount of energy needed 3.1. Identification of Polyscias scutellaria Leaf Extract. Aque- by nanoparticles to conduct surface plasmon resonance ous and methanol leaf extracts of Polyscias scutellaria (PSE) (SPR). The great size of nanoparticles results in a smaller were phytochemically tested to determine its active com- bandgap. eTh refore, the energy required to conduct elec- pounds. eTh methanol fraction showed a positive result of tronic transition was getting smaller and𝜆 shifted towards max flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, and saponins, whereas the a higher value. Sharp absorption peaks indicate that the Transmitance (%) Journal of Nanomaterials 3 0.6 Size distribution by number 0.5 0.4 0.3 1 10 100 Size (d (nm)) 0.2 Figure 4: Particle size distribution analysis of AuNPs at 0.01% PSE concentration. 0.1 Zeta potential distribution ×10 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm) PSE 0.001% PSE 0.01% PSE 0.003% PSE 0.03% PSE 0.005% PSE 0.05% 0 PSE 0.007% Figure 2: UV-Vis absorption spectra of AuNPs formation with PSE Apparent zeta potential (mV) concentrations of 0.001 to 0.05% (w/v). Figure 5: Zeta potential distribution analysis of AuNPs at 0.01% PSE concentration. 548 1 546 0.9 544 0.8 a single peak, 15.49 nm. The resulting size indicated that the 542 0.7 3+ 0 PSE had sucffi ient strength to reduce Au to Au .This was 540 0.6 also confirmed from the zeta potential value of −19.6 mV that 538 0.5 explained the charge of PSE stabilizer capped AuNPs surface 536 0.4 (Figure 5). The more negative the zeta potential value, the 534 0.3 more frequent the interparticle repulsion, so that the particle 532 0.2 becomes more stable [29]. It is concluded that the PSE is a 530 0.1 good stabilizing agent for AuNPs. 0 5 1015202530 3.4. FTIR Analysis. FTIR characterization was conducted to Time (days) investigate the interaction between functional groups of PSE Wavelength and AuNPs in the PSE capped AuNPs. FTIR spectra show the Absorbance wavenumber shift of PSE functional groups before and aer ft Figure 3: AuNPs stability at PSE concentration of 0.01% observed AuNPs formation as shown in Figure 6. eTh vibrations of the −1 for 30 days. -OH group shifted from 3371 to 3427 cm and those of the −1 C=C aromatic group shieft d from 1609 to 1634 cm .These small shisft are due to the interaction of functional groups formed nanoparticles have a homogeneous size. The UV- (-OH and C=C) in PSE compounds on AuNPs surface. This Vis absorption spectra of AuNPs formation against various indicatesthatAuNPsarecappedbytheflavonoidsinPSE.The PSE concentrations are shown in Figure 2. eTh optimum oxidation of flavonoids in aqueous solutions under UV light 3+ concentration of PSE in AuNPs synthesis was 0.01% (w/v), may produce keto forms and act as a reducing agent for Au and AuNPs had a good stability for 21 days observed at to Au [26, 30]. 𝜆 of 532–534 nm as shown in Figure 3. eTh observation max of stability after 21 days showed larger 𝜆 shift and a max 3.5. TEM-SAED Analysis. TEM-SAED characterization was significant decrease of absorbance, indicating the occurrence conductedtoobservethemorphology, particle size,and of agglomeration [28]. crystal structure of AuNPs. Figure 7 shows the TEM images of the synthesized particle with a magnicfi ation of 150,000x. 3.3. Particle Size Analysis. PSA characterization was con- The morphology of AuNPs was spheres with a diameter ducted to determine the particle size and size distribution of of 5–20 nm. It was in accordance with the result of PSA AuNPs as shown in Figure 4. AuNPs size was distributed in characterization. Maximum wavelength (nm) Absorbance Absorbance Total counts Number (percent) −140 −120 −100 −80 −60 −40 −20 100 4 Journal of Nanomaterials Miller indices (111) 8 (200) (220) 4000 3000 2000 1000 (311) −1 Wavenumber (cm ) (222) PSE PSE-AuNPs Figure 8: SAED pattern of the synthesized AuNPs. Figure 6: FTIR spectra of PSE and PSE capped AuNPs at 0.01% PSE concentration. 40 50 60 70 80 2 theta (degree) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2 theta (degree) Figure 9: X-ray diffractogram of the synthesized AuNPs. Figure 7: TEM images of synthesized AuNPs with a magnification of 150,000x. 3.7. Catalytic Activity of AuNPs for the Methylene Blue Reduction. The catalytic activity of the synthesized AuNPs was tested in the reduction of methylene blue by NaBH . Reduction of methylene blue was observed from the fading of To conrfi m AuNPs formation and its crystal phase, the blue color solution due to the decrease of UV-Vis absorption Miller indices are adjusted with data join committee on spectrum at 𝜆 of 664 nm [32, 33]. In comparison, in max powder diffraction standards of Au (JCPDS number 04-0748) the same circumstances, methylene blue was reacted with bySAEDanalysis as showninFigure8.TheMillerindices NaBH in the absence of AuNPs catalyst and showed a very were (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222), indicating that the small decrease in absorbance of methylene blue as shown in synthesized AuNPs have a phase crystal of face centered cubic Figure 10. [26, 30, 31]. eTh reduction reaction was as follows: + − 3.6. XRD Analysis. XRD characterization was conducted to 4C H N S+ H + BH +3H O󳨀→ 16 18 3 4 2 (1) determine the crystallinity of AuNPs to support the data 4C H N S+ H BO 16 20 3 3 3 of TEM-SAED. Typical diffractogram peaks of AuNPs were determined by comparing the value of diffraction angle (2 𝜃) againstJCPDS Audata as showninFigure9.Fromtheresults, The reaction was assumed to follow pseudo-first-order kinet- there are some peaks of 2𝜃 values: 38.013, 44.190, 64.448, ics. It used the excess concentration of NaBH compared to 77.418, and 81.572 matched with JCPDS Au number 04- the concentration of methylene blue, so the concentration 0748: 38.184, 44.392, 64.576, 77.547, and 81.721, respectively of NaBH was considered to be fixed during the reaction. [26, 30, 31]. The pseudo-first-order rate constant was calculated from the Transmitance (%) Intensity (a.u.) Intensity (a.u.) Journal of Nanomaterials 5 Acknowledgments This work was funded by Hibah PITTA 2016 from Universitas −0.1 Indonesia through the directorate of research and com- munity services, Universitas Indonesia (no. 2040/UN2.R12/ −0.2 HKP.05.00/2016). −0.3 References [1] P. Mohanpuria,N.K.Rana,andS.K.Yadav,“Biosynthesis of −0.4 nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research,vol.10,no.3,pp.507–517,2008. −0.5 [2] A.Rajan,A.R.Rajan,and D.Philip,“Elettariacardamomum seed mediated rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its biological activities,” OpenNano,vol.2,pp. 1–8,2017. −0.6 [3] P. Singh, Y.-J. Kim, D. Zhang, and D.-C. Yang, “Biological 0 10 20 synthesis of nanoparticles from plants and microorganisms,” Re action time (mi n) Trends in Biotechnology,vol.34, no.7,pp. 588–599, 2016. 0.00% of AuNPs 2.70% of AuNPs [4] P.D.Shankar,S.Shobana,I.Karuppusamyetal., “A review 1.10% of AuNPs 3.23% of AuNPs on the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (gold and silver) 2.17% of AuNPs using bio-components of microalgae: Formation mechanism and applications,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology,vol.95, pp. Figure 10: Plots of ln(𝐴 /𝐴 ) versus reaction time with various 𝑡 0 28–44, 2016. concentrations of PSE-AuNPs. [5] S. Yallappa, J. Manjanna, and B. L. Dhananjaya, “Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. Sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in slope of the linear line equation plotting [31, 34] ln(𝐶 /𝐶 ) 𝑡 0 presence of organic antimicrobials,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: versus time (𝑡)withakineticequation: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy,vol.137,no.1,pp.236– 𝑑𝐶 243, 2015. =−𝑘𝐶 𝐶 =−𝑘 𝐶 NaBH 𝑡 obs 𝑡 [6] W. Handayani, C. Imawan, and S. Purbaningsih, “Potensi (2) ekstrak beberapa jenis tumbuhan sebagai agen pereduksi untuk 𝐶 𝐴 𝑡 𝑡 biosintesis nanopartikel perak,” Seminar Nasional Biologi,pp. ln( )= ln( )=−𝑘 𝑡. obs 𝐶 𝐴 558–567, 2010. 0 0 [7] P.Kuppusamy,M.M.Yuso,G ff .P.Maniam,andN.Govindan, The plotting results of ln (𝐴 /𝐴 ) versus reaction time (𝑡) 𝑡 0 “Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives in various concentrations of AuNPs are shown in Figure 10. and their new avenues in pharmacological applications—an Pseudo-first-order rate constants on AuNPs catalyst concen- updated report,” Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal,vol.24,pp.473– trations of 0.00, 1.10, 2.17, 2.70, and 3.23% were 0.00054, 484, 2016. −1 0.0037, 0.0109, 0.0170, and 0.0223 min ,respectively, with [8] S.Iravani,“Greensynthesisofmetalnanoparticlesusingplants,” maximum reduction percent of methylene blue at 71.10%. Green Chemistry,vol.13, no.10, pp.2638–2650,2011. eTh se results indicated that the synthesized AuNPs have a [9] S.P.Dubey,M.Lahtinen, andM.Sillanpa¨a, ¨ “Green synthesis good catalytic activity to reduce methylene blue. and characterizations of silver and gold nanoparticles using leaf extract of Rosa rugosa,” Colloids andSurfacesA:Physicochemi- cal and Engineering Aspects,vol.364,no.1–3, pp.34–41,2010. 4. Conclusion [10] J. Y. Song, H.-K. Jang, and B. S. Kim, “Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus and Diopyros kaki leaf The AuNPs were successfully synthesized using a cheap and extracts,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1133–1138, environmentally friendly route. PSE can be effectively used as reducing agent and stabilizer to produce AuNPs with [11] D. Philip and C. Unni, “Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and diameters of 5–20 nm and stable for 21 days. The synthesized silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) AuNPs were then used as a reduction catalyst of methylene leaf,” Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, blue in thepresenceofNaBH . It was found that AuNPs are vol.43,no. 7,pp.1318–1322,2011. able to play a role as good catalysts with a pseudo-first-order [12] S. Joseph and B. Mathew, “Microwave assisted facile green −1 rate constant of 0.0223 min . AuNPs synthesis through this synthesis of silver and gold nanocatalysts using the leaf extract green method can contribute to the other fields such as green of Aerva lanata,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and photocatalyst, drug delivery, antimicroorganism, adsorbent, Biomolecular Spectroscopy,vol.136,pp. 1371–1379, 2015. detector, and green separation science and technology. [13] K. B. Narayanan and N. Sakthivel, “Coriander leaf mediated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles,” Materials Letters,vol.62,no. 30, pp. 4588–4590, 2008. Conflicts of Interest [14] J. Kasthuri, K. Kathiravan, and N. Rajendiran, “Phyllanthin- eTh authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. assisted biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: a novel FH(A /A ) t o 𝑑𝑡 6 Journal of Nanomaterials biological approach,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 11, [30] S. P. Dubey, M. Lahtinen, H. Sark ¨ ka¨, and M. Sillanpa¨a, ¨ “Bio- no. 5, pp. 1075–1085, 2009. prospective of Sorbus aucuparia leaf extract in development of silver and gold nanocolloids,” Colloids and Surfaces B: [15] J. Kasthuri, S. Veerapandian, and N. Rajendiran, “Biological Biointerfaces,vol.80, no.1,pp. 26–33, 2010. synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using apiin as reduc- ing agent,” Colloids andSurfacesB:Biointerfaces,vol.68,no.1, [31] Y. Yulizar, G. T. M. Kadja, and M. Safaat, “Well-exposed gold pp.55–60,2009. nanoclusters on Indonesia natural zeolite: a highly active and reusable catalyst for the reduction of p-nitrophenol,” Reaction [16] N. Andarwulan, R. Batari, D. A. Sandrasari, B. Bolling, and Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis,vol.117,no.1,pp.353–363, H. Wijaya, “Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia,” Food Chemistry,vol.121,no.4,pp. 1231–1235, 2010. [32] V. S. Suvith and D. Philip, “Catalytic degradation of methy- lene blue using biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles,” [17] E. Suhartono, E. Viani, M. A. Rahmadhan, I. S. Gultom, M. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spec- F. Rakhman, and D. Indrawardhana, “Total flavonoid and troscopy,vol.118,pp. 526–532, 2014. antioxidant activity of some selected medicinal plants in South [33] A.U.Khan,Q.Yuan, Y.Weietal.,“Photocatalytic andantibac- Kalimantan of Indonesian,” APCBEE Procedia,vol.4,pp.235– 239, 2012. terial response of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology,vol.162,pp.273– [18] Elfahmi, H. J. Woerdenbag, and O. Kayser, “Jamu: indonesian 277, 2016. traditional herbal medicine towards rational phytopharmaco- [34] H. A. Ariyanta and Y. Yulizar, “eTh shape conversion of silver logical use,” JournalofHerbalMedicine,vol.4,no.2, pp.51–73, 2014. nanoparticles through heating and its application as homoge- neous catalyst in reduction of 4- nitrophenol,” IOP Conference [19] S.Sukrasno,D.L.Aulifa, Y.Karlina, andN.P.Aryantha, Series: Materials Science and Engineering,vol.107,ArticleID “Antiphytophthora and antifusarium from Indonesian medici- 012002, 2016. nal plants,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.28-29,2016. [20] R. Batari, “Identifikasi senyawa flavonoid pada sayuran indigenous Jawa Barat,” Food Science and Technology,2007, http://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/11947. [21] S. Maity, I. Kumar Sen, and S. Sirajul Islam, “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using gum polysaccharide of Cochlosper- mum religiosum (katira gum) and study of catalytic activity,” Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures,vol.45, pp. 130–134, 2012. [22] J.Zeng,Q.Zhang,J.Chen, andY.Xia,“Acomparisonstudyof the catalytic properties of Au-based nanocages, nanoboxes, and nanoparticles,” Nano Letters,vol.10,no.1,pp. 30–35, 2010. [23] S. Wunder, Y. Lu, M. Albrecht, and M. Ballau,ff “Catalytic activity of faceted gold nanoparticles studied by a model reaction: evidence for substrate-induced surface restructuring,” ACS Catalysis,vol.1,no.8, pp.908–916,2011. [24] A. Corma and H. Garcia, “Supported gold nanoparticles as catalysts for organic reactions,” Chemical Society Reviews,vol. 37,no. 9,pp.2096–2126,2008. [25] S. Panigrahi, S. Basu, S. Praharaj et al., “Synthesis and size- selective catalysis by supported gold nanoparticles: study on heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic process,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 4596–4605, 2007. [26] J. Das and P. Velusamy, “Catalytic reduction of methylene blue using biogenic gold nanoparticles from Sesbania grandiflora L,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers,vol.45,no. 5, pp. 2280–2285, 2014. [27] P. Daizy, “Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis,” Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures,vol.42, no.5,pp.1417–1424, 2010. [28] Y. Yulizar, H. A. Ariyanta, and L. Abduracman, “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract, and its interaction study with melamine,” Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis,vol.12,no.2,pp. 212–218, 2017. [29] L. H. Bac, J. S. Kim, and J. C. Kim, “Size, Optical and stability properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized by electrical explo- sion of wire in different aqueous media,” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science,vol.28, pp.117–121,2011. PDLD Journal of International Journal of International Journal of Journal of Smart Materials Nanotechnology Corrosion Polymer Science Research Composites Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Metallurgy BioMed Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at https://www.hindawi.com Journal of Journal of Materials Nanoparticles Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 IROXR- VOUHWRQD1 The Scientific Advances in International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering Scientifica World Journal Biomaterials Hindawi Publishing Corporation +LQGDZL3XEOLVKLQJ&RUSRUDWLRQ Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 KWWSZZZKLQGDZLFRP 9ROXPH http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 DQ WH Journal of Journal of Journal of Journal of Journal of Nanoscience Coatings Crystallography Ceramics Textiles Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 PDLD UQD

Journal

Journal of NanomaterialsUnpaywall

Published: Jan 1, 2017

There are no references for this article.