Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Taxonomic revision of the tigrina Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) species group (Carnivora, Felidae)

Taxonomic revision of the tigrina Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) species group (Carnivora,... Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo Volume 57(19):231-264, 2017 www.mz.usp.br/publicacoes ISSN impresso: 0031-1049 www.revistas.usp.br/paz ISSN on-line: 1807-0205 Tonomicax visionre of The Tigrina Larduseop tigrinus (s chreber , 1775) eciessp oupgr (c oraarniv , f elidae ) f abio o liveira do n ascimenT o ¹⁴ a nderson f eijó ²³⁵ ABSTRACT The tigrina Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) is a small-sized Neotropical spotted cat found from northern Argentina and southern Brazil to Costa Rica. Four subspecies are traditionally recognized: L.  t.  tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) from northern Brazil, the Guianas and eastern Venezuela; L. t. pardinoides (Gray, 1867) from western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; L. t. guttulus (Hensel, 1872) from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina; and L.  t.  oncillus (Thomas, 1903) from Costa Rica. We studied external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms from 250 specimens in order to clarify the taxonomic status of tigrina. Based on the characters analyzed in this study, we recognize three diagnosable morphogroups, each with a distinct geographic distribution: northern/northwest- ern/west (samples from northern Brazil, the Guianas, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, northwestern Argentina and Costa Rica), eastern (samples from northeastern and central Bra- zil), and southern (samples from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina). Tak- ing into account the morphologic evidence presented here, supported by biogeographic data and molecular studies available, we recognize three full species for tigrinas: L. tigrinus (including the putative subspecies L. t. pardinoides and L. t. oncillus as junior synonyms) for northern/ northwestern/west group; L. emiliae (Thomas, 1914) for eastern group; and L. guttulus for southern group. Key-Words: Leopardus tigrinus; L. guttulus; L. emiliae; Subspecies; Morphological variation. INTRODUCTION et al., 2010) member of the “ocelot lineage”, a group that includes the small and medium-sized Neotropical The tigrina, oncilla, tiger cat or little spotted cat spotted cats (Johnson & O’Brien, 1997; Johnson et al., Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) is a small-sized felid 1999; Mattern & MacLennan, 2000; Johnson et al., (1.8-3.8 kg) (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002; Macdonald 2006). It is found from Costa Rica to southern Brazil 1. Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Museu de Zoologia (MZ), Mastozoologia. Avenida Nazaré, 481, CEP 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. 2. Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Campus I, Centro de Ciências Exatas da Natureza (CCEN), Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Laboratório de Mamíferos. Jardim Universitário, s/nº, Castelo Branco, CEP 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB, Brasil. 3. Field Museum of Natural History, Integrative Research Center, Chicago, IL, 60605, United States of America. 4. E-mail: fabnasc@gmail.com 5. E-mail: andefeijo@gmail.com http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.19 Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus and northeastern Argentina (Cabrera, 1958; Nowak, For a long time the names of the forms related to 1999; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002, 2009; Macdonald margays (Leopardus wiedii) and tigrinas (L.  tigrinus) et  al., 2010; Nascimento, 2010), but in Central were confused with each other, owing to their America it has been recorded only from Costa Rica similarity in size and coloration, and it created doubts and northern Panama, but not from the remainder regarding the exact identity of the animals that bear of the Darien Peninsula connecting Central America these names. Elliot (1877, 1883) placed as synonyms to South America (Cabrera 1958, 1961; Nowell & of Felis tigrina a series of names associated to margay Jackson, 1996; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002, 2009). (e.g., Felis macroura Wied, 1826; Felis elegans Lesson, In the Amazon Basin its geographical distribution 1830), guigna (e.g., Felis guigna Molina, 1782; Felis appears largely marginal (Oliveira, 2004), but the (Noctifelis) guigna Severtzov, 1858) and ocelots (e.g., possible lack of records in this region may be either a Felis mitis F. Cuvier, 1820; Felis chati Gray in Griffith, sampling artifact, due to the low population density 1827), and also placed , F.  pardinoides Gray, 1867a as or perhaps these animals may really not occur in this synonym of Geoffroy’s cat L.  geoffroyi (d’Orbigny & region (Nascimento, 2010). Gervais, 1844). This confusion was further increased The taxonomic history of the tigrina began by Allen (1919), which recognized two genera, with Felis tigrina by Schreber in 1775, who published Margay and Oncilla, to include the forms related to an illustration based on the plate of Buffon (1765) margays and tigrinas. In Margay, he included two named “Le Margay”, which in turn was based on species, M. tigrina Schreber, 1775 (= L. tigrinus), with an individual from Cayenne, French Guiana. Later thr , ee subspecies [M.  t.  tigrina, M.  t.  wiedii Schinz, Schreber (1777) published the text with a description 1821 (=  L.  wiedii) and M.  t.  vigens (=  L.  wiedii)], of the species. Ninety years later, Gray (1867a) and M.  glaucula (Thomas, 1903), which comprised described a new species, Felis pardinoides, with “India” two subspecies (M.  g.  glaucula and M.  g.  nicaraguae; as its type locality, but he subsequently changed his both L.  wiedii). In Oncilla, Allen recognized opinion and fixed “Bogotá” (in Colombia) as the nethr w ee species: O.  pardinoides, which included type locality of the species (Gray, 1874). Additionally fiv , e subspecies (O.  p.  pardinoides, O.  p.  oncilla, Hensel (1872) described Felis guttula from southern O.  p.  andina, O.  p.  emerita and O.  p.  elenae); Brazil (state of Rio Grande do Sul), which was O.  guttula, with two subspecies (O.  g.  guttula, and recognized as a subspecies of F. tigrina by subsequent O.  g.  emiliae); and O.  caucensis. Years later, Weigel authors (Cabrera, 1958, 1961; Wozencraft, 2005). (1961) recognized all forms associated with wiedii th In the beginning of the 20 century, new species together with tigrina Schreber, 1775, i.e., she put and subspecies of tigrinas were described, especially all traditionally recogniz wiedii ed subspecies into from Central America and northern South America: tigrina (L.  t.  tigrinus, L.  t.  wiedii, L.  t.  bolivae, Felis pardinoides oncilla Thomas, 1903 (type locality: L.  t.  amazonicus, L.  t.  nicaraguae, L.  t.  salvinius, “Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica”); Felis pardinoides L.  t.  yucatanicus, L.  t.  glauculus, L.  t.  oaxacensis and andina Thomas, 1903 (type locality: “Jima, Province L. t. cooperi), while she allocated in O. pardinoides the of Azuay, Ecuador”); Felis carrikeri Allen, 1904 (type other taxa traditionally recognized as subspecies of locality: “Pozo Azul, Costa Rica”); Felis pardinoides F. tigrina (O. p. pardinoides, O. p. oncilla, O. p. guttula emerita Thomas, 1914 (type locality: “Montes de la and O.  p.  emiliae). However, Cabrera (1958, 1961) Cutala, Merida, Venezuela”); Margay tigrina elenae recognized only one species, Felis (Leopardus) tigrina, Allen, 1915 (type locality: “Santa Elena, Colombia”); with four subspecies, three from South America – and Margay caucensis Allen, 1915 (type locality: “Las F. (L.) t. tigrina [includes emiliae] (from northeastern Pavas, Colombia”). Furthermore, Thomas (1903) Brazil to eastern Venezuela), F.  (L.)  t.  pardinoides recognized two species from southern Brazil, F[includes elis andina, emerita, elenae and caucensis] pardinoides and F.  guttula, but, according to Pocock (western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru) (1917), these species were, in fact, respectively a and F.  (L.)  t.  guttula (Eastern and southern Brazil, female and a male of the same species. Thus, the Paraguay and northern Argentina) – and another from name Felis pardinoides Thomas, 1903 is a junior Central America – F.  (L.)  t.  oncilla. This taxonomic homonym of Felis pardinoides Gray, 1867a, and also arrangement in four subspecies was widely followed th a junior synonym of Felis guttula Hensel, 1872. Years by subsequent authors in the second half of the 20 st later, Thomas (1914) described Felis emiliae based century and the first decade of the 21 century (Hall on specimens from Brazil (“Ipu, Ceará”), which & Kelson, 1959, Hall, 1981; Wozencraft, 2005). was classified in the “F.  guttula group” (Thomas, However, depending on the author, the species was 1914:348-349). placed either in Leopardus (Ewer, 1973; Leyhausen, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 1979; Nowak, 1999; Wozencraft, 2005; Sunquist (3) to provide a synonymy and attribute valid names & Sunquist, 2009) or in Oncifelis (Hemmer, 1978; for the recognized taxa. Wozencraft, 1993), either as full genera or as subgenera of Felis. Molecular data, based on mtDNA, suggested the MATERIAL AND METHODS existence of two highly divergent phylogeographical groups, one from southern Brazil and the other Samples and collections from Central America, which have a long period of isolation (around 3.7 million of years ago) (Johnson We obtained quantitative and qualitative data et al. 1999), and this divergence is comparable to the from skins and skulls of L.  tigrinus group specimens differences observed between Geoffroy’s cat Leopar(n  dus = 250) housed in the following collections: Museu geoffroyi (d’Orbigny & Gervais, 1844) and guigna de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Leopardus guigna (Molina, 1782) or between ocelot Brazil (MZUSP); Museu Nacional da Universidade Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) and margay Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil L.  wiedii (Schinz, 1821) (Johnson et  al. 1999). (MNRJ); Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Furthermore, Leyhausen & Falkena (1966) previously Brazil (MPEG); Museu de Biologia Professor Mello found that certain subspecies of L.  tigrinus did not Leitão, Santa Teresa, Brazil (MBML), Museu de mate with each other in captivity, which led them Hto istória Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, Brazil suggest that this taxon could consist of two or (MHNCI); Coleção de M more amíferos do Departamento distinct species. Trigo et  al. (2013) reaffirmed the de Sistemática e Ecologia da Universidade Federal taxonomic status of L. guttulus as a full species, which da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil (UFPB); Coleção was previously revalidated by Nascimento (2010) de Mamíferos do Departamento de Zoologia da based on morphology. This molecular study also Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil showed no evidence of gene flow between the southern (UFPE); Coleção de Mamíferos do Departamento de population (L. guttulus) and the northeastern Brazilian Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, population (named in the article as L. tigrinus), which Cuiabá, Brazil (UFMT); Museo Argentino de have contiguous geographical distributions. Although Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos these two closely related species do not interbr Air eed, es, Argentina (MACN); Museo de Historia Natural there are reports of hybridization betw L. een guttulus “Noel Kempff Mercado”, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (MNK); and L.  geoffroyi in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado, Universidad southern Brazil (Eizirik et al., 2006; Trigo et al., 2008, Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru (MUSM); 2013, 2014), and with Leopardus braccatus (named Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica in the article as Leopardus colocolo) in Central Brazil del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (QCAZ); Museo (Trigo et al., 2008, 2013, 2014). In a recent molecular do Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas de la Escuela study, Li et al. (2016) reported that the tigrinas from Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador (MEPN); Northeastern Brazil had pampas cat mtDNA within Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leyva, a tigrina nDNA background, as well as nuclear Colombia (IAVH); Museo de la Estación Biológica signatures indicating an ancient hybridization with Rancho Grande, Maracay, Venezuela (EBRG); L.  geoffroyi. On Central American tigrinas, the American Museum of Natural History, New York, results of these authors gave more support for high USA (AMNH); Field Museum of Natural History, genetic divergence between these tigrinas and those Chicago, USA (FMNH); National Museum of Natural from Brazil, showing 0.5%-0.6% of mitochondrial History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, divergence and 11.0%-15.3% of nuclear divergence. USA (USNM); Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, However, Li et  al.’s study did not include specimens Vienna, Austria (NMW); Zoologisches Museum from northern South America. Berlin (= Museum für Naturkunde), Berlin, Germany It is clear that the identification and delimitation (ZMB); and Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, of species and subspecies are main issues concerning Sweden (NRM). We also examined photographs of the taxonomy of the tigrinas, and have not been the specimens deposited in Museum of Comparative subject to critical analysis. In order to clarify the Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA taxonomy of L.  tigrinus, our goals are: (1)  to (MCZ); Natural History Museum, London, United characterize and define the taxa on morphologic and Kingdom (NHM); and Naturalis Biodiversity Center, morphometric terms, and to describe their variation; Leiden, Netherlands (RMNH). The list of the (2)  to define their geographical distribution; and specimens studied is provided in the Appendix I. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Geographic data (E). When only total length (TL) was provided, we subtracted the recorded tail length from total length Geographical distribution of each taxon was to obtain the values of the head and body length. accessed through the collection locations obtained on The craniodental qualitative characters are based the labels of the specimens. Coordinates are the most on García-Perea (1994), Yamaguchi et  al. (2004) accurate as possible and were obtained directly frand N om ascimento (2010, 2014). The quantitative the labels when available, from published gazetteers craniodental characters comprised 19 craniodental (Paynter Jr., 1982, 1989, 1995, 1997; Stephens dimensions from adults of both sexes (Fig.  1): & Traylor Jr., 1983, 1985; Paynter Jr. & Traylor (1)  GLS: greatest length of the skull; (2)  CBL: Jr., 1991; Vanzolini & Traylor Jr., 1992) or online condylobasal length; (3) RL: rostral length; (4) IOB: databases (Global Gazetteer 2.3, www.fallingrain. interorbital length; (5)  POB: postorbital breadth; com/world/index.html; GeoNames, www.geonames.(6) ZB: zygomatic breadth; (7) GBB: greatest breadth org). In some cases, the exact locality was not available of braincase; (8) IFB: breadth between the infraorbital or not found in the methodologies employed, so foramina; (9)  GPB: greatest palatal breadth; we used the coordinates of the nearest county. The (10) GPL: greatest palatal length; (11) CM1L: C-M1 gazetteers, ordered alphabetically by country, state or length; (12)  P4L: greatest length of P4; (13)  P4B: province, and collection locality, are provided in gr the eatest breadth of P4; (14)  TH: temporal fossa Appendix II. height; (15) ALT: anteroposterior length of temporal fossa; (16)  ALM: anteroposterior length of masseter scar on skull; (17) p3m1L: p3-m1 length; (18) MH: Analysis of characters mandible height; and (19) ML: mandible length. All craniodental measurements were taken with digital All specimens were examined in qualitativcalipers to near e est 0.01 mm. and quantitative terms based on external and cranial We defined the age classes based on dental features regardless of the previously attributed name morphology (sequence of emergence; replacement of the taxon. of deciduous teeth by permanent ones; tooth wear) The external qualitative characters are the color and fusion of the cranial sutures (especially the and spots pattern of the pelage of the head, body spheno-occipital sutur , e) (Ximenez, 1974; García- fore limbs, hind limbs and tail. The quantitativ Per e ea, 2002) and consequently seven classes were external characters are the measurements taken fr recogniz om ed: (1)  age class  I or juvenile  I (deciduous the specimen’s labels as follows: (1)  head and body teeth starting to emerge and spheno-occipital length (HB); (2) tail length (T); (3) fore foot length suture does not fused); (2) age class II or juvenile II (FF); (4)  hind foot length (HF); and (5)  ear length (deciduous teeth totally emerged and spheno- FIGURE  1: Dorsal, ventral and lateral view of skull and lateral view of mandible of an tigrina (L.  tigrinus), showing 19 craniometrical variables used in the study. The abbreviations assigned to craniometrical variables correspond to those mentioned in the “Materials and methods” section of the text. Image: Guilherme S.T. Garbino. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 occipital suture does not fused); (3)  age class M III orphogr oup  I: specimens from northern, north- or juvenile  III (deciduous teeth being replaced b wy estern and w estern South America (Peru, Ecuador, permanent ones and spheno-occipital suture does not Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, northern fused); (4)  age class  IV or young adult (permanent Brazil, nor thwestern Argentina, and Costa Rica), teeth totally emerged and spheno-occipital sutur which ar e e characterized by dark brown and orangish does not fused); (5) age class V or adult I (permanent bro wn to yellowish brown and grayish brown ground teeth with no or very little wear and spheno-occipital color , white or light gray venter, and medium-sized suture fused); (6) age class VI or adult II (permanent rosettes on the sides of the body forming medium- teeth with moderate wear and spheno-occipital sized oblique bands arranged in scapular-inguinal di- suture fused); and (7)  age class  VII or adult  III rection. (permanent teeth with excessive wear and spheno- occipital suture fused). We used only young adults Morphogr oup II: specimens from eastern South Amer- and adults in our analyses. ica (northeastern and central Brazil), which have over- all color ranging from light yellowish brown to pale yellow or pale grayish buff, presence of small sized ro- Statistical analyses settes that rarely form small-sized oblique bands, the rosettes have thin and discontinuous black rims, and The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for white, very light gray or slightly yellowish venter, with all craniodental variables. When the craniodental medium and small-sized dark spots. variables were normally distributed, we performed Hotelling’s T2 to evaluate the existence of sexual Morphogroup III: specimens from southern and south- dimorphism and to check whether the differences eastern South America (southern Brazil, Paraguay and were statistically significant (p  <  0.05). For the northeastern Argentina). Overall ground color dark multivariate analyses all craniodental variables w yello ere wish brown, lighter on the sides of the body, log₁₀ transformed. Principal Component Analysis white or light gray venter, and small rosettes on the (PCA) was extracted from the correlation matrix and sides of the body. it applied as an exploratory tool for investigating the patterns of variation among the groups, as well as to evaluate the degree of separation among them. Only Data analyses principal components with eigenvalues greater than 1 were extracted. We performed the Discriminant Statistical analyses were based on the Function Analysis (DFA) to investigate whether the morphogroups previous recognized. The descriptive groups of L.  tigrinus studied could be distinguished statistics of the skull and external morphology based on craniodental morphology and also to (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum construct a predictive pattern of different gr values, and number of specimens) ar oup e available in memberships. All statistical analyses were performed Tables  1  and  2. The Hotelling’s T2 test yielded a with SPSS  17.0 software and missing values werp v e alue close to our threshold to reject the null estimated using Amelia package (Honaker et  al.,hypothesis (T2:  1.742; p  =  0.056), nevertheless we 2011) of R software (R Core Team, 2013). decided to combined in subsequent analyses males, females, and unknown sex specimens. For PCA and DFA we select only specimens RESULTS that have both skull and skin in order to test whether skin morphogroups also separate in the cranial Geographic distribution of samples morphospace. A total of 93 specimens were selected and definition of morphogroups for PCA and DFA: 31 for morphogroup  I, seven for morphogroup  II and 55 for morphogroup  III. The geographic distribution of samples is The four first principal components resulting from found in Fig.  2. Based on the combinations of the PCA (Table  3) are respectively responsible for external characters (ground color of the body, and 53.84, 10.87, 6.72 and 6.70 of variance (78.14% of size, shape and arrangement of the rosettes on the total variance). The first principal component (PC1) sides of the body), we recognized three diagnosable is usually interpreted as a component associated morphogroups, each with a distinct geographic to the overall size of skull (Jolicoeur & Mosimann, distribution (Figs. 3 and 4): 1960; Gotelli & Ellison, 2004), and in our results it Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus FIGURE 2: Distribution of the specimens of tigrinas (L. tigrinus group) studied. Black dots correspond to the specimens from scientific collections. FIGURE  3: External characters of the three diagnosable and geographically distinct morphogroups of tigrinas recognized in this study. Left: IAVH1781 (Coper, Boyacá, Colombia); middle: UFPB6267 (Sítio Corea, Várzea, Paraíba, Brazil); right: MZUSP24234 (Dourado, São Paulo, Bra- zil). Note the difference in the ground color and the shape and arrangement of rosettes among morphogroups. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 showed positive signals for all coefficients, indicating Regarding to the third component (PC3), the greatest a positive correlation to each other. The greatest coefficient in decreasing order are HT, GBB, ALT, coefficient (loadings) is associated to the variable CM1L, POB, p3m1L, CBL, P4L, ML, RL, MH, GLS, the dominant craniodental measurement GPL, IOB, ZB, P4B, GLS, IFB, and GPB, while of PC1, followed in decreasing order by ZB, ML, in the fourth component are POB, CBL, IOB, RL, GPL, CM1L, IFB, MH, ALT, GPB, RL, p3m1L, GBB, P4B, GLS, IFB, GPL, HT, ML, GPB, CM1L, IOB, HT, GBB, CBL, P4L, P4B, and POB. In the MH, ALT, ZB, P4L, and p3m1L. In PC1 and PC2 second principal component (PC2), which is usually plot (Fig.  5) all specimens of three morphogroups related to shape (Gotelli & Ellison, 2004), the greatest are widely mixed, but specimens of morphogroup II coefficient is P4B, followed in decreasing order tend to sho by w higher values on the PC2 than the other P4L, p3m1L, GPB, IOB, ML, GLS, GBB, RL, ALT, morphogroups. Other plots (first and third principal ZB, CBL, HT, POB, MH, GPL, IFB, and CM1L. components, first and fourth components, second and FIGURE 4: Distribution of morphogroups of tigrinas (L. tigrinus group) over the biomes of South America and part of Central America (data obtained from WWF – World Wide Fund for Nature). For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus TABLE  1: Descriptive statistics of the craniodental variables TABLE  2: Descriptive statistics of the external measurements (in millimeters) and body mass (in grams) for the morphogroups of (in millimeters) for the morphogroups of tigrinas. . tigrinas. . Morphogroup Morphogroup Morphogroup Variables I II III Morphogroup Morphogroup Morphogroup Variables I II III GLS 86.59 ± 3.72 (31) 84.07 ± 4.11 (7) 86.02 ± 3.71 (55) 80.82-95.56 78.09-89.28 78.15-94.68 TL 782.92 ± 62.85 (12) 753.00 ± 46.34 (9) 740.54 ± 50.57 (24) 697-901 680-800 628-840 CBL 77.67 ± 5.15 (31) 76.9 ± 3.43 (7) 80.75 ± 3.64 (55) HB 496.67 ± 33.15 (12) 464.33 ± 35.99 (9) 472.65 ± 39.82 (24) 69.13-87.31 70.87-80.53 70.81-87.77 452-556 415-510 365-539 RL 29.64 ± 1.95 (31) 28.42 ± 2.35 (7) 28.47 ± 1.77 (55) T 286.25 ± 35.14 (12) 288.67 ± 17.42 (9) 263.57 ± 23.64 (24) 25.87-32.9 26.02-32.64 24.58-32.61 240-345 260-320 228-350 IOB 15.72 ± 0.86 (31) 14.72 ± 1.08 (7) 15.09 ± 0.9 (55) HF 112.00 ± 19.11 (12) 110.25 ± 4.33 (9) 108.26 ± 7.72 (22) 14.35-17.27 12.83-16 12.96-16.9 96-165 105-116 90-120 POB 28.46 ± 1.57 (31) 28.61 ± 1.4 (7) 27.39 ± 1.53 (55) E 40.40 ± 4.86 (12) 45.25 ± 4.89 (9) 42.40 ± 6.61 (24) 25.32-31.17 26.3-30.54 23.81-31.74 30-45 37-52 24-52 ZB 55.14 ± 3.41 (31) 54.68 ± 2.96 (7) 54.11 ± 2.92 (55) BM (g) 2450 (1) 1924 ± 899.52 (8) 2378.64 ± 912.19 (24) 48.9-61.56 50.61-58.73 48.86-63.03 1270-3500 1030-4600 GBB 38.93 ± 1.06 (31) 40.6 ± 2.01 (7) 40.18 ± 1.67 (55) 36.85-40.64 37.15-43.23 36.46-43.88 Legends: TL = Total length; HB = head and body length; T = tail length; IFB 21.31 ± 0.94 (31) 21.07 ± 1.34 (7) 20.85 ± 1.14 (55) HF  = hind foot length; E  = ear length; B  = body mass; M  = mean; 19.27-22.89 19.8-23.35 18.85-23.48 SD  = standard deviation; MIN  = minimum; MAX  = maximum; and N = number of specimens. GPB 30.54 ± 1.42 (31) 31.9 ± 1.77 (7) 31.09 ± 1.41 (55) 27.08-33.55 29.71-35.46 28.52-34.79 GPL 31.54 ± 1.72 (31) 31.28 ± 2.11 (7) 31.14 ± 1.82 (55) TABLE 3: Factor loadings, eingevalues and percentage of variance 28.13-35.68 27.95-34.37 27.19-34.66 of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for morphogroups of CM1L 25.2 ± 1.05 (31) 24.52 ± 1.39 (7) 25.01 ± 1.14 (55) tigrinas using 19 craniodental variables. 23.15-27.83 22.98-26.73 22.72-27.85 P4L 9.92 ± 0.63 (31) 10.2 ± 0.69 (7) 9.91 ± 0.59 (55) Component Variables 8.04-10.93 8.99-10.94 8.5-11.31 1 2 3 4 P4B 4.7 ± 0.48 (31) 5.13 ± 0.46 (7) 4.58 ± 0.39 (55) GLS 0.887 -0.301 -0.039 -0.192 3.97-5.52 4.4-5.53 3.85-5.53 CBL 0.574 -0.166 -0.242 -0.586 HT 34.62 ± 1.51 (31) 36.44 ± 2.00 (7) 35.49 ± 1.73 (55) RL 0.736 -0.270 -0.128 0.280 32.43-38.62 34.03-39.04 31.82-39.66 IOB 0.678 -0.376 -0.110 0.420 ALT 52.03 ± 2.64 (31) 51.93 ± 3.74 (7) 51.39 ± 3.03 (55) POB 0.301 0.107 0.261 0.616 46.25-56.41 47.11-57.49 44.76-59.65 ZB 0.880 -0.225 0.073 0.020 ALM 25.04 ± 2.82 (31) 23.24 ± 2.69 (7) 24.54 ± 1.98 (55) GBB 0.580 0.273 0.543 -0.268 21.16-32.67 19.68-27.91 20.29-30.9 p3m1L 18.65 ± 0.82 (31) 18.98 ± 1.15 (7) 18.8 ± 0.83 (55) IFB 0.855 -0.018 -0.029 0.172 17.06-20.61 17.52-20.63 17.1-20.75 GPB 0.748 0.380 -0.009 -0.064 MH 23.13 ± 1.72 (31) 23.91 ± 1.69 (7) 22.44 ± 1.64 (55) GPL 0.871 -0.063 -0.122 -0.150 20.82-27.39 21.85-26.46 19.1-25.95 CM1L 0.862 0.012 -0.272 -0.050 ML 55.36 ± 2.97 (31) 52.99 ± 2.88 (7) 52.82 ± 2.76 (55) P4L 0.568 0.639 -0.237 0.013 49.71-62.45 49.54-57.38 47.32-59.51 P4B 0.508 0.681 -0.073 0.200 Legends: M  = mean; SD  = standard deviation; MIN  = minimum; HT 0.644 0.119 0.635 -0.108 MAX = maximum; and N = number of specimens. ALT 0.787 -0.251 0.301 -0.027 p3m1L 0.689 0.527 -0.254 -0.012 third components, second and fourth components, MH 0.852 -0.079 0.125 -0.045 ML 0.875 -0.324 -0.170 0.083 and third and fourth components) are not graphically Eigenvalues 9.693 1.956 1.210 1.207 represented, but they showed mixed pattern among Variance (%) 53.847 10.868 6.723 6.705 the three morphogroups. The DFA created two canonical variables from the original craniodental variables used in the variables that most explained the variation were analysis (Table  4, Fig.  6). The first function, which MH, GLS, CM1L, GPB, IOB and ALT, and along is responsible for 88.25% of the total variance, was the axis the sample was separated into two major explained by variables ML, HT, CBL, POB, GPB morphogroups, one composed by morphogroup II and and CM1L, which have the highest coefficients the other consisting b in y the morphogroups I and III, descending order, and the three morphogroups which are overlapped each other (Fig.  6). The predict separated along its axis. The second function, which group membership (Table  5) shows that 97.8% is responsible for 11.75% of the total variance, the of original grouped cases were correctly classified, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 TABLE 4: Function loadings, eingevalues. percentage of variance, were correctly classified, with 87.10% (N  =  27) of canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda of Discriminant Function morphogroup I, 57.14% (N = 4) of morphogroup II Analysis (DFA) for morphogroups of tigrinas using 18 craniodental and 87.27% (N = 48) of morphogroup III correctly variables. classified (Table 5). Function Variables 1 2 GLS 0.197 -1.011 TAXONOMIC ASSESSMENT CBL -0.980 0.249 RL 0.068 0.150 Under this scenario, we postulate two IOB -0.392 -0.474 hypotheses to explain the morphometric variation POB 0.767 0.347 present in L. tigrinus in South America, either all three ZB 0.033 -0.130 morphogroups are valid subspecies from one widely GBB -0.452 0.097 distributed species; or each morphogroup are valid IFB 0.634 -0.013 monotypic species. GPB -0.724 0.530 Different species and subspecies concepts have GPL -0.116 0.076 been proposed over the years, creating an endless CM1L -0.654 -0.837 discussion among biologists, especially the systematics. P4L 0.567 -0.194 We will not discuss here the different concepts of P4B 0.471 0.428 these two taxonomic ranks and their applicability, HT -1.117 -0.157 which is a vast subject and can be found in more ALT 0.206 0.432 detail elsewhere (e.g., Simpson, 1961; Mayr, 1963, p3m1L -0.633 -0.031 MH 0.393 1.080 1970; Eldredge & Cracraft, 1980; Nelson & Platnick, ML 1.798 -0.048 1981; Cracraft, 1983; Wilkins, 2009). Regardless Eigenvalues 4.414 0.588 the theoretical concepts involved in practice, the Variance (%) 88.25 11.75 morphological differences are always fundamental Canonical Correlation 0.903 0.608 to empirically recognize and define species and Wilks’ Lambda 0.000 0.003 subspecies (Mayr, 1942). Therefore, our study is based on searching for consistent morphological and with 96.77% (N  =  30) of morphogroup  I, 85.71% geographical patterns. The recognition of species- (N  =  6) of morphogroup  II and 100% (N  =  55) of group taxa involves the study of the characteristics morphogroup  III correctly classified. Regarding to of the specimens in terms of their individual, sexual, cross-validated membership, 84.9% of grouped cases population and geographic variation (de Vivo, 1991). TABLE 5: Classification matrix for morphogroups of tigrinas obtained by Discriminant Function Analysis concerning the probabilities of classifying each morphogroup correctly into one of morphogroup. b,c Classification Results Groups Predicted Group Membership Total I II III Original Count I 30 1 0 31 II 0 6 1 7 III 0 0 55 55 % I 96.77 3.23 0 100 II 0 85.71 14.29 100 III 0 0 100 100 Cross-validated Count I 27 4 0 31 II 1 4 2 7 III 3 4 48 55 % I 87.10 12.90 0 100 II 14.29 57.14 28.57 100 III 5.45 7.27 87.27 100 Cross validation is done only for those cases in the analysis. In cross validation, each case is classified by the functions derived from all cases other than that case. 97.8% of original grouped cases correctly classified. 84.9% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Thus, we interpret as evidence of the existence of r of osettes characterized by small dark rosettes with different taxonomic entities when the variation was a thick and continuum black borders on the body not ontogenetic, sexual or individual. As a result w sides that rar e ely coalescing into small oblique bands. consider as valid taxa, populations who share unique While the 59 skins from northeast and central characters in common, including the variation, and Brazil (=  morphogroup  II) have paler ground color, which differ from the other also in the geographic and smaller and lighter rosettes with a thinner and attributes. discontinuous borders. In contrast, the 59 skins from Subspecies, on the other hand, represent northern, northwestern and western South America geographical subdivisions of the species and ar (= e morphogroup I) have larger rosettes with a thicker described mainly based on differences in measurements dark border coalescing into small to medium oblique or difference in the tones of general coloration (M bands on the sides of the body (F ayr ig. 3). These three 1942; Bonvicino et  al. 1989; Burbrink et  al. 2000; distinct patterns have no overlapping with each other, Helgen et  al., 2013). The recognition of subspecies even in close sites as exemplified by the records at south was historically based on one or few specimens Bahia for morphogroup II (locality 45 of the Fig. 11) (e.g., Pocock, 1939, 1940, 1941a, 1941b, 1941c; and north of Espírito Santo for morphogroup  III Goldman, 1946; Kitchener & Yamaguchi, 2010), (locality  2 of the Fig.  16) distant 400  km. In the however, studies have demonstrate that to the multivariate space, the cranial measurements of our properly recognition and description of it, a set thr of ee skin-groups are also supported with a clear characters throughout the range of the species should separation (Fig. 6). be carefully evaluated (Mayr, 1942; Burbrink et  al., Trigo et  al. (2013) found that population 2000; Helgen et  al., 2013), which has never been of Northeastern Brazil of L.  tigrinus (=  our done for tigrinas until the present study. morphogroup  II) has a genetic distinctiveness in All 80 skins from southern Brazil, relation to the southeastern population (=  our Paraguay and northeastern Argentina specimens morphogroup  III) similar to those found between (= morphogroup III) analyzed have a unique pattern well-established Leopardus species (e.g., L. geoffroyi and FIGURE 5: Distribution of the factorial scores in the first and second principal components of the craniometrical variables of geographic morphogroups of tigrinas. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 L. colocolo). This, in combination with the absence of Morphogroup II: Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) – allele at that X-linked and -linked mar Y kers shared traditionally recognized as junior synonym of L. t. ti- between those populations, indicates no gene flo grinus, w, includes part of this putative subspecies (the which supports the recognition of two valid species population from north, northeast and central Brazil). (Trigo et al., 2013). On the other side, Johnson et al. (1999), based in mitochondrial genes, found two Morphogroup III: Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) – highly divergent clades of tigrina group, one fr this om taxon was traditionally recognized as a subspecies Central America (=  our morphogroup  I) and other of L.  tigrinus, but our results suggest that it is a full from southern Brazil (= our morphogroup III), which species, in accordance with Nascimento (2010) and is comparable to the differences observed between Trigo et al. (2013). L.  geoffroyi and L.  guigna, and between Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii (Johnson et al. 1999). Therefore, taking into account the morphological SPECIES ACCOUNT (external and cranial) argument, in combination with a distinct geographic pattern and the available genetic The species of L.  tigrinus group share many evidence (Johnson et  al., 1999; Trigo et  al., 2013), craniodental characters, and to avoid repetition in we hypothesized that each of our morphogroups the each species account, w are e list below the general three distinct species and propose a new taxonomic description of the features observed in the skull and arrangement. skin of these species. After, we provide the list of synonyms, type locality, type material, diagnosis, body Morphogroup I: Oldest available name is Leopardus ti-measurements, geographic distribution, variation grinus (Schreber, 1775). and taxonomic notes of each species of tigrina FIGURE 6: Distribution of the factorial scores in the first and second discriminant functions of the craniometrical variables of geographic morphogroups of tigrinas. For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus here recognized. The list of specimens examined between adjacent rosettes and bands, either show- and list of localities (gazetteer) are provided in the ing a similar tone found in the dorsum or almost Appendixes I and II, respectively. similar to the color of the rims. The venter is white, very light gray or slightly yellowish with small and medium-sized rounded spots. The hairs on body are General Description short and slightly harsh, but slightly longer than the head, and in the inguinal region the hairs are lon- External morphology: Small-sized cats, length of head ger than the r est of the body. The dorsal surface of and body between 365 and 556 mm, tail length be- the limbs has the same color pattern present in the tween 228 and 350  mm, hind foot length between dorsum, sho wing medium-sized rosettes and spots in 90 and 165  mm, ears between 24 and 52  mm and the proximal region and only smaller spots in the the body mass between 1,030 and 4,600 g (Table 2). distal region, whereas the ventral surface of the limbs The overall ground color of the head varies from has similar dark coloration of the venter and shows small brown to light yellowish brown or grayish brown in and medium-siz ed spots. The hairs of limbs are short L.  tigrinus, from light yellowish brown to pale yel and slightly harsh. - The tail is long, relatively thick, low and grayish yellow in L. emiliae, and from dar rk epr esenting almost 60% of the length of head and yellowish brown to ochraceous buff in L.  guttulus. body. Black or very dark brown rings alternate with The lips, chin, cheek and throat are white, light gray rings of the same color of the dorsum. The tip of the or light cream. In the cheeks there are two black or tail is dar k. The most basal portion of the tail may very dark brown genal stripes crossing in parallel in have spots and/or r osettes in some specimens. longitudinal direction. A transversal stripe is pres- ent in the region of the posterior end of the genal Craniodentar y morphology: Broad and short ros- stripes. The supraorbital spots or narrow stripes ar trum, corr e esponding to between 30% and 40% of present on each side of the head and they are ar the gr - eatest length of skull. The nasals are broad dis- ranged in a longitudinal direction. Sometimes these tally , and narrow shortly thereafter to converge at the supraorbital spots or stripes can connect to form posterior end, wher e they articulate with the frontal, frontal-parietal stripes. Numerous, small, rounded may or may not be a depr ession in this region. If the or elliptical spots are present in the top of the head, depression is pr esent, it may be shallow or deep. The between these frontal-parietal stripes. Four or fiv anterior margin of the nasals is cur e ved. The anterior longitudinal stripes run along the nape and the lat ends of the pr - e-maxillae are not projected and thus, eral region of the neck to the anterior part of the in side vie w, they are aligned with the anterior end dorsum in the interscapular region. The hairs on of the nasals. When the skull is in dorsal view, the nape are facing backward. The ears are round shape nasals fully co ver the incisive foramina. The orbits with dorsal surface black, except the base, which has are large, r ounded and forward-faced. The anterior- the same color of the rest of the head. A white spot most margin of the orbit is aligned at the P3 paras- is centrally disposed in the dark region of the dorsal tyle, while the posteriormost point of the margin of surface of the ear. The overall coloration of the body the orbit coincides with the alignment of the end of – especially in the dorsum, the dorsal surface of the the postorbital pr ocess of the jugal. The upper and limbs, the space inside the rosettes and bands – lo isw er postorbital processes are not connected and, the same that present in the head and neck, but on ther efore, they do not form a complete and fused the sides of the body the coloration becomes lighter postorbital bar . The zygomatic plate, which is part towards the venter. Rounded and/or elliptical spots of the maxilla, is w ell developed and forms the floor may be separated or interconnected forming mor of the orbital r e egion. The interorbital region is nar- or less longitudinal rows in the dorsum, while the row with width in pr oportion to greatest length of interscapular region shows high individual variation skull betw een 15% and 20%. The frontal is well de- in the spot pattern. Solid spots and rosettes are pr veloped and extends fr es- om the maxilla-frontal suture ent on the sides of the body, and the rosettes coalesce and nasal-fr ontal to the anterior portion of the brain- to form small and/or medium-sized oblique bands case, ar ticulating with the parietal. The upper post- arranged in scapular-inguinal direction in L.  tigri orbital pr - ocess is long and narrow, with a triangular nus, rarely coalesce in L. guttulus, or not coalesce in shape. I n lateral view, the skull has a slightly convex L. emiliae. As solid spots, the rosettes and bands hav pr eofile in the fr ontal region, providing a less evident black or very dark brown rims, and inside them the cur vature. The braincase is large and oval, with the coloration is darker than that found in the spaces propor tion of its width in relation to greatest length Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 of skull varying between 40% and 50%. The sagit- Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) tal crest is absent or is a very low and short line re- stricted to the interparietal region. Temporal lines are Northern tigrina present and lyriform. The lambdoidal crest may be present and slightly developed. The length and F the elis tigrina Schreber, 1775: plate CVI [based on the width of palate have approximately the same dimen- plate  XXXVII, “Le Margay”, Buffon (1765)]; sions. The notch of postpalatine vein is broad and 1777:396 (text). Type locality “südlichen comparatively shallow in most of specimens and the Amerika” (= ”South America”), subsequently re- posterior margin of the palate (= anterior margin of stricted to “Cayenne” by J.A. Allen (1919:356). mesopterygoid fossa) has a U-shaped edge and it may Felis margay Müller, 1776:29. Based on “Le Margay” or not have a medial notch, which can be shallow or Buffon (1765). deep. The presphenoid is centrally located in the me Felis (O - ncoides) tigrina: Severtzov, 1858:386 (name sopterygoid fossa and is narrow, very elongated and combination). arranged longitudinally, showing lateral expansions Felis par dinoides Gray, 1867a:400. Type locality “In- in the median area. The basioccipital, located be- dia”, subsequently redefined to “Bogotá” by tween auditory bullae, is usually narrow. The mastoid Gray (1874:475). processes are arranged in a posterolateral position in Felis geoffr oyi: Elliot, 1872:203 (part) (non d’Orbigny relation to the auditory bullae and they are anteriorly & G ervais, 1844). articulated to the paraoccipital processes. The mas Felis tigrina: - Thomas, 1880:396 (non Felis tigrina toid processes shape is posteriorly poorly developed Schreber, 1775). separated from paraoccipital processes by a notch, Felis par dinoides andina Thomas, 1903:238. Type lo- enabling the visualization of the surface of the audi- cality “Jima, Province of Azuay, Ecuador”. tory bulla. The zygomatic arches are little expanded Felis par dinoides emerita Thomas, 1912:44. Type lo- laterally, and the average width of the braincase rela- cality “Montes de la Cutala, Merida, Venezuela”. tive to zygomatic width is 70% to 80%. The occipi M - argay tigrina emerita: Allen, 1915:631 (name com- tal region has rounded margin, giving this region of bination). the skull a shape similar to a semicircle. The occipital Margay tigrina elenae: Allen, 1915:631 (name com- condyle is elongated, robust and spirally curved and bination). encloses the foramen magnum, which is well devM elargay caucensis - Allen, 1915:631. Type locality “Las oped. The auditory bulla is relatively large and oval, Pavas, Colombia”. with ectotympanic smaller than entotympanic. The Margay tigrina wiedi: Allen, 1916:233 (part) (non Fe- mandible is well developed and the horizontal ramus lis wiedii Schinz, 1821). is low. The masseteric fossa is deep and broad, ex M - argay tigrina andina: Allen, 1916:581 (name com- tending almost the entire ascending ramus. The as- bination). cending ramus is high and extends from the angular Margay tigrina tigrina: Allen, 1919:350 (name com- process to the outermost end of the coronoid pro- bination). cess. The coronoid process is well developed, can be Oncilla par dinoides emerita: Allen, 1919:359 (name broad or narrow, rounded and curved, resembling a combination). hook in lateral view. The condyloid process is robust, Oncilla par dinoides elenae: Allen, 1919:360 (name bar shaped, aligned transversely to the ascending ra- combination). mus, and on the same occlusional plane of the low Oer ncilla caucencis: Allen, 1919:360 (name combina- tooth row. The angular process is relatively large andtion). rounded, which can be aligned to or positioned a lit Leopar - dus tigrinus: Pocock, 1941a:237 (name combi- tle posteriorly to the condyloid process. Narrow and nation, first use of current name combination). long upper canines. The C-M1 length varies fromFelis (Leopar dus) tigrina pardinoides: Cabrera, 22.72 to 27.85  mm, while the p3-m1 length varies 1958:286 (name combination). from 17.10 to 20.75  mm. The length of P4 corre- Felis (Leopardus) tigrina tigrina: Cabrera, 1958:287 sponding to around 40% of the length of the series (part) (name combination). of the maxilla. The shape of P3 paracone may be nar O -ncifelis tigrina: Wozencraft, 1993:290 (part). row and long or short and wide and P3 parastyle is Leopar dus tigrinus tigrinus: Wozencraft, 2005:539 absent in all specimens. The P4 paracone is present (part) (name combination). in all studied specimens. Traces of a talonid on m1 is Leopar dus tigrinus pardinoides: Wozencraft, 2005:539 present in the most of sample. (name combination). Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Type locality: “südlichen Amerika” [=  “South Amer- sized rosettes on the sides of the body form small and/ ica”], restricted by J.A. Allen (1919:356) to “Cay-or medium-sized oblique bands arranged in scapular- enne” [French Guiana]: “Based on Buffon’s descrip inguinal dir - ection. tion and figure of a specimen from Cayenne” [“Le Margay (pl. XXXVII) qui a servi de sujet pour cette Body measurements: See Morphogroup I in Table 2. description, ayant été tué à Cayenne (…)” (Buffon, 1765:252)] (Husson, 1978; Wozencraft, 2005). Geographical distribution: The map of the Fig. 8 shows the points where the museum specimens were col- Type material: Schreber (1775, 1777) based his Felis lected, which include the northern Brazil (State of tigrina on “Le Margay” of Buffon (1765) (plate XXX-Amapá; left bank of the Amazon River), Guyanas, VII) (Fig.  7A). The plate of Schreber’s F.  tigrina Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, northwestern (Fig.  7B) was published in 1775 [as plate  CVI Argentina and Costa Rica. Leopardus tigrinus prob- (=  106)] and the text with its description in 1777. ably occurs in Bolivia, but there is no museum record Husson (1978) stated that the animal figured in the (see Anderson, 1997:334). A specimen (MNK4595; Schreber’s plate is the holotype of the species, but not MNK3730) from Puerto Limón, Santa Cruz, Bo- Thomas (1903:235) had previously designated the livia, was identified as a L. tigrinus by Huáscar Azur- Buffon’s as the type. Thus, following the opinion of duy (2005), but it is in fact a specimen of L.  wiedii Thomas (1903) and in accordance with the ICZN (it exhibits directed backwards hair on the nape and Code (articles 74.4 and 74.6) (1999), we recognize overall softer fur). There is a gap in the geographic the Buffon’s plate as the lectotype of L. tigrinus. distribution between Central American and northern South American population (Figs. 2, 4 and 8), but it Diagnosis: Small sized; fur relatively harsh; ground is unknown whether the absence in this gap is natural color dark brown and orangish brown to yellowish or a sampling artifact. The distribution of L. tigrinus is brown and grayish brown, becoming lighter on the mainly associated to lowland, premontane and mon- sides of the body; venter white or light gray; medium- tane forests (Eisenberg, 1989; Garrido & González- FIGURE 7: Reproduction of the original plates: (A): “Le Margay” of Buffon (1765) (obtained from Gallica – Bibliothèque Nationale de France), the lectotype of the species; and (B): Felis tigrina of Schreber (1775). For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 FIGURE 8: Geographic distribution of the specimens of L. tigrinus studied. Numbers correspond to collection localities listed in the gazet- teer (see Appendix II) and the star refers to the type locality. For color figure, see online version. FIGURE 9: Pattern of coloration and markings in L. tigrinus: (A): EBR G9609 (Raul Leoni, Bolivar, Venezuela); (B): USNM374861 (Los Patos, El Manteco, Bolivar, Venezuela); AMNH69116 (Rio Chili, Manizales, Loreto, Colombia); (C): NMW-B455 (Carrillo, S des Llano de Santa Clara, San Jose, Costa Rica). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Maya, 2011), from sea level up to 3,000-3,200  m brown. These patterns of ground color and markings (Mondolfi, 1986; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002, 2009), in L.  tigrinus are very similar those found in L.  wie- but some individuals have been recorded as high as dii (Fig. 10). It likely may lead to a misidentification 4,500-4,800 m (Melquist, 1984; Cuervo et al., 1986; of these species in the field, especially in a quick ob- Nowell & Jackson, 1996; Macdonald et  al., 2010). servation. However, these two species can be distin- Apparently it has a marginal distribution in the open guished from each other by a series of characters, in areas of the Llanos (Fig. 4: Morphogroup I, Fig. 8). special the direction of the hairs on nape, which are facing back in L.  tigrinus and forward in L.  wiedii. Variation: L.  tigrinus does not show sexual dimor-Furthermore, some individuals of L.  tigrinus (for ex- phism for external characters. The overall ground ample: AMNH14187, from Pavas, Valle del Cauca, color of the head and body varies from dark broColombia; AMNH149319, fr wn om El Tambo, Cauca, to light yellowish brown orange, with the sides of the Colombia; and USNM362126, from Guyana) have body usually lighter (buff colored) towards the venter a darker color inside the rosettes and bands, almost (Fig. 9). The rosettes and the small and medium-sized similar to the rims that surround them, a pattern very oblique bands on the sides of body have black or ver similar y to that observed in some specimens L. of wie- dark brown rims with most specimens the color in dii - (Nascimento, pers.  obs.). Furthermore, melanistic side the rosettes and bands is similar to that show in specimens are present in L.  tigrinus (for example, the dorsum, which may be brownish orange or dar USNM371278, fr k om Caracas, Venezuela). FIGURE  10: Comparison of the patterns of ground color and markings in (A): northern tigrina (L.  tigrinus) (USNM374861, Los Pa- tos, El Manteco, Bolivar, Venezuela) and (B):  margay (L.  wiedii) (NMNH388255, Rio Cunucunuma, Belen, Amazonas, Venezuela). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 Taxonomic notes: Despite some authors (Erxle- Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) ben, 1777; Gmelin, 1788; F. Cuvier, 1826; Tem- minck, 1827; Fischer, 1829; Jardine, 1834; Gray, Eastern or Snethlage’s tigrina th th 1867a, 1867b, 1869) in 18 and 19 century fol- lowed Schreber’s F.  tigrina, other authors associated Felis emiliae Thomas, 1914:348. Type locality “Ipu, this name with the forms related to wiedii Schinz, Ceará, N.E. Brazil”. 1821 (and in a lesser extent to pardalis Linnaeus, O ncilla guttula emiliae: Allen, 1919:360 (new com- 1758 and guigna Molina, 1782) due to their mor- bination). phologic similarities among the specimens studied b Oy ncifelis par dinoides emiliae: Weigel, 1961:34. them, creating doubts regarding the exact identity of Felis (Leopar dus) tigrina tigrina: Cabrera, 1958:287 the animals that bear these names (see Elliot, 1877, (part). 1883; Allen, 1919). Besides tigrina Schreber, 1775, Leopardus tigrinus tigrinus: Wozencraft, 2005:539 the names pardinoides Gray, 1867a, guttula Hensel, (part). 1872, pardinoides Thomas, 1903 and oncilla Allen, 1904 are commonly considered as subspecies of L. ti- Type locality: “Ipu, Ceará, N.E. Brazil. Alt. 300  m”. grinus (Pocock, 1941a; Cabrera, 1958; Wozencraft,B ased on the information provided by Paynter Jr. 2005). According to our results, the putative subspe & -Traylor Jr. (1991), Ipu is located on eastern edge cies L.  t.  pardinoides (Gray, 1867a) does not differ of Serra da Ibiapaba, northwestern Ceará (04°19’S, significantly from L.  t.  tigrinus, and so we recognize 41°42’W). the former as the junior synonym of the latter, rather than its subspecies or a distinct taxon. In addition, Type material: “Adult male. B.M. no. 13.12.18.3. th specimens from the northeastern Brazil are tradition Original - number 11. Collected 24 May, 1910, by ally considered to belong to tigrinus Schreber, 1775 Fräulein D r. E[milie]. Snethlage. Presented by the (e.g., Cabrera, 1958), but our results indicate that authorities of the G oeldi Museum, Para. Two speci- they belong to a distinct taxon, L. emiliae (Thomas, mens ” (Thomas, 1914) (Fig. 11). 1914). Regarding to the taxonomy of Central Diagnosis: Small sized; fur relatively harsh; ground American population, Thomas (1903:237) describedcolor light yellowish brown to pale yellow and grayish a specimen from Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica, as Felis yello w; venter white, very light gray or slightly yel- pardinoides oncilla, which showed size and general lo wish with medium and small-sized dark spots; small characters as in F.  pardinoides Gray, 1867a, but with dar k rosettes on the body sides, not coalescing into ground color of pelage “much richer and deeper small-siz ”, ed oblique bands; rims of rosettes narrow and and the lateral rosettes little elongated. According to usually discontinuous. Gardner (1971), the specimens from Central America resemble the type of Margay caucensis J.A. Allen, 1915 Body measurements: See Morphogroup II in Table 2. (from Las Pavas, Rio Cauca, Colombia) [which was synonymized in Felis (Leopardus) tigrina pardinoides Geographical distribution: L.  emiliae is the only Feli- by Cabrera (1958)] in the intensity of markings and dae species endemic of B razil, distributed in the north richness of color. Nevertheless, due the appar(right bank of the Amaz ent onas River), northeastern and absence of the tigrina between southern Panama central por tion of this country (states of Pará, Tocan- and northern South America (Figs.  2,  4  and  8), tins, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraí- Gardner recognized the Central American population ba, P ernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia and Goiás), which as distinct from the northern South American includes Caatinga, Cerrado, Amaz onia and Atlantic population (=  O.  t.  pardinoides). According to the Forest biomes (Fig. 12). molecular data, the Central American population of tigrinas is highly genetically divergent from Variation: the The material here referring L. to emiliae southern South American tigrina, a divergence that w e had for study was constituted by 15 skulls higher than that between L.  pardalis and L.  wiedii and 59 skins. Regarding to the skins, which have a and O. geoffroyi and O. guigna (Johnson et al., 1999). comparatively larger sample, we noted that individu- However, samples from other populations, mainly als in nor thern, northeastern and central Brazil have from northwestern South America (for example, frmuch mor om e yellowish coloration and pale (Fig.  13) Colombia and Venezuela), were not included in the compar ed to specimens of neighboring L.  guttulus. molecular study. For example, the specimens BMNH13.12.18.3 (ho- Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus FIGURE  11: Dorsal (up) and ventral (bottom) views of the skin of the holotype of L.  emiliae, specimen from Ipu, Ceará, Brazil (BMNH13.12.18.3; male). Bar = 100 mm. Photo: Thiago Semedo. For color figure, see online version. lotype) (Fig.  11) and MPEG588 (topotype) from long to F. guttula group. Two specimens were collect- Ipu, Ceará, Brazil, exhibit a distinct pattern of pale ed, one of them, the holotype (BMNH13.12.18.3), yellowish brown coloration on the back and white was deposited in the Natural History Museum, Lon- (holotype) or slightly yellowish (topotype) color in don, and the other (MPEG588) in the collection of the venter, when compared them with specimens of Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil. Later, L. guttulus and L. tigrinus. Allen (1919) classified this cat as Oncifelis guttula The overall coloration of pelage vary from pale emiliae, a decision followed by Weigel (1961). Ca- orangish yellow (UFPB6592 and UFPB6266), dark brera (1958), however, questioned the validity of this yellow on the dorsum, and pale yellow on the sides taxon, because Thomas (1914) had not compared the of the body (UFPB983), to uniformly dark yellospecimens with material fr w om French Guiana, the (UFPB6265). Some specimens show distinctive type locality of Felis tigrina Schreber, 1775. Thus, Ca- continuous black lines that run throughout brthe era considered the form from northeast Brazil as a posterior half of the dorsum to the base of the tail junior synonym of Felis (Leopardus) tigrinus tigrinus, (UFPB6265), while in others these lines are not decision also followed by subsequent authors, includ- continuous or barely perceptible (UFPB6266). ing Wozencraft (2005). However, according to the Leopardus emiliae exhibits circular rosettes that do results shown here, we recognize F.  emiliae Thomas, not coalesce to form lateral bands. The rosettes ar 1914 as v e alid name, and therefore, L. emiliae as a full surrounded by small black spots (UFPB3243 and species. UFPB6592) or thin black lines that encircle in higher (UFPB6265) or lesser (UFPB6270 and UFPB983) extent the rosettes, but rarely surround them Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) completely. Melanistic individuals were not recorded for this species. Southern tigrina Taxonomic notes: Thomas (1914) described a new spe- Felis guttula Hensel, 1872:73. Type locality “Urwald cies of tigrina from Ceará, Brazil, which was named von Rio Grande do Sul” (Rio Grande do Sul, Felis emiliae, and according to the author, it would be- Brazil). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 FIGURE  12: Geographic distribution of the specimens of L.  emiliae studied. Numbers correspond to collection localities listed in the gazetteer (see Appendix II) and the star refers to the type locality. For color figure, see online version. Felis guigna: Hensel, 1872:74 (part) (non Felis guigna Type locality: “Urwald von Rio Grande do Sul” Molina, 1782). (Hensel, 1872:74) [=  Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Felis guttata: Lydekker, 1896:145; typographical er- (Cabrera, 1958, 1961; Nascimento, 2010)]. Unfor- ror of Felis guttula (non Felis guttata Hermann, tunately Hensel did not give a more precise locality 1804). where the specimens were collected. However, accord- Felis (Oncoides) tigrina guttula: Trouessart, 1897:359 ing to information about the places visited by Hensel (name combination). in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 1863 and Felis (Oncoides) mitis: Lahille, 1899:178 (non Felis mi- 1865 (Hensel, 1867; Buckup, 1999), the specimens tis F. Cuvier, 1820). were probably collected somewhere in the northeast- Felis pardinoides: Thomas, 1903:236 (non Felis pardi- ern part of this Brazilian state. noides Gray, 1867a). Oncilla pardinoides pardinoides: Allen, 1919:358 (non Type material: Two skulls deposited in the Museum Felis pardinoides Gray, 1867a). für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, under the num- Oncilla guttula guttula: Allen, 1919:360 (name com- bers ZMB-MAM21229 and ZMB-MAM21231 bination). (Figs.  14  and  15). Hensel pointed these two speci- Felis (Leopardus) tigrina guttula: Cabrera, 1958:286 mens in his description, but their collection numbers (name combination). were not indicated in the text and, more importantly, Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus FIGURE  13: Pattern of coloration and markings in L.  emiliae: (A): UFPB6267 (S ítio Corea, Várzea, Paraíba, Brazil); (B):  UFPB7061 (Comunidade Soledade, Paraíba, Brazil); (C): UFPB3243 (Jaguaribe, Ceará, Brazil). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. he did not indicate which specimen is the holotype. with intermediate characteristics between these two Thus, the two specimens are considered syntypes of species (Eizirik et al., 2006; Trigo et al., 2008, 2013). L.  guttulus. The specimen ZMB-MAM21229 is a Possibly the Chaco in northern Argentina could be male and the other, ZMB-MAM21231, was iden-the contact zone between L. tigrinus and L. guttulus. tified as a female by Hensel presumably due to the smaller overall size, to relatively smaller canines, and Variation: L.  guttulus does not show sexual dimor- more delicate structures of the skull (Hensel, 1872). phism for external characters, and the overall ground In addition, he described the pelage of the species, but color varies from dark yellowish brown to ochraceous he does not indicate whether this description is based buff, with the sides of the body usually lighter to- on one of two specimens, a combination of the two wards the venter, which is white or light gray colored specimens or another unknown individual. Neverthe (Fig.  - 17). Regarding to the rosettes on the sides of the less, only the two skulls mentioned above are recor body ded , they usually do not coalesce to form small or as types of the species in the ZBM. medium-sized oblique bands. Melanistic individuals are known for L. guttulus. Diagnosis: Small sized; fur relatively harsh; ground color dark yellowish brown to ochraceous buff, lighter Taxonomic notes: As mentioned above, Hensel (1872) on the sides of the body; venter white or very light described Felis guttula to southern Brazil (Rio Grande gray; small dark rosettes on the body sides with thick do Sul state), which subsequently it was recognized and continuous black rims, rarely coalescing into as a subspecies of L.  tigrinus. Furthermore, in the small-sized oblique bands. same work, Hensel described a skull also collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and identified it as Body measurements: See Morphogroup III in Table 2. Felis guigna Molina, 1782. Thomas (1903) received specimens from “Roca Nova” [=  Roça Nova, mu- Geographic distribution: L. guttulus is found in Brazil nicipality of Piraquara], Paraná, Brazil, collected by (southeast, south and center-west regions), northeast A. Rober - t and then requested to Paul Matschie, for- ern Argentina and Paraguay (Fig. 16). It has a contact mer mammal curator of Berlin Zoological Museum zone with L.  geoffroyi in the Central Depression r(no e- wadays Museum für Naturkunde), to compare gion in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where hybrid three skulls with the material of Hensel. One of skulls specimens were found and they showed pelage pattern was identified as Felis macroura (= Leopardus wiedii), Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 another (a male) as indistinct of F.  guttula Hensel, specimens analysed b y Thomas (1903) [either both 1872, and the other as F.  guigna Hensel, 1872 (not Thomas and P ocock were unaware about this article F.  guina Molina, 1782). However, Thomas did not (something unlikely) or they rejected Gray’s latter de- agree with him and based on the type locality of Felis cision]. guigna Molina, 1782, which is Valdivia, Chile, on the In short, Thomas (1903) recognized two species western side of the Andes, and from the comparison from R oça Nova, a larger one, F.  guttula, and a between the skull of the specimen from Paraná and smaller , F.  pardinoides, but Pocock (1917) disagreed the skull of the type of F.  pardinoides, he concluded and re-examined the specimens, concluding that that F.  guigna Hensel, 1872 is a junior synonym of F.  pardinoides and F.  guttula recognized by Thomas F.  pardinoides Gray, 1867a (Thomas, 1903; Pocock, (1903) are actually a female (melanistic individual) 1917). Strangely, Thomas (1903) designated a newand a male (spotted specimen), respectively, of the locality for F. pardinoides, “Espiritu Santo” (= Espírito same species. F urthermore, Pocock (1917) pointed Santo), and as Allen (1919:358) quoted: “No referout that a second - male from the same locality had ence is made [by Thomas] to Gray’s previous designalittle differ - ence in the characters of the skull and tion [in Gray, 1874] of Bogotá as the type locality the pelage in comparison to other male. Thus, the of his Felis pardinoides” (see L.  tigrinus’ Taxonomic name F.  pardinoides Thomas, 1903, besides it was Notes for more details). Also Pocock (1917) did not preoccupied b y F. pardinoides Gray, 1867a, is a junior made reference to Gray’s article when he revised the synonym of F. guttula (Hensel, 1872). FIGURE 14: The skull of one of the syntypes of L. guttulus (Hensel, 1872), the specimen ZMB-MAM21231 (female?). Bar = 20 mm. Photo: Carola Radke (Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany). For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus COMPARISONS L. emiliae and L. guttulus. Up to now, the previously taxonomic studies used mostly specimens from the In Table 6 we summarize the main differences that northwest and northern South America, but our distinguish the tigrinas species (L. tigrinus, L. emiliae study is the first to cover a larger sample of specimens and L.  guttulus) from other small and medium sized in quantitative and geographical terms from the entire felids found throughout their geographical distribution: distribution of the gr oup, especially from southern ocelot (L. pardalis), margay (L. wiedii), Geoffroy’s cat and eastern areas of the range, which hitherto have (L.  geoffroyi), Pantanal cat (L.  braccatus), pampas cat been neglected (Elliot, 1877, 1883; Thomas, 1903; (L.  pajeros), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouroundi), Allen, 1919; Cabrera, 1961). and domestic cat (Felis catus). As pointed out by Helgen et  al. (2013), the order Carnivora had been for long time considered taxonomically stable, with very few changes in the CONCLUSIONS Neotropical assemblage in last 100 years (Patterson, 2001). Similar scenario could be extends to other We proposed a new taxonomic arrangement medium and large-sized Neotropical mammals (de for the tigrina group, based on the complementar Viv y o, 1996; Rossi, 2000; Patterson, 2001, Feijó & morphological approach supported by the molecular Langguth, 2013; Nascimento, 2014; Feijó & Cordeiro- evidence available, with three species, L.  tigrinus, Estrela, 2016). This putative stability, however, is FIGURE 15: The skull of one of the syntypes of L. guttulus (Hensel, 1872), the specimen ZMB-MAM21229 (male). Bar = 20 mm. Photo: Carola Radke (Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany). For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 TABLE 6: Comparisons of some external and craniodental characters between tigrinas species (L. tigrinus, L. emiliae and L. guttulus) and other small and medium-sized Neotropical cats that occur along the geographic distribution of the tigrinas (L. pardalis, L. wiedii, L. geoffroyi, L. braccatus, L. pajeros, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, and Felis catus). Tail lenght/ Anteriormost point of Dorsal Curvature at Nape hairs head and body Overall ground color of the Pattern of spots on premaxillary in relation Taxa Body size profile of the frontal and Sagittal crest orientation length ratio body the sides of body to anteriormost point skull parietal area (on average) of nasal Leopardus small (2.5 kg) backward ~60% dark brown to yellowish brown usually coalescing slightly ar ched slightly convex aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to tigrinus orange light; venter white or into medium the interparietal region light gray oblique bands Leopardus small backward ~60% light yellowish brown to palerar ely coalescingslightly ar ched slightly convex aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to emilae (1.2-3.5 kg) yellow; venter white, very light into oblique bands the interparietal region gray or slightly yellowish Leopardus small backward ~60% dark yellowish brown; venterrar ely coalescingslightly ar ched slightly convex aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to guttulus (1.0-2.5 kg) white or very light gray into oblique bands the interparietal region Leopardus medium forward ~50% bright and pale orangish buffusually coalescing highly ar ched well convex not aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal pardalis (7.0-16.0 kg) color to grayish buff and gray; into large bands region, moderately developed and occupying venter white or very light gray posterior half of parietal suture, or well developed occupying total length of parietal suture Leopardus small forward ~70% bright and pale orangish buffusually coalescing highly ar ched well convex not aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to wiedii (2.0-4.0 kg) color to grayish buff and gray; into medium the interparietal region venter white or very light grayoblique bands Leopardus small backward ~55% ground color varying from light nev er coalescing slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal geoffroyi (2.0-6.0 kg) yellowish brown to smoky gray; into bands region or moderately developed and occupying venter white or very light gray posterior half of braincase Leopardus small backward ~55% brown aguti fading oblique lines slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal braccatus (2.5-4.0 kg) region or moderately developed and occupying braccatus posterior half of braincase Leopardus small backward ~55% yellowish brown aguti fading oblique lines slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal braccatus (2.5-4.0 kg) region or moderately developed and occupying munoai posterior half of braincase Leopardus small backward ~50% yellowish gray or grayish brown usually coalescing slightly ar ched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal pajeros (2.5-4.0 kg) into medium region or moderately developed and occupying (Northern oblique bands posterior half of braincase form)¹ Leopardus small backward ~50% grayish brown fading oblique lines slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal pajeros (2.5-4.0 kg) region or moderately developed and occupying (Southern posterior half of braincase form)² Herpailurus small backward ~60% gray, reddish, yellow, dark spots absent slightly arched slightly convex aligned moderately developed and restrict to yagouaroundi (3.2-7.0 kg) brown or black interparietal region Felis catus small backward ~50-65% variable variable but neverslightly ar ched slightly convex aligned moderately developed and occupying posterior (2.5-4.0 kg) coalescing into half of parietal suture bands 1 includes the putative subspecies: L. p. garleppi (Matschie, 1912), L. p. thomasi (Lönnberg, 1913), L. p. budini (Pocock, 1941), L. p. steinbachi (Pocock, 1941) and L. p. crespoi (Cabrera, 1957). 2 includes the putative subspecies L. p. pajeros (Desmarest, 1816) and L. p. crucinus (Thomas, 1901). Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus potentially more reflective of the scarcity of taxonomic Lagomorpha) have been underestimated (Nascimento, studies rather than actual diversity. Recent taxonomic 2010, 2014; Feijó & Langguth 2013; Helgen et  al., revisions of medium and large-sized mammals hav2013; e Feijó & Cordeiro-Estrela, 2016). Regardless shown that the potential diversity in different grthe taxa, the pr oups oper evaluation of the species and (e.g., Carnivora, Cingulata, Rodentia Hystricognathi, subspecies ranks should be based on a geographic FIGURE  16: Geographic distribution of the specimens of L.  guttulus studied. Numbers correspond to collection localities listed in the gazetteer (see Appendix II) and the question mark refers to the type locality, which does not have a precise location [Hensel (1872) only cited “Rio Grande do Sul” as the type locality]. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 FIGURE 17: Pattern of coloration and markings in L. guttulus: (A): MZUSP24234 (D ourado, São Paulo, Brazil); (B): MNRJ6693 (São Francisco, Jacarépaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); (C): MNRJ3889 (Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. broad scale, taking into account the individual, Costa Rica. Quatro subespécies são tradicionalmente sexual, population and geographic variation, and reconhecidas: L.  t.  tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) do Brasil preferable using complementary approaches. In this setentrional, Guianas e Venezuela oriental; L.  t.  pardi- sense, the scientific museums have a key role for house noides (Gray, 1867) da Venezuela ocidental, Colôm- a sample of the biological diversity (de V et iv al., o bia, Equador e Peru; L.  t.  guttulus (Hensel, 1872) do 2014; Moratelli, 2014). Brasil meridional, Paraguai e Argentina setentrional; e From a conservation perspective, the split into L. t. oncillus (Thomas, 1903) da Costa Rica. Analisa- three species of the tigrina group may change our vie mos quantitativ w a e qualitativamente a morfologia exter- about the extinction susceptibility risk. Leopardus na e crânio-dentária de 250 espécimes com o objetivo de tigrinus, as previously recognized, and L. guttulus aresclar e ecer o estado taxonômico do gato-do-mato-pequeno. both classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN mainly Baseado nos caracteres analisados, nós reconhecemos três due to its presence in areas with high rate of for mor est fogrupos, cada com uma distinta distribuição geográ- loss (Oliveira et  al., 2016a,b). Considering the new fica: norte/noroeste/oeste (amostras do Brasil setentrional, taxonomic arrangement, the resulting geographic Guianas, Venezuela, Colômbia, Equador, Peru, noroeste distribution of each taxon is now considerably da Argentina e Costa Rica), leste (amostras do nordeste smaller than previously accepted for the entire tigrina e centro do Brasil) e sul (amostras do Brasil meridional, group. Therefore, this dramatically increases the risk Paraguai e nordeste da Argentina). Considerando as evi- of extinction for each these taxa. Thus, the curr dências mor ent fológicas apresentadas neste estudo, ligado situation and status of L.  tigrinus, L.  emiliae and ao suporte biogeográfico e dos estudos moleculares dispo- L. guttulus should be urgently assessed. níveis, reconhecemos três espécies plenas de gato-do-ma- to-pequeno: L.  tigrinus (inclui as supostas subespécies L.  t.  pardinoides and L.  t.  oncillus como sinônimos RESUMO juniores) para o grupo norte/noroeste/oeste; L.  emiliae (Thomas, 1914) para o grupo do leste; and L. guttulus para o grupo do sul. O gato-do-mato-pequeno Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) é um felídeo neotropical de pequeno porte encon- Palavras-Chave: Leopardus tigrinus; L.  guttulus; trado desde o norte da Argentina e sul do Brasil até a L. emiliae; Subespécies; Variação morfológica. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Allen, J.A. 1919. Notes on the synonymy and nomenclature of the smaller spotted cats of Tropical America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 41:341-419. We are grateful to the following curators and Anderson, S. 1997. Mammals of Bolivia, taxonomy and collection managers for the permission to examine distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 231:1-652. specimens in their respective collections: Mario de Bonvicino, C.R.; Langguth, A. & Mittermeier, R.A. 1989. A Vivo and Juliana Gualda-Barros (MZUSP); João study of pelage color and geographic distribution in Alouatta Alves de Oliveira, Leandro Salles, Sérgio Maia Vaz belzebul (Primates: Cebidae). Revista Nordestina de Biologia, and Stella Franco (MNRJ); José de Sousa e Silva Jr. 6(2):139-148. Buckup, L. 1999. A Fauna e as Paisagens do Rio Grande do Sul na and M. Suely Aparecida Marques-Aguiar (MPEG); Visão dos Viajantes Alemães dos Séculos passados. Volkmer In: , Márcia Arzua (MHNCI); Gustavo Machado Prado J.A.; Rocha, M.A.; Gertz, R.E. & Rohden, V. (Eds.). Retratos (MBML); Pedro Cordeiro Estrela (UFPB); Diego de Cooperação Científica e Cultural: 40 anos do Instituto Cultural Astúa (UFPE); Rogério Vieira Rossi (UFMT); Brasileiro-Alemão. Porto Alegre, EDIPUCRS. p. 47-62. Buffon, G. 1765. L’Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière, avec Robert Voss and Eileen Westwig (AMNH); Bruce la description du Cabinet du Roi. Tome  XIII (Quadrupèdes  X) D. Patterson (FMNH); Kristofer M. Helgen, Craig Paris, L’Imprimerie Royale. 368p. A. Ludwig, Darrin P. Lunde, Esther M. Langan, Burbrink, F.T.; Lawson, R. & Slowinski, J.B. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the polytypic north American rat and Nicole R. Edmison (USNM); David Flores and snake (Elaphe obsoleta): a critique of the subspecies concept. Sergio Lucero (MACN); Kathia Rivero (MNK); Evolution, 54(6):2107-2118. Victor Pacheco (MUSM); Claudia Medina and Cabrera, A. 1958. Catalogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Fernando Forero (IAVH); Hugo López (ICN); Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Ciencias Zoológicas, 4(1):1-307. Santiago Burneo and Maria Alejandra Camacho Cabrera, A. 1961. Los felidos vivientes de la República Argentina. (QCAZ); Luis Albuja and Pablo Moreno (MEPN); Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Javier Sánchez (EBRG); Pepijn Kamminga (RMNH); Rivadavia”, Ciencias Zoológicas, 6(5):160-247. Christiane Funk and Carola Radke (ZMB); Daniela Cracraft, J. 1983. Species concepts and speciation analysis. Current Ornithology, 1:159-187. Kalthoff (NRM); Frank Zachos and Alexander Bibl Cuervo, A.; Hernández-Camacho, J. & Cadena, C. 1986. Lista (NMW); Judith M. Chupasko (MCZ); and Roberto atualizada de los mamíferos de Colômbia: anotaciones sobre su Portela Miguez (NHM). We also like give a special distribucion. Caldasia, 15:471-501. Cuvier, F. 1826. Marguai. In: Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, É. & Cuvier, thanks to Dione Seripierri and Marta Lucia Zamana F. (Eds.). Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères, avec des figures (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo) for originales, coloriées, dessinées d’après des animaux vivans, valuable effort in obtaining some references needed Volume III. Paris, Chez A. Belin. p. 1-2. to the conception of this manuscript; Guilherme S.T. Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 1 – The Northern Neotropics: Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Garbino (UFMG); Carla Aquino (MZUSP); Luis Suriname, French Guiana. Chicago, University of Chicago Fábio Silveira (MZUSP); Fábio Machado (IBUSP); Press. 550p. Marcus Vinícius Brandão (UFSCar, Campus Eizirik, E.; Indrusiak, C.B.; Trigo, T.C.; Sana, D.A.; Mazim, Sorocaba, Brazil); Hugo Fernandes-Ferreira (UFPB); F.D. & Freitas, T.R.O. 2006. Refined mapping and characterization of the geographic contact zone between oncilla Noé De La Sancha (FMNH); and Thiago Semedo and Geoffroy’s cat in Southern Brazil. Cat News, 45:8-11. (UFMT). Part of this work supported by CAPES Eldredge, N. & Cracraft, J. 1980. Phylogenetic Patterns and (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível the Evolutionary Process: Method and Theory in Comparative Biology. New York, Columbia University Press. 349p. Superior) (FON and AF), CNPq (Conselho Nacional Elliot, D.G. 1872. On Felis pardinoides, J.E. Gray. Proceedings of de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) (FON the Zoological Society of London, 1872:203. and AF) and the AMNH Grants Program (Collection Elliot, D.G. 1877. Remarks on Felis tigrina, Erxl., and its Study) (FON). synonymy. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1877:704-707. Elliot, D.G. 1883. A Monograph of the Felidae, or Family of the Cats. London, 124p. REFERENCES Erxleben, J.C.P. 1777. Systema regni animalis per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietates: cum synonymia et historia animalium: Allen, J.A. 1904. Mammals of southern Mexico and Central and Classis I. Mammalia. Lipsiae, Impensis Weygandianis. 636p. South America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Ewer, R.F. 1973. The Carnivores. New York, Cornell University History, 20:29-80. Press. 510p. Allen, J.A. 1915. New South American mammals. Bulletin of the Feijó, A. & Cordeiro-Estrela, P. 2016. Taxonomic revision of American Museum of Natural History, 34:625-634. the Dasypus kappleri complex, with revalidations of Dasypus Allen, J.A. 1916. List of mammals collected in Colombia by pastasae (Thomas, 1901) and Dasypus beniensis Lönnberg, the American Museum of Natural History expeditions, 1942 (Cingulara, Dasypodidae). Zootaxa, 4170(2):271-297. 1910-1915. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Feijó, A. & Langguth, A. 2013. Mamíferos de Médio e Grande History, 35:191-238. Porte do Nordeste do Brasil: Distribuição e Taxonomia, com Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 descrição de novas espécies. Revista Nordestina de Biologia, Husson, A.M. 1978. The Mammals of Suriname. Zoölogische 22(1/2):3-227. Monographieën van het Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Fischer, J.B. 1829. Synopsis Mammalium. Stuttgart, Sumtibus J.G. Leiden, 2:1-569. Cottae. 752p. ICZN. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, th García-Perea, R. 1994. The pampas cat group (Genus 4   edition. Available on: www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/ Lynchailurus Severtzov, 1858) (Carnivora, Felidae), a code. Accessed on: 15/02/2015. systematic and biogeographic review. American MuseumJ ardine, W. 1834. Mammalia. Part  2. Felinae. Edinburgh, W.H. Novitates, 3096:1-36. Lazars. 276p. (The naturalist’s library. Vol. 16). García-Perea, R. 2002. Andean mountain cat, Oreailurus jacobita: Johnson, W.E. & O’Brien, S.J. 1997. Phylogenetic reconstruction morphological description and comparison with other felines of the Felidae using 16S rRna and NADH-5 mitochondrial from the altiplano. Journal of Mammalogy, 83(1):110-124. genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 44:S98-S116. Gardner, A.L. 1971. Notes on the little spotted cat, Felis tigrina Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; oncilla Thomas, in Costa Rica. Journal of Mammalogy, Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O’Brien, S.J. 2006. The late 52(2):464-465. Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment. Garrido, E.P. & González-Maya, J.F. 2011. Distribución Science, 311:73-77. geográfica de la oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) en Colombia e Johnson, W.E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Eizirik, E.; Kim, J.H.; Implicaciones para su conservación. Revista Latinoamericana Raymond, M.M.; Bonacic, C.; Cambre, R.; Crawshaw, P.; de Conservación, 2(1):51-59. Nunes, A.; Seuánez, H.N.; Moreira, M.A.M.; Seymour, Gmelin, J.F. 1788. Systema naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, K.L.; Simon, F.; Swanson, W. & O’Brien, S.J. 1999. Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Disparate phylogeographic patterns of molecular genetic Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus  I. Editio Decima Tercia, variation in four closely related South American small cat Aucta, Reformata. Lipsiae, Impensis Georg. Emanuel Beer. species. Molecular Ecology, 8:S79-S94. 500p. Jolicoeur, P. & Mosimann, J.E. 1960. Size and shape variation in Goldman, E.A. 1946. The Puma, Mysterious American Cat – the painted turtle. A principal component analysis. Growth, Part II: Classification of the Races of the Puma. Young, In: S.P. 24:339-354. & Goldman, E.A. (Eds.). The Puma, Mysterious American Cat. Kitchener, A.C. & Yamaguchi, N. 2010. What is a Tiger? Washington, D.C., American Wildlife Institution. p. 174-358. Biogeography, morphology and taxonomy . T In ilson, R.L. & : Gotelli, N.J. & Ellison, A.M. 2004. A primer of ecological Nyhus, P. (Eds.). Tigers of the World – The science, politics and nd statistics. Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, 510p. conservation of Panthera tigris (2   edition). Academic Press, Gray, J.E. 1867a. Notes on certain species of cats in the collection London. p. 53-86. of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lahille, F. 1899. Ensayo sobre la distribución geográfica de los London, 1867:394-405. mamíferos em la República Argentina. In: Reunión del Congreso Gray, J.E. 1867b. Notes on the skulls of the cats (Felidae). Científico Latinoamenricano, 1º, Buenos Aires, 1898. v.  3, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1867:258-277. p. 165-206. Gray, J.E. 1869. Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous, and Leyhausen, P. 1979. Cat behavior: the predatory and social behavior Edentate Mammalia in the British Museum. London, Order of of domestic and wild cats. New York, Garland Publishing Inc. the Trustees. 398p. Leyhausen, P. & Falkena, M. 1966. Breeding the Brazilian ocelot Gray, J.E. 1874. The Bogota cat (Felis pardinoides, Gray). The cat in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook, 6:176-178. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 4, 13:475. Li, G.; Davis, B.W.; Eizirik, E. & Murphy, W.J. 2016. Griffith, E.C. 1827. The animal kingdom arranged in conformity Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, Volume 2. London, genomes of living cats (Felidae). Genome Research, 26(1):1-11. G.B. Whittaker. 513p. Lydekker, R. 1896. A Handbook to the Carnivora. Part  1: cats, Hall, E.R. 1981. The mammals of North America, 2.ed. New York, civets, and mongooses. London, Edward Lloyd Ltd. 312p. John Wiley & Sons. 1271p. Macdonald, D.W.; Loveridge, A.J. & Nowell, K. 2010. Dramatis Hall, E.R. & Kelson, K.R. 1959. The Mammals of North America. personae: an introduction to the wild felids. Macdonald, In: New York, The Ronald Press Company. 1083p. D.W. & Loveridge, A.J. (Eds.). Biology and Conservation of Helgen, K.M.; Miguel Pinto, C.; Kays, R.; Helgen, L.E.; Wild Felids. New York, Oxford University Press. p. 3-58. Tsuchiya, M.T.N.; Quinn, A.; Wilson, D.E. & Maldonado, Mattern, M.Y. & McLennan, D.A. 2000. Phylogeny and J.E. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), speciation of felids. Cladistics, 16:232-253. with description of a new species, the Olinguito. Zookeys, Ma yr, E. 1942. Systematics and the origin of species. New York, 324:1-83. Columbia University Press. 335p. Hemmer, H. 1978. The evolutionary systematics of living Felidae: Mayr, E. 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Cambridge, Belknap present status and current problems. Carnivore, 1:71-79. Press of Harvard University Press. 811p. Hensel, R.F. 1867. Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss der Mayr, E. 1970. Populations, Species, and Evolution. Cambridge, brasilianischen Provinz São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 453p. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, 2:227-269; Melquist, W.E. 1984. Status survey of otters (Lutrinae) and spotted 342-376. cats (Felidae) in Latin America. Unpublished report. Idaho Hensel, R.F. 1872. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Säugethiere Süd- Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Idaho. Brasiliens. Abhandlungen der Königlich Preussischen Akademie 269p. der Wissenschaft. Berlin, 1872:1-130. Mondolfi, E. 1986. Notes on the biology and status of the small Honaker, J.; King, G. & Blackwell, M. 2011. Amelia  II: A wild cats in Venezuela. M In:iller, S.D. & Everett, D.D. (Eds.). Program for Missing Data. Journal of Statistical Software, Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation and Management. 45(7):1-47. Washington D.C., National Wildlife Federation. p. 125-146. Huáscar Azurduy, F. 2005. Nota sobre el primer specimen Moratelli, R. 2014. Wildlife biologists are on the right track: de museo para Leopardus tigrinus en Bolivia. Kempffiana, A mammalogist’s view of specimen collection. Zoologia, 1(1):47-50. 31(5):413-417. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Müller, P.L.S. 1776. Des Ritters Carl von Linné Königlich Schreber, J.C.D. von. 1775. Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen Schwedischen Leibarztes &c. &c. vollständigen Natursystems nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen, 2(14), pl. 99, 100; 2(15): Supplements- und Register-Band über alle sechs Theile oder pl. 101, 101B, 105, 106; 2(16): pl. 108. Classen des Thierreichs. Mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung. Nebst Schreber, J.C.D. von. 1777. Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach drey Kupfertafeln. Raspe, Nürnberg, Gabriel Nicolaus. 638p. der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen, Wolfgang. v. 2, p. 13, Nascimento, F.O. 2010. Revisão taxonômica do gênero Leopardus pl. 110B; v. 3, pt. 22, 384-387, 392; v. 3, pt. 23, p. 393-394; Gray, 1842 (Carnivora, Felidae). (Ph.D. Dissertation). São 396-397; 407; v. 3, pt. 24, p. 412-414; v. 3, pt. 25, pl. 104B, Paulo, Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo. 109B. 358p. Severtzov, M.N. 1858. Notice sur la classification multisériale des Nascimento, F.O. 2014. On the morphological variation and Carnivores, spécialement des Félidés et les etudes de zoologie taxonomy of the Geoffroy’s cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d’Orbigny générale qui s’y rattachent. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, Series & Gervais, 1844) (Carnivora, Felidae). Papéis Avulsos de 3(1):385-396. Zoologia, 54(11):129-160. Simpson, G.G. 1961. Principles of Animal Taxonomy. New York, Nelson, G. & Platnick, N.I. 1981. Systematics and Biogeography: Columbia University Press. 247p. Cladistics and Vicariance. New York, Columbia University Stephens, L.S. & Traylor Jr., R.A. 1983. Ornithological Gazetteer Press. 567p. of Peru. Massachusetts, Harvard University. 273p. Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker’s Mammals of the World. 6.ed. Stephens, L.S. & Traylor Jr., R.A. 1985. Ornithological Gazetteer Baltimore, The John Hopkins University Press. 2015p. of the Guianas. Massachusetts, Harvard University. 123p. Nowell, K. & Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats: Status Survey and Sunquist, M.E. & Sunquist, F.C. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN/SSC Cat Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. 452p. Specialist Group. 382p. Sunquist, M.E. & Sunquist, F.C. 2009. Family Felidae (Cats). Oliveira, T. 2004. The oncilla in Amazonia: unraveling a myth. In: Wilson, D.E. & R.A. Mittermeier (Eds.). Handbook of the Cat News, 41:29-32. Mammals of the World, Volume 1: Carnivores. Barcelona, Lynx Oliveira, T.; Eizirik, E.; Schipper, J.; Valderrama, C.; Leite- Edicions. p. 54-169. Pitman, R. & Payan, E. 2016a. Leopardus tigrinus. The IUCN Temminck, C.J. 1827. Monographies de Mammalogie, ou Description Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T11510A3289293. de quelques genres de mammifères dont les espèces ont été observées DOI. Downloaded on 07/07/2016. dans les différens musées de l’Europe. Tome Premier I. Paris, Chez Oliveira, T., Trigo, T., Tortato, M., Paviolo, A., Bianchi, R. & G. Dufour et Ed. d’Ocagne, Librairies. 329p. Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. 2016b. Leopardus guttulus. The IUCN Thomas, O. 1880. On mammals from Ecuador. Proceedings of the Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54010476A54010576. Zoological Society of London, 1880:393-403. DOI. Downloaded on 07/07/2016. Thomas, O. 1903. Notes on Neotropical mammals of the Patterson, B.D. 2001. Fathoming tropical biodiversity: the genera Felis, Hapale, Oryzomys, Akodon, and Ctenomys, with continuing discovery of Neotropical mammals. Diversity and descriptions of new species. The Annals and Magazine of Distribution, 7:191-196. Natural History, series 7, 12:234-243. Paynter Jr., R.A. 1982. Ornithological Gazetteer of Venezuela. Thomas, O. 1912. Small mammals from South America. The Massachusetts, Harvard University. 245p. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 10:44-48. Paynter Jr., R.A. 1989. Ornithological Gazetteer of Paraguay. 2.ed. Thomas, O. 1914. On various South American mammals. The Massachusetts, Harvard University. 61p. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 13:345-362. Paynter Jr., R.A. 1995. Ornithological Gazetteer of Argentina. 2.ed. Trigo, T.C.; Freitas, T.R.O.; Kunzler, G.; Cardoso, L.; Massachusetts, Harvard University. 1045p. Silva, J.C.R.; Johnson, W.E.; O’Brien, S.J.; Bonatto, Paynter Jr., R.A. 1997. Ornithological Gazetteer of Colombia. 2.ed. S.L. & Eizirik, E. 2008. Inter-species hybridization among Massachusetts, Harvard University. 311p. Neotropical cats of the genus Leopardus, and evidence for an Paynter Jr., R.A. & Traylor Jr., M.A. 1991. Ornithological introgressive hybrid zone between L. geoffroyi and L. tigrinus in Gazetteer of Brazil. Massachusetts, Harvard University. 789p. southern Brazil. Molecular Ecology, 17:4317-4333. Pocock, R.I. 1917. The groups of the small and medium-sized Trigo, T.C.; Schneider, A.; Oliveira, T.G. de; Lehugeur, L.M.; South American Felidae. The Annals and Magazine of Natural Silveira, L.; Freitas, T.R.O. & Eizirik, E. 2013. Molecular History, series 8, 20:43-47. data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of Pocock, R.I. 1939. The races of jaguar (Panthera onca). Novitates Neotropical wild cat. Current Biology, 23(24):2528-2533. Zoologicae, 41:406-422. Trigo, T.C.; Tirelli, F.P.; Freitas, T.R.O. & Eizirik, E. 2014. Pocock, R.I. 1940. The races of Geoffroy’s cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi). Comparative assessment of genetic and morphological The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series  11, variation at an extensive hybrid zone between two wild cats in 6:350-355. southern Brazil. PLoS One 9: e108469. Pocock, R.I. 1941a. Some new geographic races of Leopardus, Trouessart, E-L. 1897. Catalogus mammalium tam viventium commonly known as ocelots and margays. The Annals and quam fossilium. Nova editio (Prima Completa). Fasciculus  I. Magazine of Natural History, series 11, 8:234-239. Primates, Prosimiae, Chiroptera, Insectivora. Berlin, R. Pocock, R.I. 1941b. The races of the ocelot and the margay. Field Friedländer & Sohn. 929p. Museum of natural History, Zoological Series, 27:319-369. Vanzolini, P.E. & Traylor Jr.; M.A. 1992. A Supplement to Pocock, R.I. 1941c. The examples of the colocolo and of the the Ornithological Gazetteer of Brazil. São Paulo, Museu de pampas cat in the British Museum. The Annals and Magazine Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. 252p. of Natural History, series 11, 7:257-273. de Vivo, M. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 R Core Team, 2013. R: A language and environment for statistical (Callitrichidae, Primates). Belo Horizonte, Fundação computing. Vienna, R  Foundation for Statistical Computing. Biodiversitas para Conservação da Diversidade Biológica. URL www.r-project.org. 105p. Rossi, R.V. 2000. Taxonomia de Mazama Rafinesque, 1817 do Brasil de Vivo, M. 1996. How many species of mammals there are in (Artiodactyla, Cervidae). (M.Sc. Dissertation). São Paulo, Brazil? In: Bicudo C.E.M. & Menezes N.A. (Eds.). Biodiversity Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo. 174p. in Brazil. A first approach. (Proceedings of the Workshop for the Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 assessment of biodiversity in plants and animals). Campos do Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Jordão, CNPq. p. 313-321. p. 532-628. de Vivo, M.; Silveira, F.L. & Nascimento, F.O. 2014. Reflexões Ximenez, A. 1974. Notas sobre félidos neotropicales VI: sobre coleções zoológicas, sua curadoria e a inserção dos contribucion a la elucidacion de las variaciones individuales Museus na estrutura universitária brasileira. Arquivos de de Felis pardalis Linne, 1758 (Mammalia, Felidae). Zoologia, 45(esp.):105-113. Comunicaciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Weigel, I. 1961. Das Fellmuster der wildlebenden Katzenarten und “Bernardino Rivadavia”, 4(7):40-57. der Hauskatze in vergleichender und stammesgeschichtlicher Yamaguchi, N.; Driscoll, C.A.; Kitchener, A.C.; Ward, J.M. Hinsicht. Saügetierkundliche Mitteilungen, 9:1-120. & Macdonald, D.W. 2004. Craniological differentiation Wilkins, J.S. 2009. Species: A History of the Idea. Oakland, between European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African University of California Press. 303p. wildcats (F.  s.  lybica) and Asian wildcats (F.  s.  ornata): Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D.E. implications for their evolution and conservation. Biological & Reeder, D.M. (Eds.). Mammal Species of the World. 2.ed. Journal of the Linnean Society, 83:47-63. Washington D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 286-346. Wozencraft, W.C. 2005. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D.E. Aceito em: 06/04/2017 & Reeder, D.M. (Eds.). Mammal Species of the World, Third Publicado em: 13/06/2017 Editor Responsável: Mario de Vivo Produzido e diagramado na Publicado com o apoio financeiro do Os periódicos Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia e Seção de Publicações do Programa de Apoio às Publicações Arquivos de Zoologia estão licenciados sob Museu de Zoologia da Científicas Periódicas da USP uma Licença CC-BY da Creative Commons. Universidade de São Paulo Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus APPENDIX I List of Specimens Examined Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) – 75 specimens. ARGENTINA: Chaco: Unknown locality: MACN38.20 (skin); Salta: Rio Carapavi, Angostuta: MACN36.726 (skin); BRAZIL: Amapá: Estrada Campo Verde, Porto Peaton: MNRJ24894 (skull). COLOMBIA: Amazonas: Rio Putumayo; Puerto Leguízamo: AMNH149316 (skin), AMNH149317 (skin), AMNH149318 (skin); Antioquia: Santa Elena: AMNH37788 (skin and skull) (holotype of Margay tigrina elenae Allen, 1915); Boyacá: Coper: IAVH1781 (skin); Villa de Leyva, Mamar- ramos: IAVH8608 (skin); Caldas: cuenca alta del rio Tapias, Neira: IAVH7343 (skin); Caquetá: Florencia: IAVH783 (skin); Cauca: Almaguer: AMNH 33897 (skin); Charguayaco: AMNH181498 (skin and skull), FMNH89231 (skin and skull); El Tambo: AMNH149319 (skin); Las Pabas (= valle de Las Papas), near Santo Antonio, 6000ft (1830  m): AMNH14187 (skin and skull) (holotype of Margay caucensis Allen, 1915); La Quintana: FMNH85823 (skin and skull); Leticia, Moscopán: AMNH149321 (skin); Malvatá: AMNH181497 (skin); Sabanetas: FMNH84554 (skin and skull); Totoro: FMNH89230 (skin and skull); Uribe: ZMB105209 (skull), ZMB105210 (skull) and ZMB105211 (skull); Cundinamarca: Bogotá: FMNH70570 (skin, skull and skeleton), FMNH70571 (skin, skull and skeleton), FMNH70572 (skin, skull and skeleton); Huila: Acevedo, San Adolfo: FMNH70569 (skin, skull and skeleton); Altamira, Andalucia: AMNH33896 (skin and skull); La Plata, Vereda La Segoviana: IAVH710 (skin); Meta: Villavicencio: AMNH139224 (skin and skeleton); Nariño: P.N.N. Volcan Galeras: IAVH5857 (skin); Quindío: Reserva Florestal Bremen, Circasia: IAVH7331 (skin); Tolima: Rio Chili, Sul de Manizales: AMNH69165 (skin and skull), AMNH69166 (skin and skull). COSTA RICA: Cartago: Cartago: ZMB17196 (skin); San Jose: Carrillo, S Llano (Llanuras) de Santa Clara: NMW-B4559 (skin); Parrita: Pozo Azul: AMNH19211 (skin and skull; holotype of Felis carrikeri Allen, 1904); ECUADOR: Cotopaxi: San Francisco de Las Pampas: QCAZ205 (skin); Napo: Rio Chalpichico entre Pa- pallacta y Cuyuja: MEPN10931 (skin); Pichincha: Alonguineho, Mojanda (south): NRM585404 (skull), NRM585413 (skull); Mt. Pichincha: NRM595402 (skull). GUYANA: Rupununi: Dadanawa Ranch, 60 miles E: USNM541506 (skull) (misidentified as Herpailurus yagouaroundi on the specimen tag); Unknown locality: USNM395089 (skull and skeleton); USNM395090 (skull and skeleton); USNM362126 (skin, skull and skel- eton). PERU: Junín: Chanchamayo: Chanchamayo: USNM255135 (skull), FMNH65780 (skin and skull); La Florida (region Alto Yurinaki): MUSM5046 (skin); Pasco: Oxapampa: Pozuzo: FMNH34674 (skin); Puno: Sandia: San Juan: FMNH78404 (skin and skull), FMNH78463 (skin), FMNH79923 (skin, skull and skel- eton); Unknown locality: monte del Peru: MUSM2154 (skin). SURINAME: Para District: Onoribo, on Para River, 5 km West of Paranam, about 25 km South of Paramaribo: RMNH18221 (skin); Saramaca District: RMNH17764 (skin); Unknown locality: NRM582004 (skull). VENEZUELA: Amazonas: Rio Negro frente Isla Chicharral: EBRG2214 (skin and skull); Aproximado 3  km  S San Carlos de Rio Negro: EBRG21031 (skull); Bolivar: Cedeño, Serrania de Los Pijiguaos 140 km SO de Caicara: EBRG15796 (skin, skull and skel- eton); El Manteco, 28 km SE, Los Patos: USNM374861 (skin and skull); Porto Ordaz: AMNH176298 (skin and skull); Raul Leoni, 2 km NO Represa Guri 1 km e Alcabala Obra: EBRG9609 (skin and skull); Sierra de Lema, km 753: EBRG27346 (skin, skull and skeleton); Distrito Federal: Caracas, 9.4 km N. Hotel Humboldt: EBRG3159 (skin and skull); USNM371278 (skin and skull); Merida: AMNH21638 (skin); Montes de la Si- erra: AMNH34349 (skin and skull); Páramo de San Antonio (near Merida): MCZ20979 (skin and skull); Sierra Nevada: NRM595411 (skull); Miranda: Autopista Coche-Tejerias, Distribuidor Los Totumos: MHNLS4372 (skin); Altos de Pipe, a 200 m del Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Via San Antonio de Los Altos (100 m Reactor R -1 D V el Ivic): EBRG3004 (skull); Táchira: Páramo El Zumbador: ZMB33350 (skull); Zulia: Yamayaujaina, Rio Negro, Serranía de Perijá: MHNLS176 (skin). Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) – 62 specimens. BRAZIL: Alagoas: Fazenda São Manuel, Viçosa: MPEG24895 (skull); Quebrângulo: MZUSP8292 (skull, skin and skeleton); between the municipalities of Pilar and Atalaia: UFPB3567 (skin); Bahia: BR 101, km 397, ponte Rio Ouriço: UFPB797 (skin); BR 101, km 645, 36 km Sul do Rio Pardo: UFPB795 (skin); Barreiras: UFPB981 (skin), UFPB982 (skin); UFPB983 (skin); Senhor do Bonfim: MZUSP2646 (skin and skull), MZUSP24903 (skin); Ceará: Comunidade Bal- ança, Caridade: UFPB6592 (skin); Cratéus: UFPE2411 (skin); Fazenda Carrapato (João Cativo), Itapipoca: UFPE1999 (skin); Iguatu: UFPE2412 (skin); Ipu: BMNH13.12.18.3 (skin; holotype of Felis emiliae Thomas, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 1914); MPEG588 (skin; topotype of Felis emiliae Thomas, 1914); Jaguaribe: UFPB3243 (skin); São Benedito, Macapá: MNRJ24896 (skull); Serra do Baturité, Mulungu: UFPE1942 (skin), UFPE1997 (skin), UFPE1998 (skin), UFPE2002 (skin) and UFPE2003 (skin); Chapada do Araripe, Crato: MNRJ1543 (skull and skin in alcohol); Tijuco, Aquiraz: UFPB2413 (skin); Goiás: Aragarças: MZUSP19900 (skin and skeleton); Palma: MNRJ3158 (skin); Maranhão: Aldeia do Ponto: MZUSP7975 (skin); Barra do Corda: FMNH23966 (skull and skin); Sítio Novo, Boa Lembrança, Grajaú: MPEG22685 (skin); Mato Grosso: Rio das Garças: MNRJ25722 (skin); Minas Gerais: Manga: MNRJ29078 (skin), MNRJ30025 (skin) and MNRJ29077 (skin); Pará: Ób - i dos: MPEG5618 (skull); Rio Jamari, Terra Santa: MZUSP13605 (skull, skin and skeleton); Paraíba: Comu- nidade Soledade: UFPB7061 (skin); Cuité: UFPB796 (skin); Distrito de Socorro, Olho d’Água: UFPB6443 (skin); Estrada de Lucena a Santa Rita: UFPB6471 (skin); Juazerinho: UFPB798 (skin); Olivedos: UFPB6939 (skin); Pocinhos: UFPB6653 (skin); REBIO Guaribas, Área II, Estrada de Jacaraú, 300 m da sede, Mamangape: UFPB6469 (skin); São João do Cariri: UFPB6806 (skin); São Mamede: UFPB6266 (skin); Tabuleiro de Pa- trocínio, Usina São João, Santa Rita: UFPB2083 (skin and skull); Várzea (Sítio Corea): UFPB6267 (skin) and UFPB6270 (skin); Unknown Locality: UFPB6242 (CETAS, IBAMA) (skull and skin), UFPB6791 (CETAS, IBAMA) (skull and skin); Pernambuco: Carnaubeira: MZUSP13609 (skull and skin), MZUSP13610 (skull and skin); BR 232, Distrito de Varzinha, Serra Talhada: UFPB6447 (skin); Fazenda Genipapo, Exu: UFPB6938 (skin); Ladeira do Timbó, BR  232, km  29, Moreno: UFPE1976 (skin); São Caetano: UFPE840 (skin and skull); vicinity of the REBIO Serra Negra, Inajá: UFPE693 (skin and skull); Piauí: Uruçuí: UNB2109 (skin); Rio Grande do Norte: Fazenda Juazeiro, Santana do Matos: UFPB6755 (skin); Tocantins: BR 153, Paraíso do Tocantins: UNB2750 (skin); Unknown locality: UFPB1023 (skin). Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) – 113 specimens. ARGENTINA: Chaco: Unknown locality: MACN38.21 (skin), MACN38.22 (skin), MACN38.23 (skin); MACN38.24 (skin); Misiones: Aguarai-Guazú Inferior: MACN48.295 (skin); MACN48.296 (skin); Arroyo Uruguaí, km 10: MACN52.56 (skin and skull); MACN52.57 (skin and skull); MACN51.121 (skin and skull); MACN51.141 (skin and skull); MACN51.142 (skin and skull); Departamento General Manuel Belgrano: MACN24912 (skin); Departamento Cainguás, Dos de Mayo: MACN23696 (skull); Departamento Guaraní, Cuartel Río Victoria: MACN23709 (skull); Depar- tamento Montecarlo, Arroyo Doradito: MACN23695 (skull); Parque Nacional Iguazú: MHNCI3828 (skull); Parque Nacional Iguazú, Area Cataratas: MACN24909 (skin); Rio Aguaraiguazú Superior: MACN48.294 (skull); Ruta Nacional Nº 14, 5 km al N de San Pedro: MACN24896 (skin); BRAZIL: Espírito Santo: Colati- na: MBML216 (skin and skull); Reserva Florestal de Linhares ES CVRD final da estrada do Parajá: MBML1837 (skull and skeleton); Rio do Norte, Santa Leopoldina: MBML2069 (skin and skull); Santa Teresa: MBML2418 (skin and skull), MBML381 (skin and skull), MBML1771 (skull), MBML395 (skin and skull), MBML314 (skin and skull), MBML2028 (skin), MBML279 (skin), MNRJ3889 (skin); MNRJ5885 (skull); Serra do Mamão, São Roque do Canaã: MBML2452 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: MNRJ49356 (skin); Mato Grosso: Pantanal: MPEG23854 (skin and skull); Minas Gerais: Viçosa: MNRJ4247 (skin and skull), MNRJ1363 (skin); BR 262-MG (near the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo): MBML1957 (skin and skull); Rio Caparaó, Serra do Caparaó: AMNH80396 (skin and skull); Paraná: Agudos do Sul: MHNCI3858 (skull); Bela Vista, Morretes: MHNCI13402 (skin and skull); Campina Grande do Sul: MHNCI3859 (skull); Candói: MHNCI3862 (skin and skull); Capão Rico, Fazenda Piraí-Guarapuava: MHNCI52 (skin and skull); Colombo: MHNCI3867 (skin and skull), MHNCI3861 (skull); Estação Ecológica do Caiuá, Diamante do Norte: MHNCI5714 (skin and skull); Estrada do Encantamento, Rio Iraí, Piraquara: MHNCI2672 (skin and skull); Fazenda Lagoa, Castro: MHNCI124 (skin and skull); Fazenda Banestado, Cajuru, Jaquariaíva: MHN- CI5573 (skull); Parque Nacional da Foz do Iguaçu, Foz do Iguaçu: MHNCI4378 (skin and skull); Horto São Nicolau, Arauco Florestal, Arapoti: MHNCI5993 (skin and skull); Paulo de Frontim, BR 153: MHNCI3982 (skull); Palmeira: MHNCI5835 (skin and skull); Pinhão: MHNCI5712 (skin and skull); Relógio, Prudentópo- lis: MHNCI2740 (skull); Represa do Passaúna, Curitiba: MHNCI3868 (skull); Sertanópolis: MHNCI3739 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: AMNH36225 (skin); Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis: MNRJ3133 (skin); Nova Friburgo: MZUSP2810 (skin and skull); São Francisco, Jacarepaguá: MNRJ6693 (skin and skull); Teresópolis: MNRJ3137 (skin); Teresópolis, Fazenda Boa Fé: MNRJ7261 (skull). Rio Grande do Sul: Caxias do Sul: MNRJ44359 (skin); Pinambi: MZUSP3188 (skull); Rio Pardo, BR 290, km 141: MPEG22183 (skin and skull), São Lourenço: AMNH36948 (skin); Unknown locality [Hensel (1872) did not give a precise locality where the specimens were collected]: ZMB-MAM21229 (skull) and ZMB-MAM21231 (skull) (syntypes of Felis Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus guttula Hensel, 1872). Santa Catarina: Corupá: MZUSP1765 (skin and skull); Garuva: MHNCI3864 (skin and skull); Jaraguá do Sul: ZMB21081 (skull), ZMB21097 (skull), ZMB21120 (skull), ZMB 21122 (skull). São Paulo: Bragança Paulista: MZUSP27683 (skin, skull and skeleton); Campos do Jordão: MZUSP2137 (skin); Conchas: MZUSP13796 (skin and skull); Dourado: MZUSP24234 (skin); Eugênio Lefèvre, Santo Antônio do Pinhal: MZUSP9912 (skin and skeleton); Franca: MZUSP810 (skin and skull); Guareí, Fazenda Fortaleza: UFMT26 (skin); Iguape: MZUSP2740 (skin and skull); Iporanga (Lajeado): MZUSP6549 (skin and skull); Itaquaquecetuba: MZUSP32633 (skin, skull and skeleton); Itararé: MZUSP1168 (skull); Itatiba: MZUSP3724 (skin); Ituverava: MZUSP2971 (skull); Lins: MZUSP6262; Paranapiacaba: MZUSP401 (skull); Piedade: MZUSP6457 (skin); Ponte Alta: MZUSP6456 (skin); Ribeirão Fundo: FMNH94319 (skin, sull and skeleton); Rio Grande: MZUSP2321 (skin and skull), MZUSP2360 (skin and skull), MZUSP2362 (skull); São Paulo (Santo Amaro): MZUSP6459 (skin and skull); Serra da Bocaina: MNRJ50821 (skin); Tamanduá (Rio Ipiranga), Descalvado: MZUSP10425 (skin and skeleton); Ubatuba: MZUSP1877 (skull), MZUSP1878 (skin and skull); Valparaíso: MZUSP3799 (skin and skull), MZUSP3811 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: MZUSP1090 (skull), MZUSP1393 (skull), MZUSP1395 (skull), MZUSP2438 (skin and skull), MZUSP6728 (skin and skull). Unknown locality: FMNH296 (mounted), ZMB58116 (skull). PARAGUA C Y aaguazú: : Rio Yuqueri: MCZ30269 (skin), MCZ30270 (skin; melanistic); Ñeembucú: Rio Yguazú: MCZ28678 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: MACN31.191 (skin). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 APPENDIX II Gazetteers Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) – The numbers in the map (Fig.  8) refer to the following localities: 1.  Caracas, 9.4  km  N. Hotel Humboldt, District Federal, Venezuela; 2.  100  m Reactor R -1 Del I V vic, Mi- randa, Venezuela; 3. Autopista Coche-Tejerias, Distribuidor Los Totumos, Miranda, Vene 4.zuela;  Carrillo, S Llano (Llanuras) de Santa Clara, San Jose, Costa Rica; 5. Yamayaujaina, Rio Negro, Serranía de Perijá, Zulia, Venezuela; 6.  Cartago, Cartago, Costa Rica; 7.  Pozo Azul, Pirris, Costa Rica (type locality of Felis carrikeri Allen, 1904); 8. Montes de la Sierra, Merida, Venezuela; 9. near Merida, páramo de San Antonio (3,000 m), Merida, Venezuela; 10. Sierra Nevada, Merida, Venezuela; 11. Porto Ordaz, Bolivar, Venezuela; 12. Páramo El Zumbador, Táchira, Venezuela; 13. 2 km NW Represa Guri 1 km & Alcabala Obra, Bolivar, Venezuela; 14. El Manteco, 28 km SE, Los Patos, Bolivar, Venezuela; 15. Serrania de Los Pijiguaos 140 km SW de Caicara, Boli- var, Venezuela; 16. Sierra de Lema km 753, Bolivar, Venezuela; 17. Villa de Leyva, Mamarramos, Boyacá, Co- lombia; 18. Onoribo, on Para River, 5 km of Paranam, about 25 km S of Paramaribo, Para District, Suriname; 19. Coper, Boyacá, Colombia; 20. cuenca alta del rio Tapias, Neira, Caldas, Colombia; 21. Cayenne, French Guiana (type locality of Felis tigrina Schreber, 1775); 22. Saramaca District, Suriname; 23. Reserva Florestal Bremen, Circasia, Quindío, Colombia; 24. Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 25. Villavecencia, Meta, Co- lombia; 26. Río Chili, South of Manizales, Tolima, Colombia; 27. Rio Negro frente Isla Chicharral, Amazonas, Venezuela; 28. Leticia, Moscopán, Cauca, Colombia; 29. Las Pabas (= Valle de Las Papas), near San Antonio, Cauca, Colombia (type locality of Margay caucensis Allen, 1915); 30. Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia (type locality of Margay tigrina elenae Allen, 1915); 31. Aproximado 3 km S San Carlos de Rio Negro, Amazonas, Venezuela; 32. Uribe, Cauca, Colombia; 33. Dadanawa Ranch, 60 mi. E, Rupununi, Guyana; 34.  Malvatá, Cauca, Colombia; 35. Charguayaco, Cauca, Colombia; 36. Sabanetas, Cauca, Colombia; 37. Totoro, Cauca, Colombia; 38. La Quintana, Cauca, Colombia; 39. La Plata, Vereda La Segoviana, Huila, Colombia; 40. Huila, Andalucia, Colombia; 41. Almaguer, Cauca, Colombia; 42. Charguayaco, Cauca, Colombia; 43. San Adolfo, Huila, Colombia; 44. Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia; 45. El Tambo, Cauca, Colombia; 46. P.N.N. Volcan Gal- eras, Nariño, Colombia; 47. Estrada Campo Verde, Porto Peaton, Amapá, Brazil; 48. Alonguineho, Mojanda (south), Pichincha, Napo, Ecuador; 49. Mt. Pichincha, Napo, Ecuador; 50. Puerto Leguízamo, Río Putumayo, Amazonas, Colombia; 51. Rio Chalpichico entre Papallacta y Cuyuja, Napo, Ecuador; 52. San Francisco de Las Pampas, Cotopaxi, Ecuador; 53. Pozuzo, Oxapampa, Pasco, Peru; 54. Chanchamayo, Chanchamayo, Junín, Peru; 55. La Florida (región Alto Yurinaki), Junín, Peru; 56. San Juan, Sandia, Puno, Peru; 57. Río Carapari, Angostuta, Salta, Argentina. Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) – The numbers in the map (Fig.  11) refer to the following localities: 1. Óbidos, Pará; 2. Fazenda Carrapato (João Cativo), Itapipoca, Ceará, Brazil; 3. Sítio Novo, Boa Lembrança, Grajaú, Maranhão, Brazil; 4. Rio Jamari, Terra Santa, Pará, Brazil; 5. Tijuco, Aquiraz, Ceará, Brazil; 6. Macapá, São Benedito, Ceará, Brazil; 7. Comunidade Balança, Caridade, Ceará, Brazil; 8. Serra do Baturité, Mulungu, Ceará, Brazil; 9. Ipu, Ceará, Brazil (type locality of Felis emiliae Thomas, 10. 1914);  Cratéus, Ceará, Brazil; 11.  Barra do Corda, Maranhão, Brazil; 12.  Iguatu, Ceará, Brazil; 13.  Jaguaribe, Ceará, Brazil; 14.  Fazenda Juazeiro, Santana do Matos, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 15. Aldeia do Ponto, Maranhão, Brazil; 16. Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil; 17. Várzea (Sítio Corea), Paraíba, Brazil; 18. REBIO Guaribas, Área II, Estrada de Jacaraú, 300 m da sede, Mamangape, Paraíba, Brazil; 19. Tabuleiro de Patrocínio, Usina São João, Paraíba, Brazil; 20. -  São Ma mede, Paraíba, Brazil; 21. Olivedos, Paraíba, Brazil; 22. Comunidade Soledade, Paraíba, Brazil; 23. Juazerinho, Paraíba, Brazil; 24. Pocinhos, Paraíba, Brazil; 25. Estrada de Lucena a Santa Rita, Paraíba, Brazil; 26. Distrito de Socorro, Olho d’Água, Paraíba, Brazil; 27. Serra do Araripe, Crato, Ceará, Brazil; 28. Uruçuí, Piauí, Brazil; 29. São João do Cariri, Paraíba, Brazil; 30. Fazenda Genipapo, Exu, Pernambuco, Brazil; 31. BR 232, Distrito de Varzinha, Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil; 32. Ladeira do Timbó, BR 232, km 29, Moreno, Pernambuco, Brazil; 33. Carnaubeira (= Carnaubeira da Penha), Pernambuco, Brazil; 34. São Caetano, Pernambuco, Brazil; 35. vicinity of the REBIO Serra Negra, Inajá, Pernambuco, Brazil; 36. Quebrângulo, Alagoas, Brazil; - 37. Fa zenda São Manuel, Viçosa, Alagoas, Brazil; 38. between the municipalities of Pilar and Atalaia, Alagoas, Brazil; 39. BR 153, Paraíso do Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil; 40. Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia, Brazil; 41. Barreiras, Bahia, Brazil; 42. Palma, Goiás, Brazil; 43. BR 101, km 397, ponte Rio Ouriço, Bahia, Brazil; 44. Agroceres, Moçam- Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus binho, Município de Manga, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 45. BR 101, km 645, 36 km S do Rio Pardo, Bahia, Brazil; 46. Rio das Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 47. Aragarças, Goiás, Brazil. Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) – The numbers in the map (Fig.  16) refer to the following localities: 1. Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2. São Lourenço, near the border between States of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; 3. Reserva Florestal de Linhares ES CVRD final da estrada do Parajá, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 4. Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 5. Serra do Mamão, São Roque do Canaã, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 6. Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 7. Rio do Norte, Santa Leopoldina, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 8. BR 262-MG (near the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo), Minas Gerais, Brazil; 9. Ituverava, São Paulo, Bra- zil; 10. Rio Caparaó, Serra do Caparaó, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 11. Franca, São Paulo, Brazil; 12. Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 13. Valparaíso, São Paulo; 14. Lins, São Paulo, Brazil; 15. Tamanduá (Rio Ipiranga), Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil; 16. Dourado, São Paulo, Brazil; 17. Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 18. Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 19. Ponte Alta, São Paulo, Brazil; 20. Estação Ecológica do Caiuá, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, Brazil; 21. Campos do Jordão, São Paulo; 22. Eugênio Lefèvre, Santo Antônio do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil; 23.  Serra da Bocaina, próximo Rio Paca Grande, São Paulo, Brazil; 24.  São Francisco, Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 25. Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil; 26. Itatiba, São Paulo, Brazil; 27. Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 28. Sertanópolis, Paraná, Brazil; 29. Conchas, São Paulo, Brazil; 30.  Fazenda Fortaleza, Guareí, São Paulo, Brazil; 31.  Itaquaquecetuba, São Paulo, Brazil; 32.  Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil; 33. Santo Amaro, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 34. Piedade, São Paulo, Brazil; 35.  Paranapia- caba, São Paulo, Brazil; 36. Rio Grande, São Paulo, Brazil; 37. Itararé, São Paulo, Brazil; 38. Horto São Nico- lau, Arauco Florestal, Arapoti, Paraná, Brazil; 39. Ribeirão Fundo, São Paulo, Brazil; 40. Iporanga (Lajeado), São Paulo, Brazil; 41. Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil; 42. Fazenda Lagoa, Castro, Paraná, Brazil; 43. Relógio, Pru- dentópolis, Paraná, Brazil; 44. Rio Yuqueri, Caaguazú, Paraguay; 45. Paraná, Brazil; 46. Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil; 47.  Palmeira, Paraná, Brazil; 48.  Fazenda Piraí-Guarapuava, Capão Rico, Paraná, Brazil; 49. Represa do Passaúna, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; 50. Estrada do Encantamento, Rio Iraí, Piraquara, Paraná, Brazil; 51.  Fazenda Banestado, Cajuru, Jaquariaíva, Paraná, Brazil; 52.  Bela Vista, Morretes, Paraná, Brazil; 53. Parque Nacional da Foz do Iguaçu, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil; 54. Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; 55.  Colombo, Paraná, Brazil; 56.  Candói, Paraná, Brazil; 57.  Pinhão, Paraná, Brazil; 58.  Arroyo Uruguaí, km 10, Misiones, Argentina; 59. Agudos do Sul, Paraná, Brazil; 60. Garuva, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 61. Paulo de Frontim, BR 153, Paraná, Brazil; 62. Arroyo Aguaray Guazú Inferior, Misiones, Argentina; - 63. Ar royo Aguaray Guazú Superior, Misiones, Argentina; 64. Departamento General Manuel Belgrano, Misiones, Argentina; 65. Corupá, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 66. Jaraguá do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 67. Ruta Nacional Nº 14, 5 km al N de San Pedro, Misiones, Argentina; 68. Rio Iguazu, Ñeembucú, Paraguay; 69. Cuartel Río Victoria, Departamento Guaraní, Misiones, Argentina; 70. Dos de Mayo, Departamento Cainguás, Misiones, Argentina; 71. Arroyo Doradito, Departamento Montecarlo, Misiones, Argentina; 72. Pinambi, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 73. Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 74. Rio Pardo, BR 290, km 141, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 75. São Lourenço, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Question mark. Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil [precise locality unknown; Hensel (1872) did not give a precise locality where the type specimens were collected]. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) Unpaywall

Taxonomic revision of the tigrina Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) species group (Carnivora, Felidae)

Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo)Jun 13, 2017

Loading next page...
 
/lp/unpaywall/taxonomic-revision-of-the-tigrina-leopardus-tigrinus-schreber-1775-tIYopWBjFM

References

References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.

Publisher
Unpaywall
ISSN
0031-1049
DOI
10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.19
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo Volume 57(19):231-264, 2017 www.mz.usp.br/publicacoes ISSN impresso: 0031-1049 www.revistas.usp.br/paz ISSN on-line: 1807-0205 Tonomicax visionre of The Tigrina Larduseop tigrinus (s chreber , 1775) eciessp oupgr (c oraarniv , f elidae ) f abio o liveira do n ascimenT o ¹⁴ a nderson f eijó ²³⁵ ABSTRACT The tigrina Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) is a small-sized Neotropical spotted cat found from northern Argentina and southern Brazil to Costa Rica. Four subspecies are traditionally recognized: L.  t.  tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) from northern Brazil, the Guianas and eastern Venezuela; L. t. pardinoides (Gray, 1867) from western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; L. t. guttulus (Hensel, 1872) from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina; and L.  t.  oncillus (Thomas, 1903) from Costa Rica. We studied external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms from 250 specimens in order to clarify the taxonomic status of tigrina. Based on the characters analyzed in this study, we recognize three diagnosable morphogroups, each with a distinct geographic distribution: northern/northwest- ern/west (samples from northern Brazil, the Guianas, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, northwestern Argentina and Costa Rica), eastern (samples from northeastern and central Bra- zil), and southern (samples from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina). Tak- ing into account the morphologic evidence presented here, supported by biogeographic data and molecular studies available, we recognize three full species for tigrinas: L. tigrinus (including the putative subspecies L. t. pardinoides and L. t. oncillus as junior synonyms) for northern/ northwestern/west group; L. emiliae (Thomas, 1914) for eastern group; and L. guttulus for southern group. Key-Words: Leopardus tigrinus; L. guttulus; L. emiliae; Subspecies; Morphological variation. INTRODUCTION et al., 2010) member of the “ocelot lineage”, a group that includes the small and medium-sized Neotropical The tigrina, oncilla, tiger cat or little spotted cat spotted cats (Johnson & O’Brien, 1997; Johnson et al., Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) is a small-sized felid 1999; Mattern & MacLennan, 2000; Johnson et al., (1.8-3.8 kg) (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002; Macdonald 2006). It is found from Costa Rica to southern Brazil 1. Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Museu de Zoologia (MZ), Mastozoologia. Avenida Nazaré, 481, CEP 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. 2. Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Campus I, Centro de Ciências Exatas da Natureza (CCEN), Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Laboratório de Mamíferos. Jardim Universitário, s/nº, Castelo Branco, CEP 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB, Brasil. 3. Field Museum of Natural History, Integrative Research Center, Chicago, IL, 60605, United States of America. 4. E-mail: fabnasc@gmail.com 5. E-mail: andefeijo@gmail.com http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.19 Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus and northeastern Argentina (Cabrera, 1958; Nowak, For a long time the names of the forms related to 1999; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002, 2009; Macdonald margays (Leopardus wiedii) and tigrinas (L.  tigrinus) et  al., 2010; Nascimento, 2010), but in Central were confused with each other, owing to their America it has been recorded only from Costa Rica similarity in size and coloration, and it created doubts and northern Panama, but not from the remainder regarding the exact identity of the animals that bear of the Darien Peninsula connecting Central America these names. Elliot (1877, 1883) placed as synonyms to South America (Cabrera 1958, 1961; Nowell & of Felis tigrina a series of names associated to margay Jackson, 1996; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002, 2009). (e.g., Felis macroura Wied, 1826; Felis elegans Lesson, In the Amazon Basin its geographical distribution 1830), guigna (e.g., Felis guigna Molina, 1782; Felis appears largely marginal (Oliveira, 2004), but the (Noctifelis) guigna Severtzov, 1858) and ocelots (e.g., possible lack of records in this region may be either a Felis mitis F. Cuvier, 1820; Felis chati Gray in Griffith, sampling artifact, due to the low population density 1827), and also placed , F.  pardinoides Gray, 1867a as or perhaps these animals may really not occur in this synonym of Geoffroy’s cat L.  geoffroyi (d’Orbigny & region (Nascimento, 2010). Gervais, 1844). This confusion was further increased The taxonomic history of the tigrina began by Allen (1919), which recognized two genera, with Felis tigrina by Schreber in 1775, who published Margay and Oncilla, to include the forms related to an illustration based on the plate of Buffon (1765) margays and tigrinas. In Margay, he included two named “Le Margay”, which in turn was based on species, M. tigrina Schreber, 1775 (= L. tigrinus), with an individual from Cayenne, French Guiana. Later thr , ee subspecies [M.  t.  tigrina, M.  t.  wiedii Schinz, Schreber (1777) published the text with a description 1821 (=  L.  wiedii) and M.  t.  vigens (=  L.  wiedii)], of the species. Ninety years later, Gray (1867a) and M.  glaucula (Thomas, 1903), which comprised described a new species, Felis pardinoides, with “India” two subspecies (M.  g.  glaucula and M.  g.  nicaraguae; as its type locality, but he subsequently changed his both L.  wiedii). In Oncilla, Allen recognized opinion and fixed “Bogotá” (in Colombia) as the nethr w ee species: O.  pardinoides, which included type locality of the species (Gray, 1874). Additionally fiv , e subspecies (O.  p.  pardinoides, O.  p.  oncilla, Hensel (1872) described Felis guttula from southern O.  p.  andina, O.  p.  emerita and O.  p.  elenae); Brazil (state of Rio Grande do Sul), which was O.  guttula, with two subspecies (O.  g.  guttula, and recognized as a subspecies of F. tigrina by subsequent O.  g.  emiliae); and O.  caucensis. Years later, Weigel authors (Cabrera, 1958, 1961; Wozencraft, 2005). (1961) recognized all forms associated with wiedii th In the beginning of the 20 century, new species together with tigrina Schreber, 1775, i.e., she put and subspecies of tigrinas were described, especially all traditionally recogniz wiedii ed subspecies into from Central America and northern South America: tigrina (L.  t.  tigrinus, L.  t.  wiedii, L.  t.  bolivae, Felis pardinoides oncilla Thomas, 1903 (type locality: L.  t.  amazonicus, L.  t.  nicaraguae, L.  t.  salvinius, “Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica”); Felis pardinoides L.  t.  yucatanicus, L.  t.  glauculus, L.  t.  oaxacensis and andina Thomas, 1903 (type locality: “Jima, Province L. t. cooperi), while she allocated in O. pardinoides the of Azuay, Ecuador”); Felis carrikeri Allen, 1904 (type other taxa traditionally recognized as subspecies of locality: “Pozo Azul, Costa Rica”); Felis pardinoides F. tigrina (O. p. pardinoides, O. p. oncilla, O. p. guttula emerita Thomas, 1914 (type locality: “Montes de la and O.  p.  emiliae). However, Cabrera (1958, 1961) Cutala, Merida, Venezuela”); Margay tigrina elenae recognized only one species, Felis (Leopardus) tigrina, Allen, 1915 (type locality: “Santa Elena, Colombia”); with four subspecies, three from South America – and Margay caucensis Allen, 1915 (type locality: “Las F. (L.) t. tigrina [includes emiliae] (from northeastern Pavas, Colombia”). Furthermore, Thomas (1903) Brazil to eastern Venezuela), F.  (L.)  t.  pardinoides recognized two species from southern Brazil, F[includes elis andina, emerita, elenae and caucensis] pardinoides and F.  guttula, but, according to Pocock (western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru) (1917), these species were, in fact, respectively a and F.  (L.)  t.  guttula (Eastern and southern Brazil, female and a male of the same species. Thus, the Paraguay and northern Argentina) – and another from name Felis pardinoides Thomas, 1903 is a junior Central America – F.  (L.)  t.  oncilla. This taxonomic homonym of Felis pardinoides Gray, 1867a, and also arrangement in four subspecies was widely followed th a junior synonym of Felis guttula Hensel, 1872. Years by subsequent authors in the second half of the 20 st later, Thomas (1914) described Felis emiliae based century and the first decade of the 21 century (Hall on specimens from Brazil (“Ipu, Ceará”), which & Kelson, 1959, Hall, 1981; Wozencraft, 2005). was classified in the “F.  guttula group” (Thomas, However, depending on the author, the species was 1914:348-349). placed either in Leopardus (Ewer, 1973; Leyhausen, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 1979; Nowak, 1999; Wozencraft, 2005; Sunquist (3) to provide a synonymy and attribute valid names & Sunquist, 2009) or in Oncifelis (Hemmer, 1978; for the recognized taxa. Wozencraft, 1993), either as full genera or as subgenera of Felis. Molecular data, based on mtDNA, suggested the MATERIAL AND METHODS existence of two highly divergent phylogeographical groups, one from southern Brazil and the other Samples and collections from Central America, which have a long period of isolation (around 3.7 million of years ago) (Johnson We obtained quantitative and qualitative data et al. 1999), and this divergence is comparable to the from skins and skulls of L.  tigrinus group specimens differences observed between Geoffroy’s cat Leopar(n  dus = 250) housed in the following collections: Museu geoffroyi (d’Orbigny & Gervais, 1844) and guigna de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Leopardus guigna (Molina, 1782) or between ocelot Brazil (MZUSP); Museu Nacional da Universidade Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) and margay Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil L.  wiedii (Schinz, 1821) (Johnson et  al. 1999). (MNRJ); Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Furthermore, Leyhausen & Falkena (1966) previously Brazil (MPEG); Museu de Biologia Professor Mello found that certain subspecies of L.  tigrinus did not Leitão, Santa Teresa, Brazil (MBML), Museu de mate with each other in captivity, which led them Hto istória Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, Brazil suggest that this taxon could consist of two or (MHNCI); Coleção de M more amíferos do Departamento distinct species. Trigo et  al. (2013) reaffirmed the de Sistemática e Ecologia da Universidade Federal taxonomic status of L. guttulus as a full species, which da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil (UFPB); Coleção was previously revalidated by Nascimento (2010) de Mamíferos do Departamento de Zoologia da based on morphology. This molecular study also Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil showed no evidence of gene flow between the southern (UFPE); Coleção de Mamíferos do Departamento de population (L. guttulus) and the northeastern Brazilian Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, population (named in the article as L. tigrinus), which Cuiabá, Brazil (UFMT); Museo Argentino de have contiguous geographical distributions. Although Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos these two closely related species do not interbr Air eed, es, Argentina (MACN); Museo de Historia Natural there are reports of hybridization betw L. een guttulus “Noel Kempff Mercado”, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (MNK); and L.  geoffroyi in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado, Universidad southern Brazil (Eizirik et al., 2006; Trigo et al., 2008, Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru (MUSM); 2013, 2014), and with Leopardus braccatus (named Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica in the article as Leopardus colocolo) in Central Brazil del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (QCAZ); Museo (Trigo et al., 2008, 2013, 2014). In a recent molecular do Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas de la Escuela study, Li et al. (2016) reported that the tigrinas from Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador (MEPN); Northeastern Brazil had pampas cat mtDNA within Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leyva, a tigrina nDNA background, as well as nuclear Colombia (IAVH); Museo de la Estación Biológica signatures indicating an ancient hybridization with Rancho Grande, Maracay, Venezuela (EBRG); L.  geoffroyi. On Central American tigrinas, the American Museum of Natural History, New York, results of these authors gave more support for high USA (AMNH); Field Museum of Natural History, genetic divergence between these tigrinas and those Chicago, USA (FMNH); National Museum of Natural from Brazil, showing 0.5%-0.6% of mitochondrial History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, divergence and 11.0%-15.3% of nuclear divergence. USA (USNM); Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, However, Li et  al.’s study did not include specimens Vienna, Austria (NMW); Zoologisches Museum from northern South America. Berlin (= Museum für Naturkunde), Berlin, Germany It is clear that the identification and delimitation (ZMB); and Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, of species and subspecies are main issues concerning Sweden (NRM). We also examined photographs of the taxonomy of the tigrinas, and have not been the specimens deposited in Museum of Comparative subject to critical analysis. In order to clarify the Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA taxonomy of L.  tigrinus, our goals are: (1)  to (MCZ); Natural History Museum, London, United characterize and define the taxa on morphologic and Kingdom (NHM); and Naturalis Biodiversity Center, morphometric terms, and to describe their variation; Leiden, Netherlands (RMNH). The list of the (2)  to define their geographical distribution; and specimens studied is provided in the Appendix I. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Geographic data (E). When only total length (TL) was provided, we subtracted the recorded tail length from total length Geographical distribution of each taxon was to obtain the values of the head and body length. accessed through the collection locations obtained on The craniodental qualitative characters are based the labels of the specimens. Coordinates are the most on García-Perea (1994), Yamaguchi et  al. (2004) accurate as possible and were obtained directly frand N om ascimento (2010, 2014). The quantitative the labels when available, from published gazetteers craniodental characters comprised 19 craniodental (Paynter Jr., 1982, 1989, 1995, 1997; Stephens dimensions from adults of both sexes (Fig.  1): & Traylor Jr., 1983, 1985; Paynter Jr. & Traylor (1)  GLS: greatest length of the skull; (2)  CBL: Jr., 1991; Vanzolini & Traylor Jr., 1992) or online condylobasal length; (3) RL: rostral length; (4) IOB: databases (Global Gazetteer 2.3, www.fallingrain. interorbital length; (5)  POB: postorbital breadth; com/world/index.html; GeoNames, www.geonames.(6) ZB: zygomatic breadth; (7) GBB: greatest breadth org). In some cases, the exact locality was not available of braincase; (8) IFB: breadth between the infraorbital or not found in the methodologies employed, so foramina; (9)  GPB: greatest palatal breadth; we used the coordinates of the nearest county. The (10) GPL: greatest palatal length; (11) CM1L: C-M1 gazetteers, ordered alphabetically by country, state or length; (12)  P4L: greatest length of P4; (13)  P4B: province, and collection locality, are provided in gr the eatest breadth of P4; (14)  TH: temporal fossa Appendix II. height; (15) ALT: anteroposterior length of temporal fossa; (16)  ALM: anteroposterior length of masseter scar on skull; (17) p3m1L: p3-m1 length; (18) MH: Analysis of characters mandible height; and (19) ML: mandible length. All craniodental measurements were taken with digital All specimens were examined in qualitativcalipers to near e est 0.01 mm. and quantitative terms based on external and cranial We defined the age classes based on dental features regardless of the previously attributed name morphology (sequence of emergence; replacement of the taxon. of deciduous teeth by permanent ones; tooth wear) The external qualitative characters are the color and fusion of the cranial sutures (especially the and spots pattern of the pelage of the head, body spheno-occipital sutur , e) (Ximenez, 1974; García- fore limbs, hind limbs and tail. The quantitativ Per e ea, 2002) and consequently seven classes were external characters are the measurements taken fr recogniz om ed: (1)  age class  I or juvenile  I (deciduous the specimen’s labels as follows: (1)  head and body teeth starting to emerge and spheno-occipital length (HB); (2) tail length (T); (3) fore foot length suture does not fused); (2) age class II or juvenile II (FF); (4)  hind foot length (HF); and (5)  ear length (deciduous teeth totally emerged and spheno- FIGURE  1: Dorsal, ventral and lateral view of skull and lateral view of mandible of an tigrina (L.  tigrinus), showing 19 craniometrical variables used in the study. The abbreviations assigned to craniometrical variables correspond to those mentioned in the “Materials and methods” section of the text. Image: Guilherme S.T. Garbino. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 occipital suture does not fused); (3)  age class M III orphogr oup  I: specimens from northern, north- or juvenile  III (deciduous teeth being replaced b wy estern and w estern South America (Peru, Ecuador, permanent ones and spheno-occipital suture does not Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, northern fused); (4)  age class  IV or young adult (permanent Brazil, nor thwestern Argentina, and Costa Rica), teeth totally emerged and spheno-occipital sutur which ar e e characterized by dark brown and orangish does not fused); (5) age class V or adult I (permanent bro wn to yellowish brown and grayish brown ground teeth with no or very little wear and spheno-occipital color , white or light gray venter, and medium-sized suture fused); (6) age class VI or adult II (permanent rosettes on the sides of the body forming medium- teeth with moderate wear and spheno-occipital sized oblique bands arranged in scapular-inguinal di- suture fused); and (7)  age class  VII or adult  III rection. (permanent teeth with excessive wear and spheno- occipital suture fused). We used only young adults Morphogr oup II: specimens from eastern South Amer- and adults in our analyses. ica (northeastern and central Brazil), which have over- all color ranging from light yellowish brown to pale yellow or pale grayish buff, presence of small sized ro- Statistical analyses settes that rarely form small-sized oblique bands, the rosettes have thin and discontinuous black rims, and The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for white, very light gray or slightly yellowish venter, with all craniodental variables. When the craniodental medium and small-sized dark spots. variables were normally distributed, we performed Hotelling’s T2 to evaluate the existence of sexual Morphogroup III: specimens from southern and south- dimorphism and to check whether the differences eastern South America (southern Brazil, Paraguay and were statistically significant (p  <  0.05). For the northeastern Argentina). Overall ground color dark multivariate analyses all craniodental variables w yello ere wish brown, lighter on the sides of the body, log₁₀ transformed. Principal Component Analysis white or light gray venter, and small rosettes on the (PCA) was extracted from the correlation matrix and sides of the body. it applied as an exploratory tool for investigating the patterns of variation among the groups, as well as to evaluate the degree of separation among them. Only Data analyses principal components with eigenvalues greater than 1 were extracted. We performed the Discriminant Statistical analyses were based on the Function Analysis (DFA) to investigate whether the morphogroups previous recognized. The descriptive groups of L.  tigrinus studied could be distinguished statistics of the skull and external morphology based on craniodental morphology and also to (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum construct a predictive pattern of different gr values, and number of specimens) ar oup e available in memberships. All statistical analyses were performed Tables  1  and  2. The Hotelling’s T2 test yielded a with SPSS  17.0 software and missing values werp v e alue close to our threshold to reject the null estimated using Amelia package (Honaker et  al.,hypothesis (T2:  1.742; p  =  0.056), nevertheless we 2011) of R software (R Core Team, 2013). decided to combined in subsequent analyses males, females, and unknown sex specimens. For PCA and DFA we select only specimens RESULTS that have both skull and skin in order to test whether skin morphogroups also separate in the cranial Geographic distribution of samples morphospace. A total of 93 specimens were selected and definition of morphogroups for PCA and DFA: 31 for morphogroup  I, seven for morphogroup  II and 55 for morphogroup  III. The geographic distribution of samples is The four first principal components resulting from found in Fig.  2. Based on the combinations of the PCA (Table  3) are respectively responsible for external characters (ground color of the body, and 53.84, 10.87, 6.72 and 6.70 of variance (78.14% of size, shape and arrangement of the rosettes on the total variance). The first principal component (PC1) sides of the body), we recognized three diagnosable is usually interpreted as a component associated morphogroups, each with a distinct geographic to the overall size of skull (Jolicoeur & Mosimann, distribution (Figs. 3 and 4): 1960; Gotelli & Ellison, 2004), and in our results it Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus FIGURE 2: Distribution of the specimens of tigrinas (L. tigrinus group) studied. Black dots correspond to the specimens from scientific collections. FIGURE  3: External characters of the three diagnosable and geographically distinct morphogroups of tigrinas recognized in this study. Left: IAVH1781 (Coper, Boyacá, Colombia); middle: UFPB6267 (Sítio Corea, Várzea, Paraíba, Brazil); right: MZUSP24234 (Dourado, São Paulo, Bra- zil). Note the difference in the ground color and the shape and arrangement of rosettes among morphogroups. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 showed positive signals for all coefficients, indicating Regarding to the third component (PC3), the greatest a positive correlation to each other. The greatest coefficient in decreasing order are HT, GBB, ALT, coefficient (loadings) is associated to the variable CM1L, POB, p3m1L, CBL, P4L, ML, RL, MH, GLS, the dominant craniodental measurement GPL, IOB, ZB, P4B, GLS, IFB, and GPB, while of PC1, followed in decreasing order by ZB, ML, in the fourth component are POB, CBL, IOB, RL, GPL, CM1L, IFB, MH, ALT, GPB, RL, p3m1L, GBB, P4B, GLS, IFB, GPL, HT, ML, GPB, CM1L, IOB, HT, GBB, CBL, P4L, P4B, and POB. In the MH, ALT, ZB, P4L, and p3m1L. In PC1 and PC2 second principal component (PC2), which is usually plot (Fig.  5) all specimens of three morphogroups related to shape (Gotelli & Ellison, 2004), the greatest are widely mixed, but specimens of morphogroup II coefficient is P4B, followed in decreasing order tend to sho by w higher values on the PC2 than the other P4L, p3m1L, GPB, IOB, ML, GLS, GBB, RL, ALT, morphogroups. Other plots (first and third principal ZB, CBL, HT, POB, MH, GPL, IFB, and CM1L. components, first and fourth components, second and FIGURE 4: Distribution of morphogroups of tigrinas (L. tigrinus group) over the biomes of South America and part of Central America (data obtained from WWF – World Wide Fund for Nature). For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus TABLE  1: Descriptive statistics of the craniodental variables TABLE  2: Descriptive statistics of the external measurements (in millimeters) and body mass (in grams) for the morphogroups of (in millimeters) for the morphogroups of tigrinas. . tigrinas. . Morphogroup Morphogroup Morphogroup Variables I II III Morphogroup Morphogroup Morphogroup Variables I II III GLS 86.59 ± 3.72 (31) 84.07 ± 4.11 (7) 86.02 ± 3.71 (55) 80.82-95.56 78.09-89.28 78.15-94.68 TL 782.92 ± 62.85 (12) 753.00 ± 46.34 (9) 740.54 ± 50.57 (24) 697-901 680-800 628-840 CBL 77.67 ± 5.15 (31) 76.9 ± 3.43 (7) 80.75 ± 3.64 (55) HB 496.67 ± 33.15 (12) 464.33 ± 35.99 (9) 472.65 ± 39.82 (24) 69.13-87.31 70.87-80.53 70.81-87.77 452-556 415-510 365-539 RL 29.64 ± 1.95 (31) 28.42 ± 2.35 (7) 28.47 ± 1.77 (55) T 286.25 ± 35.14 (12) 288.67 ± 17.42 (9) 263.57 ± 23.64 (24) 25.87-32.9 26.02-32.64 24.58-32.61 240-345 260-320 228-350 IOB 15.72 ± 0.86 (31) 14.72 ± 1.08 (7) 15.09 ± 0.9 (55) HF 112.00 ± 19.11 (12) 110.25 ± 4.33 (9) 108.26 ± 7.72 (22) 14.35-17.27 12.83-16 12.96-16.9 96-165 105-116 90-120 POB 28.46 ± 1.57 (31) 28.61 ± 1.4 (7) 27.39 ± 1.53 (55) E 40.40 ± 4.86 (12) 45.25 ± 4.89 (9) 42.40 ± 6.61 (24) 25.32-31.17 26.3-30.54 23.81-31.74 30-45 37-52 24-52 ZB 55.14 ± 3.41 (31) 54.68 ± 2.96 (7) 54.11 ± 2.92 (55) BM (g) 2450 (1) 1924 ± 899.52 (8) 2378.64 ± 912.19 (24) 48.9-61.56 50.61-58.73 48.86-63.03 1270-3500 1030-4600 GBB 38.93 ± 1.06 (31) 40.6 ± 2.01 (7) 40.18 ± 1.67 (55) 36.85-40.64 37.15-43.23 36.46-43.88 Legends: TL = Total length; HB = head and body length; T = tail length; IFB 21.31 ± 0.94 (31) 21.07 ± 1.34 (7) 20.85 ± 1.14 (55) HF  = hind foot length; E  = ear length; B  = body mass; M  = mean; 19.27-22.89 19.8-23.35 18.85-23.48 SD  = standard deviation; MIN  = minimum; MAX  = maximum; and N = number of specimens. GPB 30.54 ± 1.42 (31) 31.9 ± 1.77 (7) 31.09 ± 1.41 (55) 27.08-33.55 29.71-35.46 28.52-34.79 GPL 31.54 ± 1.72 (31) 31.28 ± 2.11 (7) 31.14 ± 1.82 (55) TABLE 3: Factor loadings, eingevalues and percentage of variance 28.13-35.68 27.95-34.37 27.19-34.66 of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for morphogroups of CM1L 25.2 ± 1.05 (31) 24.52 ± 1.39 (7) 25.01 ± 1.14 (55) tigrinas using 19 craniodental variables. 23.15-27.83 22.98-26.73 22.72-27.85 P4L 9.92 ± 0.63 (31) 10.2 ± 0.69 (7) 9.91 ± 0.59 (55) Component Variables 8.04-10.93 8.99-10.94 8.5-11.31 1 2 3 4 P4B 4.7 ± 0.48 (31) 5.13 ± 0.46 (7) 4.58 ± 0.39 (55) GLS 0.887 -0.301 -0.039 -0.192 3.97-5.52 4.4-5.53 3.85-5.53 CBL 0.574 -0.166 -0.242 -0.586 HT 34.62 ± 1.51 (31) 36.44 ± 2.00 (7) 35.49 ± 1.73 (55) RL 0.736 -0.270 -0.128 0.280 32.43-38.62 34.03-39.04 31.82-39.66 IOB 0.678 -0.376 -0.110 0.420 ALT 52.03 ± 2.64 (31) 51.93 ± 3.74 (7) 51.39 ± 3.03 (55) POB 0.301 0.107 0.261 0.616 46.25-56.41 47.11-57.49 44.76-59.65 ZB 0.880 -0.225 0.073 0.020 ALM 25.04 ± 2.82 (31) 23.24 ± 2.69 (7) 24.54 ± 1.98 (55) GBB 0.580 0.273 0.543 -0.268 21.16-32.67 19.68-27.91 20.29-30.9 p3m1L 18.65 ± 0.82 (31) 18.98 ± 1.15 (7) 18.8 ± 0.83 (55) IFB 0.855 -0.018 -0.029 0.172 17.06-20.61 17.52-20.63 17.1-20.75 GPB 0.748 0.380 -0.009 -0.064 MH 23.13 ± 1.72 (31) 23.91 ± 1.69 (7) 22.44 ± 1.64 (55) GPL 0.871 -0.063 -0.122 -0.150 20.82-27.39 21.85-26.46 19.1-25.95 CM1L 0.862 0.012 -0.272 -0.050 ML 55.36 ± 2.97 (31) 52.99 ± 2.88 (7) 52.82 ± 2.76 (55) P4L 0.568 0.639 -0.237 0.013 49.71-62.45 49.54-57.38 47.32-59.51 P4B 0.508 0.681 -0.073 0.200 Legends: M  = mean; SD  = standard deviation; MIN  = minimum; HT 0.644 0.119 0.635 -0.108 MAX = maximum; and N = number of specimens. ALT 0.787 -0.251 0.301 -0.027 p3m1L 0.689 0.527 -0.254 -0.012 third components, second and fourth components, MH 0.852 -0.079 0.125 -0.045 ML 0.875 -0.324 -0.170 0.083 and third and fourth components) are not graphically Eigenvalues 9.693 1.956 1.210 1.207 represented, but they showed mixed pattern among Variance (%) 53.847 10.868 6.723 6.705 the three morphogroups. The DFA created two canonical variables from the original craniodental variables used in the variables that most explained the variation were analysis (Table  4, Fig.  6). The first function, which MH, GLS, CM1L, GPB, IOB and ALT, and along is responsible for 88.25% of the total variance, was the axis the sample was separated into two major explained by variables ML, HT, CBL, POB, GPB morphogroups, one composed by morphogroup II and and CM1L, which have the highest coefficients the other consisting b in y the morphogroups I and III, descending order, and the three morphogroups which are overlapped each other (Fig.  6). The predict separated along its axis. The second function, which group membership (Table  5) shows that 97.8% is responsible for 11.75% of the total variance, the of original grouped cases were correctly classified, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 TABLE 4: Function loadings, eingevalues. percentage of variance, were correctly classified, with 87.10% (N  =  27) of canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda of Discriminant Function morphogroup I, 57.14% (N = 4) of morphogroup II Analysis (DFA) for morphogroups of tigrinas using 18 craniodental and 87.27% (N = 48) of morphogroup III correctly variables. classified (Table 5). Function Variables 1 2 GLS 0.197 -1.011 TAXONOMIC ASSESSMENT CBL -0.980 0.249 RL 0.068 0.150 Under this scenario, we postulate two IOB -0.392 -0.474 hypotheses to explain the morphometric variation POB 0.767 0.347 present in L. tigrinus in South America, either all three ZB 0.033 -0.130 morphogroups are valid subspecies from one widely GBB -0.452 0.097 distributed species; or each morphogroup are valid IFB 0.634 -0.013 monotypic species. GPB -0.724 0.530 Different species and subspecies concepts have GPL -0.116 0.076 been proposed over the years, creating an endless CM1L -0.654 -0.837 discussion among biologists, especially the systematics. P4L 0.567 -0.194 We will not discuss here the different concepts of P4B 0.471 0.428 these two taxonomic ranks and their applicability, HT -1.117 -0.157 which is a vast subject and can be found in more ALT 0.206 0.432 detail elsewhere (e.g., Simpson, 1961; Mayr, 1963, p3m1L -0.633 -0.031 MH 0.393 1.080 1970; Eldredge & Cracraft, 1980; Nelson & Platnick, ML 1.798 -0.048 1981; Cracraft, 1983; Wilkins, 2009). Regardless Eigenvalues 4.414 0.588 the theoretical concepts involved in practice, the Variance (%) 88.25 11.75 morphological differences are always fundamental Canonical Correlation 0.903 0.608 to empirically recognize and define species and Wilks’ Lambda 0.000 0.003 subspecies (Mayr, 1942). Therefore, our study is based on searching for consistent morphological and with 96.77% (N  =  30) of morphogroup  I, 85.71% geographical patterns. The recognition of species- (N  =  6) of morphogroup  II and 100% (N  =  55) of group taxa involves the study of the characteristics morphogroup  III correctly classified. Regarding to of the specimens in terms of their individual, sexual, cross-validated membership, 84.9% of grouped cases population and geographic variation (de Vivo, 1991). TABLE 5: Classification matrix for morphogroups of tigrinas obtained by Discriminant Function Analysis concerning the probabilities of classifying each morphogroup correctly into one of morphogroup. b,c Classification Results Groups Predicted Group Membership Total I II III Original Count I 30 1 0 31 II 0 6 1 7 III 0 0 55 55 % I 96.77 3.23 0 100 II 0 85.71 14.29 100 III 0 0 100 100 Cross-validated Count I 27 4 0 31 II 1 4 2 7 III 3 4 48 55 % I 87.10 12.90 0 100 II 14.29 57.14 28.57 100 III 5.45 7.27 87.27 100 Cross validation is done only for those cases in the analysis. In cross validation, each case is classified by the functions derived from all cases other than that case. 97.8% of original grouped cases correctly classified. 84.9% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Thus, we interpret as evidence of the existence of r of osettes characterized by small dark rosettes with different taxonomic entities when the variation was a thick and continuum black borders on the body not ontogenetic, sexual or individual. As a result w sides that rar e ely coalescing into small oblique bands. consider as valid taxa, populations who share unique While the 59 skins from northeast and central characters in common, including the variation, and Brazil (=  morphogroup  II) have paler ground color, which differ from the other also in the geographic and smaller and lighter rosettes with a thinner and attributes. discontinuous borders. In contrast, the 59 skins from Subspecies, on the other hand, represent northern, northwestern and western South America geographical subdivisions of the species and ar (= e morphogroup I) have larger rosettes with a thicker described mainly based on differences in measurements dark border coalescing into small to medium oblique or difference in the tones of general coloration (M bands on the sides of the body (F ayr ig. 3). These three 1942; Bonvicino et  al. 1989; Burbrink et  al. 2000; distinct patterns have no overlapping with each other, Helgen et  al., 2013). The recognition of subspecies even in close sites as exemplified by the records at south was historically based on one or few specimens Bahia for morphogroup II (locality 45 of the Fig. 11) (e.g., Pocock, 1939, 1940, 1941a, 1941b, 1941c; and north of Espírito Santo for morphogroup  III Goldman, 1946; Kitchener & Yamaguchi, 2010), (locality  2 of the Fig.  16) distant 400  km. In the however, studies have demonstrate that to the multivariate space, the cranial measurements of our properly recognition and description of it, a set thr of ee skin-groups are also supported with a clear characters throughout the range of the species should separation (Fig. 6). be carefully evaluated (Mayr, 1942; Burbrink et  al., Trigo et  al. (2013) found that population 2000; Helgen et  al., 2013), which has never been of Northeastern Brazil of L.  tigrinus (=  our done for tigrinas until the present study. morphogroup  II) has a genetic distinctiveness in All 80 skins from southern Brazil, relation to the southeastern population (=  our Paraguay and northeastern Argentina specimens morphogroup  III) similar to those found between (= morphogroup III) analyzed have a unique pattern well-established Leopardus species (e.g., L. geoffroyi and FIGURE 5: Distribution of the factorial scores in the first and second principal components of the craniometrical variables of geographic morphogroups of tigrinas. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 L. colocolo). This, in combination with the absence of Morphogroup II: Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) – allele at that X-linked and -linked mar Y kers shared traditionally recognized as junior synonym of L. t. ti- between those populations, indicates no gene flo grinus, w, includes part of this putative subspecies (the which supports the recognition of two valid species population from north, northeast and central Brazil). (Trigo et al., 2013). On the other side, Johnson et al. (1999), based in mitochondrial genes, found two Morphogroup III: Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) – highly divergent clades of tigrina group, one fr this om taxon was traditionally recognized as a subspecies Central America (=  our morphogroup  I) and other of L.  tigrinus, but our results suggest that it is a full from southern Brazil (= our morphogroup III), which species, in accordance with Nascimento (2010) and is comparable to the differences observed between Trigo et al. (2013). L.  geoffroyi and L.  guigna, and between Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii (Johnson et al. 1999). Therefore, taking into account the morphological SPECIES ACCOUNT (external and cranial) argument, in combination with a distinct geographic pattern and the available genetic The species of L.  tigrinus group share many evidence (Johnson et  al., 1999; Trigo et  al., 2013), craniodental characters, and to avoid repetition in we hypothesized that each of our morphogroups the each species account, w are e list below the general three distinct species and propose a new taxonomic description of the features observed in the skull and arrangement. skin of these species. After, we provide the list of synonyms, type locality, type material, diagnosis, body Morphogroup I: Oldest available name is Leopardus ti-measurements, geographic distribution, variation grinus (Schreber, 1775). and taxonomic notes of each species of tigrina FIGURE 6: Distribution of the factorial scores in the first and second discriminant functions of the craniometrical variables of geographic morphogroups of tigrinas. For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus here recognized. The list of specimens examined between adjacent rosettes and bands, either show- and list of localities (gazetteer) are provided in the ing a similar tone found in the dorsum or almost Appendixes I and II, respectively. similar to the color of the rims. The venter is white, very light gray or slightly yellowish with small and medium-sized rounded spots. The hairs on body are General Description short and slightly harsh, but slightly longer than the head, and in the inguinal region the hairs are lon- External morphology: Small-sized cats, length of head ger than the r est of the body. The dorsal surface of and body between 365 and 556 mm, tail length be- the limbs has the same color pattern present in the tween 228 and 350  mm, hind foot length between dorsum, sho wing medium-sized rosettes and spots in 90 and 165  mm, ears between 24 and 52  mm and the proximal region and only smaller spots in the the body mass between 1,030 and 4,600 g (Table 2). distal region, whereas the ventral surface of the limbs The overall ground color of the head varies from has similar dark coloration of the venter and shows small brown to light yellowish brown or grayish brown in and medium-siz ed spots. The hairs of limbs are short L.  tigrinus, from light yellowish brown to pale yel and slightly harsh. - The tail is long, relatively thick, low and grayish yellow in L. emiliae, and from dar rk epr esenting almost 60% of the length of head and yellowish brown to ochraceous buff in L.  guttulus. body. Black or very dark brown rings alternate with The lips, chin, cheek and throat are white, light gray rings of the same color of the dorsum. The tip of the or light cream. In the cheeks there are two black or tail is dar k. The most basal portion of the tail may very dark brown genal stripes crossing in parallel in have spots and/or r osettes in some specimens. longitudinal direction. A transversal stripe is pres- ent in the region of the posterior end of the genal Craniodentar y morphology: Broad and short ros- stripes. The supraorbital spots or narrow stripes ar trum, corr e esponding to between 30% and 40% of present on each side of the head and they are ar the gr - eatest length of skull. The nasals are broad dis- ranged in a longitudinal direction. Sometimes these tally , and narrow shortly thereafter to converge at the supraorbital spots or stripes can connect to form posterior end, wher e they articulate with the frontal, frontal-parietal stripes. Numerous, small, rounded may or may not be a depr ession in this region. If the or elliptical spots are present in the top of the head, depression is pr esent, it may be shallow or deep. The between these frontal-parietal stripes. Four or fiv anterior margin of the nasals is cur e ved. The anterior longitudinal stripes run along the nape and the lat ends of the pr - e-maxillae are not projected and thus, eral region of the neck to the anterior part of the in side vie w, they are aligned with the anterior end dorsum in the interscapular region. The hairs on of the nasals. When the skull is in dorsal view, the nape are facing backward. The ears are round shape nasals fully co ver the incisive foramina. The orbits with dorsal surface black, except the base, which has are large, r ounded and forward-faced. The anterior- the same color of the rest of the head. A white spot most margin of the orbit is aligned at the P3 paras- is centrally disposed in the dark region of the dorsal tyle, while the posteriormost point of the margin of surface of the ear. The overall coloration of the body the orbit coincides with the alignment of the end of – especially in the dorsum, the dorsal surface of the the postorbital pr ocess of the jugal. The upper and limbs, the space inside the rosettes and bands – lo isw er postorbital processes are not connected and, the same that present in the head and neck, but on ther efore, they do not form a complete and fused the sides of the body the coloration becomes lighter postorbital bar . The zygomatic plate, which is part towards the venter. Rounded and/or elliptical spots of the maxilla, is w ell developed and forms the floor may be separated or interconnected forming mor of the orbital r e egion. The interorbital region is nar- or less longitudinal rows in the dorsum, while the row with width in pr oportion to greatest length of interscapular region shows high individual variation skull betw een 15% and 20%. The frontal is well de- in the spot pattern. Solid spots and rosettes are pr veloped and extends fr es- om the maxilla-frontal suture ent on the sides of the body, and the rosettes coalesce and nasal-fr ontal to the anterior portion of the brain- to form small and/or medium-sized oblique bands case, ar ticulating with the parietal. The upper post- arranged in scapular-inguinal direction in L.  tigri orbital pr - ocess is long and narrow, with a triangular nus, rarely coalesce in L. guttulus, or not coalesce in shape. I n lateral view, the skull has a slightly convex L. emiliae. As solid spots, the rosettes and bands hav pr eofile in the fr ontal region, providing a less evident black or very dark brown rims, and inside them the cur vature. The braincase is large and oval, with the coloration is darker than that found in the spaces propor tion of its width in relation to greatest length Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 of skull varying between 40% and 50%. The sagit- Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) tal crest is absent or is a very low and short line re- stricted to the interparietal region. Temporal lines are Northern tigrina present and lyriform. The lambdoidal crest may be present and slightly developed. The length and F the elis tigrina Schreber, 1775: plate CVI [based on the width of palate have approximately the same dimen- plate  XXXVII, “Le Margay”, Buffon (1765)]; sions. The notch of postpalatine vein is broad and 1777:396 (text). Type locality “südlichen comparatively shallow in most of specimens and the Amerika” (= ”South America”), subsequently re- posterior margin of the palate (= anterior margin of stricted to “Cayenne” by J.A. Allen (1919:356). mesopterygoid fossa) has a U-shaped edge and it may Felis margay Müller, 1776:29. Based on “Le Margay” or not have a medial notch, which can be shallow or Buffon (1765). deep. The presphenoid is centrally located in the me Felis (O - ncoides) tigrina: Severtzov, 1858:386 (name sopterygoid fossa and is narrow, very elongated and combination). arranged longitudinally, showing lateral expansions Felis par dinoides Gray, 1867a:400. Type locality “In- in the median area. The basioccipital, located be- dia”, subsequently redefined to “Bogotá” by tween auditory bullae, is usually narrow. The mastoid Gray (1874:475). processes are arranged in a posterolateral position in Felis geoffr oyi: Elliot, 1872:203 (part) (non d’Orbigny relation to the auditory bullae and they are anteriorly & G ervais, 1844). articulated to the paraoccipital processes. The mas Felis tigrina: - Thomas, 1880:396 (non Felis tigrina toid processes shape is posteriorly poorly developed Schreber, 1775). separated from paraoccipital processes by a notch, Felis par dinoides andina Thomas, 1903:238. Type lo- enabling the visualization of the surface of the audi- cality “Jima, Province of Azuay, Ecuador”. tory bulla. The zygomatic arches are little expanded Felis par dinoides emerita Thomas, 1912:44. Type lo- laterally, and the average width of the braincase rela- cality “Montes de la Cutala, Merida, Venezuela”. tive to zygomatic width is 70% to 80%. The occipi M - argay tigrina emerita: Allen, 1915:631 (name com- tal region has rounded margin, giving this region of bination). the skull a shape similar to a semicircle. The occipital Margay tigrina elenae: Allen, 1915:631 (name com- condyle is elongated, robust and spirally curved and bination). encloses the foramen magnum, which is well devM elargay caucensis - Allen, 1915:631. Type locality “Las oped. The auditory bulla is relatively large and oval, Pavas, Colombia”. with ectotympanic smaller than entotympanic. The Margay tigrina wiedi: Allen, 1916:233 (part) (non Fe- mandible is well developed and the horizontal ramus lis wiedii Schinz, 1821). is low. The masseteric fossa is deep and broad, ex M - argay tigrina andina: Allen, 1916:581 (name com- tending almost the entire ascending ramus. The as- bination). cending ramus is high and extends from the angular Margay tigrina tigrina: Allen, 1919:350 (name com- process to the outermost end of the coronoid pro- bination). cess. The coronoid process is well developed, can be Oncilla par dinoides emerita: Allen, 1919:359 (name broad or narrow, rounded and curved, resembling a combination). hook in lateral view. The condyloid process is robust, Oncilla par dinoides elenae: Allen, 1919:360 (name bar shaped, aligned transversely to the ascending ra- combination). mus, and on the same occlusional plane of the low Oer ncilla caucencis: Allen, 1919:360 (name combina- tooth row. The angular process is relatively large andtion). rounded, which can be aligned to or positioned a lit Leopar - dus tigrinus: Pocock, 1941a:237 (name combi- tle posteriorly to the condyloid process. Narrow and nation, first use of current name combination). long upper canines. The C-M1 length varies fromFelis (Leopar dus) tigrina pardinoides: Cabrera, 22.72 to 27.85  mm, while the p3-m1 length varies 1958:286 (name combination). from 17.10 to 20.75  mm. The length of P4 corre- Felis (Leopardus) tigrina tigrina: Cabrera, 1958:287 sponding to around 40% of the length of the series (part) (name combination). of the maxilla. The shape of P3 paracone may be nar O -ncifelis tigrina: Wozencraft, 1993:290 (part). row and long or short and wide and P3 parastyle is Leopar dus tigrinus tigrinus: Wozencraft, 2005:539 absent in all specimens. The P4 paracone is present (part) (name combination). in all studied specimens. Traces of a talonid on m1 is Leopar dus tigrinus pardinoides: Wozencraft, 2005:539 present in the most of sample. (name combination). Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Type locality: “südlichen Amerika” [=  “South Amer- sized rosettes on the sides of the body form small and/ ica”], restricted by J.A. Allen (1919:356) to “Cay-or medium-sized oblique bands arranged in scapular- enne” [French Guiana]: “Based on Buffon’s descrip inguinal dir - ection. tion and figure of a specimen from Cayenne” [“Le Margay (pl. XXXVII) qui a servi de sujet pour cette Body measurements: See Morphogroup I in Table 2. description, ayant été tué à Cayenne (…)” (Buffon, 1765:252)] (Husson, 1978; Wozencraft, 2005). Geographical distribution: The map of the Fig. 8 shows the points where the museum specimens were col- Type material: Schreber (1775, 1777) based his Felis lected, which include the northern Brazil (State of tigrina on “Le Margay” of Buffon (1765) (plate XXX-Amapá; left bank of the Amazon River), Guyanas, VII) (Fig.  7A). The plate of Schreber’s F.  tigrina Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, northwestern (Fig.  7B) was published in 1775 [as plate  CVI Argentina and Costa Rica. Leopardus tigrinus prob- (=  106)] and the text with its description in 1777. ably occurs in Bolivia, but there is no museum record Husson (1978) stated that the animal figured in the (see Anderson, 1997:334). A specimen (MNK4595; Schreber’s plate is the holotype of the species, but not MNK3730) from Puerto Limón, Santa Cruz, Bo- Thomas (1903:235) had previously designated the livia, was identified as a L. tigrinus by Huáscar Azur- Buffon’s as the type. Thus, following the opinion of duy (2005), but it is in fact a specimen of L.  wiedii Thomas (1903) and in accordance with the ICZN (it exhibits directed backwards hair on the nape and Code (articles 74.4 and 74.6) (1999), we recognize overall softer fur). There is a gap in the geographic the Buffon’s plate as the lectotype of L. tigrinus. distribution between Central American and northern South American population (Figs. 2, 4 and 8), but it Diagnosis: Small sized; fur relatively harsh; ground is unknown whether the absence in this gap is natural color dark brown and orangish brown to yellowish or a sampling artifact. The distribution of L. tigrinus is brown and grayish brown, becoming lighter on the mainly associated to lowland, premontane and mon- sides of the body; venter white or light gray; medium- tane forests (Eisenberg, 1989; Garrido & González- FIGURE 7: Reproduction of the original plates: (A): “Le Margay” of Buffon (1765) (obtained from Gallica – Bibliothèque Nationale de France), the lectotype of the species; and (B): Felis tigrina of Schreber (1775). For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 FIGURE 8: Geographic distribution of the specimens of L. tigrinus studied. Numbers correspond to collection localities listed in the gazet- teer (see Appendix II) and the star refers to the type locality. For color figure, see online version. FIGURE 9: Pattern of coloration and markings in L. tigrinus: (A): EBR G9609 (Raul Leoni, Bolivar, Venezuela); (B): USNM374861 (Los Patos, El Manteco, Bolivar, Venezuela); AMNH69116 (Rio Chili, Manizales, Loreto, Colombia); (C): NMW-B455 (Carrillo, S des Llano de Santa Clara, San Jose, Costa Rica). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Maya, 2011), from sea level up to 3,000-3,200  m brown. These patterns of ground color and markings (Mondolfi, 1986; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002, 2009), in L.  tigrinus are very similar those found in L.  wie- but some individuals have been recorded as high as dii (Fig. 10). It likely may lead to a misidentification 4,500-4,800 m (Melquist, 1984; Cuervo et al., 1986; of these species in the field, especially in a quick ob- Nowell & Jackson, 1996; Macdonald et  al., 2010). servation. However, these two species can be distin- Apparently it has a marginal distribution in the open guished from each other by a series of characters, in areas of the Llanos (Fig. 4: Morphogroup I, Fig. 8). special the direction of the hairs on nape, which are facing back in L.  tigrinus and forward in L.  wiedii. Variation: L.  tigrinus does not show sexual dimor-Furthermore, some individuals of L.  tigrinus (for ex- phism for external characters. The overall ground ample: AMNH14187, from Pavas, Valle del Cauca, color of the head and body varies from dark broColombia; AMNH149319, fr wn om El Tambo, Cauca, to light yellowish brown orange, with the sides of the Colombia; and USNM362126, from Guyana) have body usually lighter (buff colored) towards the venter a darker color inside the rosettes and bands, almost (Fig. 9). The rosettes and the small and medium-sized similar to the rims that surround them, a pattern very oblique bands on the sides of body have black or ver similar y to that observed in some specimens L. of wie- dark brown rims with most specimens the color in dii - (Nascimento, pers.  obs.). Furthermore, melanistic side the rosettes and bands is similar to that show in specimens are present in L.  tigrinus (for example, the dorsum, which may be brownish orange or dar USNM371278, fr k om Caracas, Venezuela). FIGURE  10: Comparison of the patterns of ground color and markings in (A): northern tigrina (L.  tigrinus) (USNM374861, Los Pa- tos, El Manteco, Bolivar, Venezuela) and (B):  margay (L.  wiedii) (NMNH388255, Rio Cunucunuma, Belen, Amazonas, Venezuela). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 Taxonomic notes: Despite some authors (Erxle- Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) ben, 1777; Gmelin, 1788; F. Cuvier, 1826; Tem- minck, 1827; Fischer, 1829; Jardine, 1834; Gray, Eastern or Snethlage’s tigrina th th 1867a, 1867b, 1869) in 18 and 19 century fol- lowed Schreber’s F.  tigrina, other authors associated Felis emiliae Thomas, 1914:348. Type locality “Ipu, this name with the forms related to wiedii Schinz, Ceará, N.E. Brazil”. 1821 (and in a lesser extent to pardalis Linnaeus, O ncilla guttula emiliae: Allen, 1919:360 (new com- 1758 and guigna Molina, 1782) due to their mor- bination). phologic similarities among the specimens studied b Oy ncifelis par dinoides emiliae: Weigel, 1961:34. them, creating doubts regarding the exact identity of Felis (Leopar dus) tigrina tigrina: Cabrera, 1958:287 the animals that bear these names (see Elliot, 1877, (part). 1883; Allen, 1919). Besides tigrina Schreber, 1775, Leopardus tigrinus tigrinus: Wozencraft, 2005:539 the names pardinoides Gray, 1867a, guttula Hensel, (part). 1872, pardinoides Thomas, 1903 and oncilla Allen, 1904 are commonly considered as subspecies of L. ti- Type locality: “Ipu, Ceará, N.E. Brazil. Alt. 300  m”. grinus (Pocock, 1941a; Cabrera, 1958; Wozencraft,B ased on the information provided by Paynter Jr. 2005). According to our results, the putative subspe & -Traylor Jr. (1991), Ipu is located on eastern edge cies L.  t.  pardinoides (Gray, 1867a) does not differ of Serra da Ibiapaba, northwestern Ceará (04°19’S, significantly from L.  t.  tigrinus, and so we recognize 41°42’W). the former as the junior synonym of the latter, rather than its subspecies or a distinct taxon. In addition, Type material: “Adult male. B.M. no. 13.12.18.3. th specimens from the northeastern Brazil are tradition Original - number 11. Collected 24 May, 1910, by ally considered to belong to tigrinus Schreber, 1775 Fräulein D r. E[milie]. Snethlage. Presented by the (e.g., Cabrera, 1958), but our results indicate that authorities of the G oeldi Museum, Para. Two speci- they belong to a distinct taxon, L. emiliae (Thomas, mens ” (Thomas, 1914) (Fig. 11). 1914). Regarding to the taxonomy of Central Diagnosis: Small sized; fur relatively harsh; ground American population, Thomas (1903:237) describedcolor light yellowish brown to pale yellow and grayish a specimen from Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica, as Felis yello w; venter white, very light gray or slightly yel- pardinoides oncilla, which showed size and general lo wish with medium and small-sized dark spots; small characters as in F.  pardinoides Gray, 1867a, but with dar k rosettes on the body sides, not coalescing into ground color of pelage “much richer and deeper small-siz ”, ed oblique bands; rims of rosettes narrow and and the lateral rosettes little elongated. According to usually discontinuous. Gardner (1971), the specimens from Central America resemble the type of Margay caucensis J.A. Allen, 1915 Body measurements: See Morphogroup II in Table 2. (from Las Pavas, Rio Cauca, Colombia) [which was synonymized in Felis (Leopardus) tigrina pardinoides Geographical distribution: L.  emiliae is the only Feli- by Cabrera (1958)] in the intensity of markings and dae species endemic of B razil, distributed in the north richness of color. Nevertheless, due the appar(right bank of the Amaz ent onas River), northeastern and absence of the tigrina between southern Panama central por tion of this country (states of Pará, Tocan- and northern South America (Figs.  2,  4  and  8), tins, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraí- Gardner recognized the Central American population ba, P ernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia and Goiás), which as distinct from the northern South American includes Caatinga, Cerrado, Amaz onia and Atlantic population (=  O.  t.  pardinoides). According to the Forest biomes (Fig. 12). molecular data, the Central American population of tigrinas is highly genetically divergent from Variation: the The material here referring L. to emiliae southern South American tigrina, a divergence that w e had for study was constituted by 15 skulls higher than that between L.  pardalis and L.  wiedii and 59 skins. Regarding to the skins, which have a and O. geoffroyi and O. guigna (Johnson et al., 1999). comparatively larger sample, we noted that individu- However, samples from other populations, mainly als in nor thern, northeastern and central Brazil have from northwestern South America (for example, frmuch mor om e yellowish coloration and pale (Fig.  13) Colombia and Venezuela), were not included in the compar ed to specimens of neighboring L.  guttulus. molecular study. For example, the specimens BMNH13.12.18.3 (ho- Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus FIGURE  11: Dorsal (up) and ventral (bottom) views of the skin of the holotype of L.  emiliae, specimen from Ipu, Ceará, Brazil (BMNH13.12.18.3; male). Bar = 100 mm. Photo: Thiago Semedo. For color figure, see online version. lotype) (Fig.  11) and MPEG588 (topotype) from long to F. guttula group. Two specimens were collect- Ipu, Ceará, Brazil, exhibit a distinct pattern of pale ed, one of them, the holotype (BMNH13.12.18.3), yellowish brown coloration on the back and white was deposited in the Natural History Museum, Lon- (holotype) or slightly yellowish (topotype) color in don, and the other (MPEG588) in the collection of the venter, when compared them with specimens of Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil. Later, L. guttulus and L. tigrinus. Allen (1919) classified this cat as Oncifelis guttula The overall coloration of pelage vary from pale emiliae, a decision followed by Weigel (1961). Ca- orangish yellow (UFPB6592 and UFPB6266), dark brera (1958), however, questioned the validity of this yellow on the dorsum, and pale yellow on the sides taxon, because Thomas (1914) had not compared the of the body (UFPB983), to uniformly dark yellospecimens with material fr w om French Guiana, the (UFPB6265). Some specimens show distinctive type locality of Felis tigrina Schreber, 1775. Thus, Ca- continuous black lines that run throughout brthe era considered the form from northeast Brazil as a posterior half of the dorsum to the base of the tail junior synonym of Felis (Leopardus) tigrinus tigrinus, (UFPB6265), while in others these lines are not decision also followed by subsequent authors, includ- continuous or barely perceptible (UFPB6266). ing Wozencraft (2005). However, according to the Leopardus emiliae exhibits circular rosettes that do results shown here, we recognize F.  emiliae Thomas, not coalesce to form lateral bands. The rosettes ar 1914 as v e alid name, and therefore, L. emiliae as a full surrounded by small black spots (UFPB3243 and species. UFPB6592) or thin black lines that encircle in higher (UFPB6265) or lesser (UFPB6270 and UFPB983) extent the rosettes, but rarely surround them Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) completely. Melanistic individuals were not recorded for this species. Southern tigrina Taxonomic notes: Thomas (1914) described a new spe- Felis guttula Hensel, 1872:73. Type locality “Urwald cies of tigrina from Ceará, Brazil, which was named von Rio Grande do Sul” (Rio Grande do Sul, Felis emiliae, and according to the author, it would be- Brazil). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 FIGURE  12: Geographic distribution of the specimens of L.  emiliae studied. Numbers correspond to collection localities listed in the gazetteer (see Appendix II) and the star refers to the type locality. For color figure, see online version. Felis guigna: Hensel, 1872:74 (part) (non Felis guigna Type locality: “Urwald von Rio Grande do Sul” Molina, 1782). (Hensel, 1872:74) [=  Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Felis guttata: Lydekker, 1896:145; typographical er- (Cabrera, 1958, 1961; Nascimento, 2010)]. Unfor- ror of Felis guttula (non Felis guttata Hermann, tunately Hensel did not give a more precise locality 1804). where the specimens were collected. However, accord- Felis (Oncoides) tigrina guttula: Trouessart, 1897:359 ing to information about the places visited by Hensel (name combination). in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 1863 and Felis (Oncoides) mitis: Lahille, 1899:178 (non Felis mi- 1865 (Hensel, 1867; Buckup, 1999), the specimens tis F. Cuvier, 1820). were probably collected somewhere in the northeast- Felis pardinoides: Thomas, 1903:236 (non Felis pardi- ern part of this Brazilian state. noides Gray, 1867a). Oncilla pardinoides pardinoides: Allen, 1919:358 (non Type material: Two skulls deposited in the Museum Felis pardinoides Gray, 1867a). für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, under the num- Oncilla guttula guttula: Allen, 1919:360 (name com- bers ZMB-MAM21229 and ZMB-MAM21231 bination). (Figs.  14  and  15). Hensel pointed these two speci- Felis (Leopardus) tigrina guttula: Cabrera, 1958:286 mens in his description, but their collection numbers (name combination). were not indicated in the text and, more importantly, Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus FIGURE  13: Pattern of coloration and markings in L.  emiliae: (A): UFPB6267 (S ítio Corea, Várzea, Paraíba, Brazil); (B):  UFPB7061 (Comunidade Soledade, Paraíba, Brazil); (C): UFPB3243 (Jaguaribe, Ceará, Brazil). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. he did not indicate which specimen is the holotype. with intermediate characteristics between these two Thus, the two specimens are considered syntypes of species (Eizirik et al., 2006; Trigo et al., 2008, 2013). L.  guttulus. The specimen ZMB-MAM21229 is a Possibly the Chaco in northern Argentina could be male and the other, ZMB-MAM21231, was iden-the contact zone between L. tigrinus and L. guttulus. tified as a female by Hensel presumably due to the smaller overall size, to relatively smaller canines, and Variation: L.  guttulus does not show sexual dimor- more delicate structures of the skull (Hensel, 1872). phism for external characters, and the overall ground In addition, he described the pelage of the species, but color varies from dark yellowish brown to ochraceous he does not indicate whether this description is based buff, with the sides of the body usually lighter to- on one of two specimens, a combination of the two wards the venter, which is white or light gray colored specimens or another unknown individual. Neverthe (Fig.  - 17). Regarding to the rosettes on the sides of the less, only the two skulls mentioned above are recor body ded , they usually do not coalesce to form small or as types of the species in the ZBM. medium-sized oblique bands. Melanistic individuals are known for L. guttulus. Diagnosis: Small sized; fur relatively harsh; ground color dark yellowish brown to ochraceous buff, lighter Taxonomic notes: As mentioned above, Hensel (1872) on the sides of the body; venter white or very light described Felis guttula to southern Brazil (Rio Grande gray; small dark rosettes on the body sides with thick do Sul state), which subsequently it was recognized and continuous black rims, rarely coalescing into as a subspecies of L.  tigrinus. Furthermore, in the small-sized oblique bands. same work, Hensel described a skull also collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and identified it as Body measurements: See Morphogroup III in Table 2. Felis guigna Molina, 1782. Thomas (1903) received specimens from “Roca Nova” [=  Roça Nova, mu- Geographic distribution: L. guttulus is found in Brazil nicipality of Piraquara], Paraná, Brazil, collected by (southeast, south and center-west regions), northeast A. Rober - t and then requested to Paul Matschie, for- ern Argentina and Paraguay (Fig. 16). It has a contact mer mammal curator of Berlin Zoological Museum zone with L.  geoffroyi in the Central Depression r(no e- wadays Museum für Naturkunde), to compare gion in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where hybrid three skulls with the material of Hensel. One of skulls specimens were found and they showed pelage pattern was identified as Felis macroura (= Leopardus wiedii), Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 another (a male) as indistinct of F.  guttula Hensel, specimens analysed b y Thomas (1903) [either both 1872, and the other as F.  guigna Hensel, 1872 (not Thomas and P ocock were unaware about this article F.  guina Molina, 1782). However, Thomas did not (something unlikely) or they rejected Gray’s latter de- agree with him and based on the type locality of Felis cision]. guigna Molina, 1782, which is Valdivia, Chile, on the In short, Thomas (1903) recognized two species western side of the Andes, and from the comparison from R oça Nova, a larger one, F.  guttula, and a between the skull of the specimen from Paraná and smaller , F.  pardinoides, but Pocock (1917) disagreed the skull of the type of F.  pardinoides, he concluded and re-examined the specimens, concluding that that F.  guigna Hensel, 1872 is a junior synonym of F.  pardinoides and F.  guttula recognized by Thomas F.  pardinoides Gray, 1867a (Thomas, 1903; Pocock, (1903) are actually a female (melanistic individual) 1917). Strangely, Thomas (1903) designated a newand a male (spotted specimen), respectively, of the locality for F. pardinoides, “Espiritu Santo” (= Espírito same species. F urthermore, Pocock (1917) pointed Santo), and as Allen (1919:358) quoted: “No referout that a second - male from the same locality had ence is made [by Thomas] to Gray’s previous designalittle differ - ence in the characters of the skull and tion [in Gray, 1874] of Bogotá as the type locality the pelage in comparison to other male. Thus, the of his Felis pardinoides” (see L.  tigrinus’ Taxonomic name F.  pardinoides Thomas, 1903, besides it was Notes for more details). Also Pocock (1917) did not preoccupied b y F. pardinoides Gray, 1867a, is a junior made reference to Gray’s article when he revised the synonym of F. guttula (Hensel, 1872). FIGURE 14: The skull of one of the syntypes of L. guttulus (Hensel, 1872), the specimen ZMB-MAM21231 (female?). Bar = 20 mm. Photo: Carola Radke (Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany). For color figure, see online version. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus COMPARISONS L. emiliae and L. guttulus. Up to now, the previously taxonomic studies used mostly specimens from the In Table 6 we summarize the main differences that northwest and northern South America, but our distinguish the tigrinas species (L. tigrinus, L. emiliae study is the first to cover a larger sample of specimens and L.  guttulus) from other small and medium sized in quantitative and geographical terms from the entire felids found throughout their geographical distribution: distribution of the gr oup, especially from southern ocelot (L. pardalis), margay (L. wiedii), Geoffroy’s cat and eastern areas of the range, which hitherto have (L.  geoffroyi), Pantanal cat (L.  braccatus), pampas cat been neglected (Elliot, 1877, 1883; Thomas, 1903; (L.  pajeros), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouroundi), Allen, 1919; Cabrera, 1961). and domestic cat (Felis catus). As pointed out by Helgen et  al. (2013), the order Carnivora had been for long time considered taxonomically stable, with very few changes in the CONCLUSIONS Neotropical assemblage in last 100 years (Patterson, 2001). Similar scenario could be extends to other We proposed a new taxonomic arrangement medium and large-sized Neotropical mammals (de for the tigrina group, based on the complementar Viv y o, 1996; Rossi, 2000; Patterson, 2001, Feijó & morphological approach supported by the molecular Langguth, 2013; Nascimento, 2014; Feijó & Cordeiro- evidence available, with three species, L.  tigrinus, Estrela, 2016). This putative stability, however, is FIGURE 15: The skull of one of the syntypes of L. guttulus (Hensel, 1872), the specimen ZMB-MAM21229 (male). Bar = 20 mm. Photo: Carola Radke (Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany). For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 TABLE 6: Comparisons of some external and craniodental characters between tigrinas species (L. tigrinus, L. emiliae and L. guttulus) and other small and medium-sized Neotropical cats that occur along the geographic distribution of the tigrinas (L. pardalis, L. wiedii, L. geoffroyi, L. braccatus, L. pajeros, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, and Felis catus). Tail lenght/ Anteriormost point of Dorsal Curvature at Nape hairs head and body Overall ground color of the Pattern of spots on premaxillary in relation Taxa Body size profile of the frontal and Sagittal crest orientation length ratio body the sides of body to anteriormost point skull parietal area (on average) of nasal Leopardus small (2.5 kg) backward ~60% dark brown to yellowish brown usually coalescing slightly ar ched slightly convex aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to tigrinus orange light; venter white or into medium the interparietal region light gray oblique bands Leopardus small backward ~60% light yellowish brown to palerar ely coalescingslightly ar ched slightly convex aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to emilae (1.2-3.5 kg) yellow; venter white, very light into oblique bands the interparietal region gray or slightly yellowish Leopardus small backward ~60% dark yellowish brown; venterrar ely coalescingslightly ar ched slightly convex aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to guttulus (1.0-2.5 kg) white or very light gray into oblique bands the interparietal region Leopardus medium forward ~50% bright and pale orangish buffusually coalescing highly ar ched well convex not aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal pardalis (7.0-16.0 kg) color to grayish buff and gray; into large bands region, moderately developed and occupying venter white or very light gray posterior half of parietal suture, or well developed occupying total length of parietal suture Leopardus small forward ~70% bright and pale orangish buffusually coalescing highly ar ched well convex not aligned absent or a very low and short line restricted to wiedii (2.0-4.0 kg) color to grayish buff and gray; into medium the interparietal region venter white or very light grayoblique bands Leopardus small backward ~55% ground color varying from light nev er coalescing slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal geoffroyi (2.0-6.0 kg) yellowish brown to smoky gray; into bands region or moderately developed and occupying venter white or very light gray posterior half of braincase Leopardus small backward ~55% brown aguti fading oblique lines slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal braccatus (2.5-4.0 kg) region or moderately developed and occupying braccatus posterior half of braincase Leopardus small backward ~55% yellowish brown aguti fading oblique lines slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal braccatus (2.5-4.0 kg) region or moderately developed and occupying munoai posterior half of braincase Leopardus small backward ~50% yellowish gray or grayish brown usually coalescing slightly ar ched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal pajeros (2.5-4.0 kg) into medium region or moderately developed and occupying (Northern oblique bands posterior half of braincase form)¹ Leopardus small backward ~50% grayish brown fading oblique lines slightly arched slightly convex aligned poorly developed and restrict to interparietal pajeros (2.5-4.0 kg) region or moderately developed and occupying (Southern posterior half of braincase form)² Herpailurus small backward ~60% gray, reddish, yellow, dark spots absent slightly arched slightly convex aligned moderately developed and restrict to yagouaroundi (3.2-7.0 kg) brown or black interparietal region Felis catus small backward ~50-65% variable variable but neverslightly ar ched slightly convex aligned moderately developed and occupying posterior (2.5-4.0 kg) coalescing into half of parietal suture bands 1 includes the putative subspecies: L. p. garleppi (Matschie, 1912), L. p. thomasi (Lönnberg, 1913), L. p. budini (Pocock, 1941), L. p. steinbachi (Pocock, 1941) and L. p. crespoi (Cabrera, 1957). 2 includes the putative subspecies L. p. pajeros (Desmarest, 1816) and L. p. crucinus (Thomas, 1901). Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus potentially more reflective of the scarcity of taxonomic Lagomorpha) have been underestimated (Nascimento, studies rather than actual diversity. Recent taxonomic 2010, 2014; Feijó & Langguth 2013; Helgen et  al., revisions of medium and large-sized mammals hav2013; e Feijó & Cordeiro-Estrela, 2016). Regardless shown that the potential diversity in different grthe taxa, the pr oups oper evaluation of the species and (e.g., Carnivora, Cingulata, Rodentia Hystricognathi, subspecies ranks should be based on a geographic FIGURE  16: Geographic distribution of the specimens of L.  guttulus studied. Numbers correspond to collection localities listed in the gazetteer (see Appendix II) and the question mark refers to the type locality, which does not have a precise location [Hensel (1872) only cited “Rio Grande do Sul” as the type locality]. For color figure, see online version. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 FIGURE 17: Pattern of coloration and markings in L. guttulus: (A): MZUSP24234 (D ourado, São Paulo, Brazil); (B): MNRJ6693 (São Francisco, Jacarépaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); (C): MNRJ3889 (Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Bar = 100 mm. For color figure, see online version. broad scale, taking into account the individual, Costa Rica. Quatro subespécies são tradicionalmente sexual, population and geographic variation, and reconhecidas: L.  t.  tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) do Brasil preferable using complementary approaches. In this setentrional, Guianas e Venezuela oriental; L.  t.  pardi- sense, the scientific museums have a key role for house noides (Gray, 1867) da Venezuela ocidental, Colôm- a sample of the biological diversity (de V et iv al., o bia, Equador e Peru; L.  t.  guttulus (Hensel, 1872) do 2014; Moratelli, 2014). Brasil meridional, Paraguai e Argentina setentrional; e From a conservation perspective, the split into L. t. oncillus (Thomas, 1903) da Costa Rica. Analisa- three species of the tigrina group may change our vie mos quantitativ w a e qualitativamente a morfologia exter- about the extinction susceptibility risk. Leopardus na e crânio-dentária de 250 espécimes com o objetivo de tigrinus, as previously recognized, and L. guttulus aresclar e ecer o estado taxonômico do gato-do-mato-pequeno. both classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN mainly Baseado nos caracteres analisados, nós reconhecemos três due to its presence in areas with high rate of for mor est fogrupos, cada com uma distinta distribuição geográ- loss (Oliveira et  al., 2016a,b). Considering the new fica: norte/noroeste/oeste (amostras do Brasil setentrional, taxonomic arrangement, the resulting geographic Guianas, Venezuela, Colômbia, Equador, Peru, noroeste distribution of each taxon is now considerably da Argentina e Costa Rica), leste (amostras do nordeste smaller than previously accepted for the entire tigrina e centro do Brasil) e sul (amostras do Brasil meridional, group. Therefore, this dramatically increases the risk Paraguai e nordeste da Argentina). Considerando as evi- of extinction for each these taxa. Thus, the curr dências mor ent fológicas apresentadas neste estudo, ligado situation and status of L.  tigrinus, L.  emiliae and ao suporte biogeográfico e dos estudos moleculares dispo- L. guttulus should be urgently assessed. níveis, reconhecemos três espécies plenas de gato-do-ma- to-pequeno: L.  tigrinus (inclui as supostas subespécies L.  t.  pardinoides and L.  t.  oncillus como sinônimos RESUMO juniores) para o grupo norte/noroeste/oeste; L.  emiliae (Thomas, 1914) para o grupo do leste; and L. guttulus para o grupo do sul. O gato-do-mato-pequeno Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) é um felídeo neotropical de pequeno porte encon- Palavras-Chave: Leopardus tigrinus; L.  guttulus; trado desde o norte da Argentina e sul do Brasil até a L. emiliae; Subespécies; Variação morfológica. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Allen, J.A. 1919. Notes on the synonymy and nomenclature of the smaller spotted cats of Tropical America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 41:341-419. We are grateful to the following curators and Anderson, S. 1997. Mammals of Bolivia, taxonomy and collection managers for the permission to examine distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 231:1-652. specimens in their respective collections: Mario de Bonvicino, C.R.; Langguth, A. & Mittermeier, R.A. 1989. A Vivo and Juliana Gualda-Barros (MZUSP); João study of pelage color and geographic distribution in Alouatta Alves de Oliveira, Leandro Salles, Sérgio Maia Vaz belzebul (Primates: Cebidae). Revista Nordestina de Biologia, and Stella Franco (MNRJ); José de Sousa e Silva Jr. 6(2):139-148. Buckup, L. 1999. A Fauna e as Paisagens do Rio Grande do Sul na and M. Suely Aparecida Marques-Aguiar (MPEG); Visão dos Viajantes Alemães dos Séculos passados. Volkmer In: , Márcia Arzua (MHNCI); Gustavo Machado Prado J.A.; Rocha, M.A.; Gertz, R.E. & Rohden, V. (Eds.). Retratos (MBML); Pedro Cordeiro Estrela (UFPB); Diego de Cooperação Científica e Cultural: 40 anos do Instituto Cultural Astúa (UFPE); Rogério Vieira Rossi (UFMT); Brasileiro-Alemão. Porto Alegre, EDIPUCRS. p. 47-62. Buffon, G. 1765. L’Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière, avec Robert Voss and Eileen Westwig (AMNH); Bruce la description du Cabinet du Roi. Tome  XIII (Quadrupèdes  X) D. Patterson (FMNH); Kristofer M. Helgen, Craig Paris, L’Imprimerie Royale. 368p. A. Ludwig, Darrin P. Lunde, Esther M. Langan, Burbrink, F.T.; Lawson, R. & Slowinski, J.B. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the polytypic north American rat and Nicole R. Edmison (USNM); David Flores and snake (Elaphe obsoleta): a critique of the subspecies concept. Sergio Lucero (MACN); Kathia Rivero (MNK); Evolution, 54(6):2107-2118. Victor Pacheco (MUSM); Claudia Medina and Cabrera, A. 1958. Catalogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Fernando Forero (IAVH); Hugo López (ICN); Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Ciencias Zoológicas, 4(1):1-307. Santiago Burneo and Maria Alejandra Camacho Cabrera, A. 1961. Los felidos vivientes de la República Argentina. (QCAZ); Luis Albuja and Pablo Moreno (MEPN); Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Javier Sánchez (EBRG); Pepijn Kamminga (RMNH); Rivadavia”, Ciencias Zoológicas, 6(5):160-247. Christiane Funk and Carola Radke (ZMB); Daniela Cracraft, J. 1983. Species concepts and speciation analysis. Current Ornithology, 1:159-187. Kalthoff (NRM); Frank Zachos and Alexander Bibl Cuervo, A.; Hernández-Camacho, J. & Cadena, C. 1986. Lista (NMW); Judith M. Chupasko (MCZ); and Roberto atualizada de los mamíferos de Colômbia: anotaciones sobre su Portela Miguez (NHM). We also like give a special distribucion. Caldasia, 15:471-501. Cuvier, F. 1826. Marguai. In: Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, É. & Cuvier, thanks to Dione Seripierri and Marta Lucia Zamana F. (Eds.). Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères, avec des figures (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo) for originales, coloriées, dessinées d’après des animaux vivans, valuable effort in obtaining some references needed Volume III. Paris, Chez A. Belin. p. 1-2. to the conception of this manuscript; Guilherme S.T. Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 1 – The Northern Neotropics: Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Garbino (UFMG); Carla Aquino (MZUSP); Luis Suriname, French Guiana. Chicago, University of Chicago Fábio Silveira (MZUSP); Fábio Machado (IBUSP); Press. 550p. Marcus Vinícius Brandão (UFSCar, Campus Eizirik, E.; Indrusiak, C.B.; Trigo, T.C.; Sana, D.A.; Mazim, Sorocaba, Brazil); Hugo Fernandes-Ferreira (UFPB); F.D. & Freitas, T.R.O. 2006. Refined mapping and characterization of the geographic contact zone between oncilla Noé De La Sancha (FMNH); and Thiago Semedo and Geoffroy’s cat in Southern Brazil. Cat News, 45:8-11. (UFMT). Part of this work supported by CAPES Eldredge, N. & Cracraft, J. 1980. Phylogenetic Patterns and (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível the Evolutionary Process: Method and Theory in Comparative Biology. New York, Columbia University Press. 349p. Superior) (FON and AF), CNPq (Conselho Nacional Elliot, D.G. 1872. On Felis pardinoides, J.E. Gray. Proceedings of de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) (FON the Zoological Society of London, 1872:203. and AF) and the AMNH Grants Program (Collection Elliot, D.G. 1877. Remarks on Felis tigrina, Erxl., and its Study) (FON). synonymy. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1877:704-707. Elliot, D.G. 1883. A Monograph of the Felidae, or Family of the Cats. London, 124p. REFERENCES Erxleben, J.C.P. 1777. Systema regni animalis per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietates: cum synonymia et historia animalium: Allen, J.A. 1904. Mammals of southern Mexico and Central and Classis I. Mammalia. Lipsiae, Impensis Weygandianis. 636p. South America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Ewer, R.F. 1973. The Carnivores. New York, Cornell University History, 20:29-80. Press. 510p. Allen, J.A. 1915. New South American mammals. Bulletin of the Feijó, A. & Cordeiro-Estrela, P. 2016. Taxonomic revision of American Museum of Natural History, 34:625-634. the Dasypus kappleri complex, with revalidations of Dasypus Allen, J.A. 1916. List of mammals collected in Colombia by pastasae (Thomas, 1901) and Dasypus beniensis Lönnberg, the American Museum of Natural History expeditions, 1942 (Cingulara, Dasypodidae). Zootaxa, 4170(2):271-297. 1910-1915. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Feijó, A. & Langguth, A. 2013. Mamíferos de Médio e Grande History, 35:191-238. Porte do Nordeste do Brasil: Distribuição e Taxonomia, com Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 descrição de novas espécies. Revista Nordestina de Biologia, Husson, A.M. 1978. The Mammals of Suriname. Zoölogische 22(1/2):3-227. Monographieën van het Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Fischer, J.B. 1829. Synopsis Mammalium. Stuttgart, Sumtibus J.G. Leiden, 2:1-569. Cottae. 752p. ICZN. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, th García-Perea, R. 1994. The pampas cat group (Genus 4   edition. Available on: www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/ Lynchailurus Severtzov, 1858) (Carnivora, Felidae), a code. Accessed on: 15/02/2015. systematic and biogeographic review. American MuseumJ ardine, W. 1834. Mammalia. Part  2. Felinae. Edinburgh, W.H. Novitates, 3096:1-36. Lazars. 276p. (The naturalist’s library. Vol. 16). García-Perea, R. 2002. Andean mountain cat, Oreailurus jacobita: Johnson, W.E. & O’Brien, S.J. 1997. Phylogenetic reconstruction morphological description and comparison with other felines of the Felidae using 16S rRna and NADH-5 mitochondrial from the altiplano. Journal of Mammalogy, 83(1):110-124. genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 44:S98-S116. Gardner, A.L. 1971. Notes on the little spotted cat, Felis tigrina Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; oncilla Thomas, in Costa Rica. Journal of Mammalogy, Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O’Brien, S.J. 2006. The late 52(2):464-465. Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment. Garrido, E.P. & González-Maya, J.F. 2011. Distribución Science, 311:73-77. geográfica de la oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) en Colombia e Johnson, W.E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Eizirik, E.; Kim, J.H.; Implicaciones para su conservación. Revista Latinoamericana Raymond, M.M.; Bonacic, C.; Cambre, R.; Crawshaw, P.; de Conservación, 2(1):51-59. Nunes, A.; Seuánez, H.N.; Moreira, M.A.M.; Seymour, Gmelin, J.F. 1788. Systema naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, K.L.; Simon, F.; Swanson, W. & O’Brien, S.J. 1999. Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Disparate phylogeographic patterns of molecular genetic Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus  I. Editio Decima Tercia, variation in four closely related South American small cat Aucta, Reformata. Lipsiae, Impensis Georg. Emanuel Beer. species. Molecular Ecology, 8:S79-S94. 500p. Jolicoeur, P. & Mosimann, J.E. 1960. Size and shape variation in Goldman, E.A. 1946. The Puma, Mysterious American Cat – the painted turtle. A principal component analysis. Growth, Part II: Classification of the Races of the Puma. Young, In: S.P. 24:339-354. & Goldman, E.A. (Eds.). The Puma, Mysterious American Cat. Kitchener, A.C. & Yamaguchi, N. 2010. What is a Tiger? Washington, D.C., American Wildlife Institution. p. 174-358. Biogeography, morphology and taxonomy . T In ilson, R.L. & : Gotelli, N.J. & Ellison, A.M. 2004. A primer of ecological Nyhus, P. (Eds.). Tigers of the World – The science, politics and nd statistics. Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, 510p. conservation of Panthera tigris (2   edition). Academic Press, Gray, J.E. 1867a. Notes on certain species of cats in the collection London. p. 53-86. of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lahille, F. 1899. Ensayo sobre la distribución geográfica de los London, 1867:394-405. mamíferos em la República Argentina. In: Reunión del Congreso Gray, J.E. 1867b. Notes on the skulls of the cats (Felidae). Científico Latinoamenricano, 1º, Buenos Aires, 1898. v.  3, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1867:258-277. p. 165-206. Gray, J.E. 1869. Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous, and Leyhausen, P. 1979. Cat behavior: the predatory and social behavior Edentate Mammalia in the British Museum. London, Order of of domestic and wild cats. New York, Garland Publishing Inc. the Trustees. 398p. Leyhausen, P. & Falkena, M. 1966. Breeding the Brazilian ocelot Gray, J.E. 1874. The Bogota cat (Felis pardinoides, Gray). The cat in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook, 6:176-178. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 4, 13:475. Li, G.; Davis, B.W.; Eizirik, E. & Murphy, W.J. 2016. Griffith, E.C. 1827. The animal kingdom arranged in conformity Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, Volume 2. London, genomes of living cats (Felidae). Genome Research, 26(1):1-11. G.B. Whittaker. 513p. Lydekker, R. 1896. A Handbook to the Carnivora. Part  1: cats, Hall, E.R. 1981. The mammals of North America, 2.ed. New York, civets, and mongooses. London, Edward Lloyd Ltd. 312p. John Wiley & Sons. 1271p. Macdonald, D.W.; Loveridge, A.J. & Nowell, K. 2010. Dramatis Hall, E.R. & Kelson, K.R. 1959. The Mammals of North America. personae: an introduction to the wild felids. Macdonald, In: New York, The Ronald Press Company. 1083p. D.W. & Loveridge, A.J. (Eds.). Biology and Conservation of Helgen, K.M.; Miguel Pinto, C.; Kays, R.; Helgen, L.E.; Wild Felids. New York, Oxford University Press. p. 3-58. Tsuchiya, M.T.N.; Quinn, A.; Wilson, D.E. & Maldonado, Mattern, M.Y. & McLennan, D.A. 2000. Phylogeny and J.E. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), speciation of felids. Cladistics, 16:232-253. with description of a new species, the Olinguito. Zookeys, Ma yr, E. 1942. Systematics and the origin of species. New York, 324:1-83. Columbia University Press. 335p. Hemmer, H. 1978. The evolutionary systematics of living Felidae: Mayr, E. 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Cambridge, Belknap present status and current problems. Carnivore, 1:71-79. Press of Harvard University Press. 811p. Hensel, R.F. 1867. Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss der Mayr, E. 1970. Populations, Species, and Evolution. Cambridge, brasilianischen Provinz São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 453p. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, 2:227-269; Melquist, W.E. 1984. Status survey of otters (Lutrinae) and spotted 342-376. cats (Felidae) in Latin America. Unpublished report. Idaho Hensel, R.F. 1872. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Säugethiere Süd- Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Idaho. Brasiliens. Abhandlungen der Königlich Preussischen Akademie 269p. der Wissenschaft. Berlin, 1872:1-130. Mondolfi, E. 1986. Notes on the biology and status of the small Honaker, J.; King, G. & Blackwell, M. 2011. Amelia  II: A wild cats in Venezuela. M In:iller, S.D. & Everett, D.D. (Eds.). Program for Missing Data. Journal of Statistical Software, Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation and Management. 45(7):1-47. Washington D.C., National Wildlife Federation. p. 125-146. Huáscar Azurduy, F. 2005. Nota sobre el primer specimen Moratelli, R. 2014. Wildlife biologists are on the right track: de museo para Leopardus tigrinus en Bolivia. Kempffiana, A mammalogist’s view of specimen collection. Zoologia, 1(1):47-50. 31(5):413-417. Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus Müller, P.L.S. 1776. Des Ritters Carl von Linné Königlich Schreber, J.C.D. von. 1775. Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen Schwedischen Leibarztes &c. &c. vollständigen Natursystems nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen, 2(14), pl. 99, 100; 2(15): Supplements- und Register-Band über alle sechs Theile oder pl. 101, 101B, 105, 106; 2(16): pl. 108. Classen des Thierreichs. Mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung. Nebst Schreber, J.C.D. von. 1777. Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach drey Kupfertafeln. Raspe, Nürnberg, Gabriel Nicolaus. 638p. der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen, Wolfgang. v. 2, p. 13, Nascimento, F.O. 2010. Revisão taxonômica do gênero Leopardus pl. 110B; v. 3, pt. 22, 384-387, 392; v. 3, pt. 23, p. 393-394; Gray, 1842 (Carnivora, Felidae). (Ph.D. Dissertation). São 396-397; 407; v. 3, pt. 24, p. 412-414; v. 3, pt. 25, pl. 104B, Paulo, Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo. 109B. 358p. Severtzov, M.N. 1858. Notice sur la classification multisériale des Nascimento, F.O. 2014. On the morphological variation and Carnivores, spécialement des Félidés et les etudes de zoologie taxonomy of the Geoffroy’s cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d’Orbigny générale qui s’y rattachent. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, Series & Gervais, 1844) (Carnivora, Felidae). Papéis Avulsos de 3(1):385-396. Zoologia, 54(11):129-160. Simpson, G.G. 1961. Principles of Animal Taxonomy. New York, Nelson, G. & Platnick, N.I. 1981. Systematics and Biogeography: Columbia University Press. 247p. Cladistics and Vicariance. New York, Columbia University Stephens, L.S. & Traylor Jr., R.A. 1983. Ornithological Gazetteer Press. 567p. of Peru. Massachusetts, Harvard University. 273p. Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker’s Mammals of the World. 6.ed. Stephens, L.S. & Traylor Jr., R.A. 1985. Ornithological Gazetteer Baltimore, The John Hopkins University Press. 2015p. of the Guianas. Massachusetts, Harvard University. 123p. Nowell, K. & Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats: Status Survey and Sunquist, M.E. & Sunquist, F.C. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN/SSC Cat Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. 452p. Specialist Group. 382p. Sunquist, M.E. & Sunquist, F.C. 2009. Family Felidae (Cats). Oliveira, T. 2004. The oncilla in Amazonia: unraveling a myth. In: Wilson, D.E. & R.A. Mittermeier (Eds.). Handbook of the Cat News, 41:29-32. Mammals of the World, Volume 1: Carnivores. Barcelona, Lynx Oliveira, T.; Eizirik, E.; Schipper, J.; Valderrama, C.; Leite- Edicions. p. 54-169. Pitman, R. & Payan, E. 2016a. Leopardus tigrinus. The IUCN Temminck, C.J. 1827. Monographies de Mammalogie, ou Description Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T11510A3289293. de quelques genres de mammifères dont les espèces ont été observées DOI. Downloaded on 07/07/2016. dans les différens musées de l’Europe. Tome Premier I. Paris, Chez Oliveira, T., Trigo, T., Tortato, M., Paviolo, A., Bianchi, R. & G. Dufour et Ed. d’Ocagne, Librairies. 329p. Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. 2016b. Leopardus guttulus. The IUCN Thomas, O. 1880. On mammals from Ecuador. Proceedings of the Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54010476A54010576. Zoological Society of London, 1880:393-403. DOI. Downloaded on 07/07/2016. Thomas, O. 1903. Notes on Neotropical mammals of the Patterson, B.D. 2001. Fathoming tropical biodiversity: the genera Felis, Hapale, Oryzomys, Akodon, and Ctenomys, with continuing discovery of Neotropical mammals. Diversity and descriptions of new species. The Annals and Magazine of Distribution, 7:191-196. Natural History, series 7, 12:234-243. Paynter Jr., R.A. 1982. Ornithological Gazetteer of Venezuela. Thomas, O. 1912. Small mammals from South America. The Massachusetts, Harvard University. 245p. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 10:44-48. Paynter Jr., R.A. 1989. Ornithological Gazetteer of Paraguay. 2.ed. Thomas, O. 1914. On various South American mammals. The Massachusetts, Harvard University. 61p. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 13:345-362. Paynter Jr., R.A. 1995. Ornithological Gazetteer of Argentina. 2.ed. Trigo, T.C.; Freitas, T.R.O.; Kunzler, G.; Cardoso, L.; Massachusetts, Harvard University. 1045p. Silva, J.C.R.; Johnson, W.E.; O’Brien, S.J.; Bonatto, Paynter Jr., R.A. 1997. Ornithological Gazetteer of Colombia. 2.ed. S.L. & Eizirik, E. 2008. Inter-species hybridization among Massachusetts, Harvard University. 311p. Neotropical cats of the genus Leopardus, and evidence for an Paynter Jr., R.A. & Traylor Jr., M.A. 1991. Ornithological introgressive hybrid zone between L. geoffroyi and L. tigrinus in Gazetteer of Brazil. Massachusetts, Harvard University. 789p. southern Brazil. Molecular Ecology, 17:4317-4333. Pocock, R.I. 1917. The groups of the small and medium-sized Trigo, T.C.; Schneider, A.; Oliveira, T.G. de; Lehugeur, L.M.; South American Felidae. The Annals and Magazine of Natural Silveira, L.; Freitas, T.R.O. & Eizirik, E. 2013. Molecular History, series 8, 20:43-47. data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of Pocock, R.I. 1939. The races of jaguar (Panthera onca). Novitates Neotropical wild cat. Current Biology, 23(24):2528-2533. Zoologicae, 41:406-422. Trigo, T.C.; Tirelli, F.P.; Freitas, T.R.O. & Eizirik, E. 2014. Pocock, R.I. 1940. The races of Geoffroy’s cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi). Comparative assessment of genetic and morphological The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series  11, variation at an extensive hybrid zone between two wild cats in 6:350-355. southern Brazil. PLoS One 9: e108469. Pocock, R.I. 1941a. Some new geographic races of Leopardus, Trouessart, E-L. 1897. Catalogus mammalium tam viventium commonly known as ocelots and margays. The Annals and quam fossilium. Nova editio (Prima Completa). Fasciculus  I. Magazine of Natural History, series 11, 8:234-239. Primates, Prosimiae, Chiroptera, Insectivora. Berlin, R. Pocock, R.I. 1941b. The races of the ocelot and the margay. Field Friedländer & Sohn. 929p. Museum of natural History, Zoological Series, 27:319-369. Vanzolini, P.E. & Traylor Jr.; M.A. 1992. A Supplement to Pocock, R.I. 1941c. The examples of the colocolo and of the the Ornithological Gazetteer of Brazil. São Paulo, Museu de pampas cat in the British Museum. The Annals and Magazine Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. 252p. of Natural History, series 11, 7:257-273. de Vivo, M. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 R Core Team, 2013. R: A language and environment for statistical (Callitrichidae, Primates). Belo Horizonte, Fundação computing. Vienna, R  Foundation for Statistical Computing. Biodiversitas para Conservação da Diversidade Biológica. URL www.r-project.org. 105p. Rossi, R.V. 2000. Taxonomia de Mazama Rafinesque, 1817 do Brasil de Vivo, M. 1996. How many species of mammals there are in (Artiodactyla, Cervidae). (M.Sc. Dissertation). São Paulo, Brazil? In: Bicudo C.E.M. & Menezes N.A. (Eds.). Biodiversity Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo. 174p. in Brazil. A first approach. (Proceedings of the Workshop for the Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 assessment of biodiversity in plants and animals). Campos do Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Jordão, CNPq. p. 313-321. p. 532-628. de Vivo, M.; Silveira, F.L. & Nascimento, F.O. 2014. Reflexões Ximenez, A. 1974. Notas sobre félidos neotropicales VI: sobre coleções zoológicas, sua curadoria e a inserção dos contribucion a la elucidacion de las variaciones individuales Museus na estrutura universitária brasileira. Arquivos de de Felis pardalis Linne, 1758 (Mammalia, Felidae). Zoologia, 45(esp.):105-113. Comunicaciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Weigel, I. 1961. Das Fellmuster der wildlebenden Katzenarten und “Bernardino Rivadavia”, 4(7):40-57. der Hauskatze in vergleichender und stammesgeschichtlicher Yamaguchi, N.; Driscoll, C.A.; Kitchener, A.C.; Ward, J.M. Hinsicht. Saügetierkundliche Mitteilungen, 9:1-120. & Macdonald, D.W. 2004. Craniological differentiation Wilkins, J.S. 2009. Species: A History of the Idea. Oakland, between European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African University of California Press. 303p. wildcats (F.  s.  lybica) and Asian wildcats (F.  s.  ornata): Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D.E. implications for their evolution and conservation. Biological & Reeder, D.M. (Eds.). Mammal Species of the World. 2.ed. Journal of the Linnean Society, 83:47-63. Washington D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 286-346. Wozencraft, W.C. 2005. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D.E. Aceito em: 06/04/2017 & Reeder, D.M. (Eds.). Mammal Species of the World, Third Publicado em: 13/06/2017 Editor Responsável: Mario de Vivo Produzido e diagramado na Publicado com o apoio financeiro do Os periódicos Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia e Seção de Publicações do Programa de Apoio às Publicações Arquivos de Zoologia estão licenciados sob Museu de Zoologia da Científicas Periódicas da USP uma Licença CC-BY da Creative Commons. Universidade de São Paulo Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus APPENDIX I List of Specimens Examined Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) – 75 specimens. ARGENTINA: Chaco: Unknown locality: MACN38.20 (skin); Salta: Rio Carapavi, Angostuta: MACN36.726 (skin); BRAZIL: Amapá: Estrada Campo Verde, Porto Peaton: MNRJ24894 (skull). COLOMBIA: Amazonas: Rio Putumayo; Puerto Leguízamo: AMNH149316 (skin), AMNH149317 (skin), AMNH149318 (skin); Antioquia: Santa Elena: AMNH37788 (skin and skull) (holotype of Margay tigrina elenae Allen, 1915); Boyacá: Coper: IAVH1781 (skin); Villa de Leyva, Mamar- ramos: IAVH8608 (skin); Caldas: cuenca alta del rio Tapias, Neira: IAVH7343 (skin); Caquetá: Florencia: IAVH783 (skin); Cauca: Almaguer: AMNH 33897 (skin); Charguayaco: AMNH181498 (skin and skull), FMNH89231 (skin and skull); El Tambo: AMNH149319 (skin); Las Pabas (= valle de Las Papas), near Santo Antonio, 6000ft (1830  m): AMNH14187 (skin and skull) (holotype of Margay caucensis Allen, 1915); La Quintana: FMNH85823 (skin and skull); Leticia, Moscopán: AMNH149321 (skin); Malvatá: AMNH181497 (skin); Sabanetas: FMNH84554 (skin and skull); Totoro: FMNH89230 (skin and skull); Uribe: ZMB105209 (skull), ZMB105210 (skull) and ZMB105211 (skull); Cundinamarca: Bogotá: FMNH70570 (skin, skull and skeleton), FMNH70571 (skin, skull and skeleton), FMNH70572 (skin, skull and skeleton); Huila: Acevedo, San Adolfo: FMNH70569 (skin, skull and skeleton); Altamira, Andalucia: AMNH33896 (skin and skull); La Plata, Vereda La Segoviana: IAVH710 (skin); Meta: Villavicencio: AMNH139224 (skin and skeleton); Nariño: P.N.N. Volcan Galeras: IAVH5857 (skin); Quindío: Reserva Florestal Bremen, Circasia: IAVH7331 (skin); Tolima: Rio Chili, Sul de Manizales: AMNH69165 (skin and skull), AMNH69166 (skin and skull). COSTA RICA: Cartago: Cartago: ZMB17196 (skin); San Jose: Carrillo, S Llano (Llanuras) de Santa Clara: NMW-B4559 (skin); Parrita: Pozo Azul: AMNH19211 (skin and skull; holotype of Felis carrikeri Allen, 1904); ECUADOR: Cotopaxi: San Francisco de Las Pampas: QCAZ205 (skin); Napo: Rio Chalpichico entre Pa- pallacta y Cuyuja: MEPN10931 (skin); Pichincha: Alonguineho, Mojanda (south): NRM585404 (skull), NRM585413 (skull); Mt. Pichincha: NRM595402 (skull). GUYANA: Rupununi: Dadanawa Ranch, 60 miles E: USNM541506 (skull) (misidentified as Herpailurus yagouaroundi on the specimen tag); Unknown locality: USNM395089 (skull and skeleton); USNM395090 (skull and skeleton); USNM362126 (skin, skull and skel- eton). PERU: Junín: Chanchamayo: Chanchamayo: USNM255135 (skull), FMNH65780 (skin and skull); La Florida (region Alto Yurinaki): MUSM5046 (skin); Pasco: Oxapampa: Pozuzo: FMNH34674 (skin); Puno: Sandia: San Juan: FMNH78404 (skin and skull), FMNH78463 (skin), FMNH79923 (skin, skull and skel- eton); Unknown locality: monte del Peru: MUSM2154 (skin). SURINAME: Para District: Onoribo, on Para River, 5 km West of Paranam, about 25 km South of Paramaribo: RMNH18221 (skin); Saramaca District: RMNH17764 (skin); Unknown locality: NRM582004 (skull). VENEZUELA: Amazonas: Rio Negro frente Isla Chicharral: EBRG2214 (skin and skull); Aproximado 3  km  S San Carlos de Rio Negro: EBRG21031 (skull); Bolivar: Cedeño, Serrania de Los Pijiguaos 140 km SO de Caicara: EBRG15796 (skin, skull and skel- eton); El Manteco, 28 km SE, Los Patos: USNM374861 (skin and skull); Porto Ordaz: AMNH176298 (skin and skull); Raul Leoni, 2 km NO Represa Guri 1 km e Alcabala Obra: EBRG9609 (skin and skull); Sierra de Lema, km 753: EBRG27346 (skin, skull and skeleton); Distrito Federal: Caracas, 9.4 km N. Hotel Humboldt: EBRG3159 (skin and skull); USNM371278 (skin and skull); Merida: AMNH21638 (skin); Montes de la Si- erra: AMNH34349 (skin and skull); Páramo de San Antonio (near Merida): MCZ20979 (skin and skull); Sierra Nevada: NRM595411 (skull); Miranda: Autopista Coche-Tejerias, Distribuidor Los Totumos: MHNLS4372 (skin); Altos de Pipe, a 200 m del Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Via San Antonio de Los Altos (100 m Reactor R -1 D V el Ivic): EBRG3004 (skull); Táchira: Páramo El Zumbador: ZMB33350 (skull); Zulia: Yamayaujaina, Rio Negro, Serranía de Perijá: MHNLS176 (skin). Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) – 62 specimens. BRAZIL: Alagoas: Fazenda São Manuel, Viçosa: MPEG24895 (skull); Quebrângulo: MZUSP8292 (skull, skin and skeleton); between the municipalities of Pilar and Atalaia: UFPB3567 (skin); Bahia: BR 101, km 397, ponte Rio Ouriço: UFPB797 (skin); BR 101, km 645, 36 km Sul do Rio Pardo: UFPB795 (skin); Barreiras: UFPB981 (skin), UFPB982 (skin); UFPB983 (skin); Senhor do Bonfim: MZUSP2646 (skin and skull), MZUSP24903 (skin); Ceará: Comunidade Bal- ança, Caridade: UFPB6592 (skin); Cratéus: UFPE2411 (skin); Fazenda Carrapato (João Cativo), Itapipoca: UFPE1999 (skin); Iguatu: UFPE2412 (skin); Ipu: BMNH13.12.18.3 (skin; holotype of Felis emiliae Thomas, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 1914); MPEG588 (skin; topotype of Felis emiliae Thomas, 1914); Jaguaribe: UFPB3243 (skin); São Benedito, Macapá: MNRJ24896 (skull); Serra do Baturité, Mulungu: UFPE1942 (skin), UFPE1997 (skin), UFPE1998 (skin), UFPE2002 (skin) and UFPE2003 (skin); Chapada do Araripe, Crato: MNRJ1543 (skull and skin in alcohol); Tijuco, Aquiraz: UFPB2413 (skin); Goiás: Aragarças: MZUSP19900 (skin and skeleton); Palma: MNRJ3158 (skin); Maranhão: Aldeia do Ponto: MZUSP7975 (skin); Barra do Corda: FMNH23966 (skull and skin); Sítio Novo, Boa Lembrança, Grajaú: MPEG22685 (skin); Mato Grosso: Rio das Garças: MNRJ25722 (skin); Minas Gerais: Manga: MNRJ29078 (skin), MNRJ30025 (skin) and MNRJ29077 (skin); Pará: Ób - i dos: MPEG5618 (skull); Rio Jamari, Terra Santa: MZUSP13605 (skull, skin and skeleton); Paraíba: Comu- nidade Soledade: UFPB7061 (skin); Cuité: UFPB796 (skin); Distrito de Socorro, Olho d’Água: UFPB6443 (skin); Estrada de Lucena a Santa Rita: UFPB6471 (skin); Juazerinho: UFPB798 (skin); Olivedos: UFPB6939 (skin); Pocinhos: UFPB6653 (skin); REBIO Guaribas, Área II, Estrada de Jacaraú, 300 m da sede, Mamangape: UFPB6469 (skin); São João do Cariri: UFPB6806 (skin); São Mamede: UFPB6266 (skin); Tabuleiro de Pa- trocínio, Usina São João, Santa Rita: UFPB2083 (skin and skull); Várzea (Sítio Corea): UFPB6267 (skin) and UFPB6270 (skin); Unknown Locality: UFPB6242 (CETAS, IBAMA) (skull and skin), UFPB6791 (CETAS, IBAMA) (skull and skin); Pernambuco: Carnaubeira: MZUSP13609 (skull and skin), MZUSP13610 (skull and skin); BR 232, Distrito de Varzinha, Serra Talhada: UFPB6447 (skin); Fazenda Genipapo, Exu: UFPB6938 (skin); Ladeira do Timbó, BR  232, km  29, Moreno: UFPE1976 (skin); São Caetano: UFPE840 (skin and skull); vicinity of the REBIO Serra Negra, Inajá: UFPE693 (skin and skull); Piauí: Uruçuí: UNB2109 (skin); Rio Grande do Norte: Fazenda Juazeiro, Santana do Matos: UFPB6755 (skin); Tocantins: BR 153, Paraíso do Tocantins: UNB2750 (skin); Unknown locality: UFPB1023 (skin). Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) – 113 specimens. ARGENTINA: Chaco: Unknown locality: MACN38.21 (skin), MACN38.22 (skin), MACN38.23 (skin); MACN38.24 (skin); Misiones: Aguarai-Guazú Inferior: MACN48.295 (skin); MACN48.296 (skin); Arroyo Uruguaí, km 10: MACN52.56 (skin and skull); MACN52.57 (skin and skull); MACN51.121 (skin and skull); MACN51.141 (skin and skull); MACN51.142 (skin and skull); Departamento General Manuel Belgrano: MACN24912 (skin); Departamento Cainguás, Dos de Mayo: MACN23696 (skull); Departamento Guaraní, Cuartel Río Victoria: MACN23709 (skull); Depar- tamento Montecarlo, Arroyo Doradito: MACN23695 (skull); Parque Nacional Iguazú: MHNCI3828 (skull); Parque Nacional Iguazú, Area Cataratas: MACN24909 (skin); Rio Aguaraiguazú Superior: MACN48.294 (skull); Ruta Nacional Nº 14, 5 km al N de San Pedro: MACN24896 (skin); BRAZIL: Espírito Santo: Colati- na: MBML216 (skin and skull); Reserva Florestal de Linhares ES CVRD final da estrada do Parajá: MBML1837 (skull and skeleton); Rio do Norte, Santa Leopoldina: MBML2069 (skin and skull); Santa Teresa: MBML2418 (skin and skull), MBML381 (skin and skull), MBML1771 (skull), MBML395 (skin and skull), MBML314 (skin and skull), MBML2028 (skin), MBML279 (skin), MNRJ3889 (skin); MNRJ5885 (skull); Serra do Mamão, São Roque do Canaã: MBML2452 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: MNRJ49356 (skin); Mato Grosso: Pantanal: MPEG23854 (skin and skull); Minas Gerais: Viçosa: MNRJ4247 (skin and skull), MNRJ1363 (skin); BR 262-MG (near the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo): MBML1957 (skin and skull); Rio Caparaó, Serra do Caparaó: AMNH80396 (skin and skull); Paraná: Agudos do Sul: MHNCI3858 (skull); Bela Vista, Morretes: MHNCI13402 (skin and skull); Campina Grande do Sul: MHNCI3859 (skull); Candói: MHNCI3862 (skin and skull); Capão Rico, Fazenda Piraí-Guarapuava: MHNCI52 (skin and skull); Colombo: MHNCI3867 (skin and skull), MHNCI3861 (skull); Estação Ecológica do Caiuá, Diamante do Norte: MHNCI5714 (skin and skull); Estrada do Encantamento, Rio Iraí, Piraquara: MHNCI2672 (skin and skull); Fazenda Lagoa, Castro: MHNCI124 (skin and skull); Fazenda Banestado, Cajuru, Jaquariaíva: MHN- CI5573 (skull); Parque Nacional da Foz do Iguaçu, Foz do Iguaçu: MHNCI4378 (skin and skull); Horto São Nicolau, Arauco Florestal, Arapoti: MHNCI5993 (skin and skull); Paulo de Frontim, BR 153: MHNCI3982 (skull); Palmeira: MHNCI5835 (skin and skull); Pinhão: MHNCI5712 (skin and skull); Relógio, Prudentópo- lis: MHNCI2740 (skull); Represa do Passaúna, Curitiba: MHNCI3868 (skull); Sertanópolis: MHNCI3739 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: AMNH36225 (skin); Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis: MNRJ3133 (skin); Nova Friburgo: MZUSP2810 (skin and skull); São Francisco, Jacarepaguá: MNRJ6693 (skin and skull); Teresópolis: MNRJ3137 (skin); Teresópolis, Fazenda Boa Fé: MNRJ7261 (skull). Rio Grande do Sul: Caxias do Sul: MNRJ44359 (skin); Pinambi: MZUSP3188 (skull); Rio Pardo, BR 290, km 141: MPEG22183 (skin and skull), São Lourenço: AMNH36948 (skin); Unknown locality [Hensel (1872) did not give a precise locality where the specimens were collected]: ZMB-MAM21229 (skull) and ZMB-MAM21231 (skull) (syntypes of Felis Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus guttula Hensel, 1872). Santa Catarina: Corupá: MZUSP1765 (skin and skull); Garuva: MHNCI3864 (skin and skull); Jaraguá do Sul: ZMB21081 (skull), ZMB21097 (skull), ZMB21120 (skull), ZMB 21122 (skull). São Paulo: Bragança Paulista: MZUSP27683 (skin, skull and skeleton); Campos do Jordão: MZUSP2137 (skin); Conchas: MZUSP13796 (skin and skull); Dourado: MZUSP24234 (skin); Eugênio Lefèvre, Santo Antônio do Pinhal: MZUSP9912 (skin and skeleton); Franca: MZUSP810 (skin and skull); Guareí, Fazenda Fortaleza: UFMT26 (skin); Iguape: MZUSP2740 (skin and skull); Iporanga (Lajeado): MZUSP6549 (skin and skull); Itaquaquecetuba: MZUSP32633 (skin, skull and skeleton); Itararé: MZUSP1168 (skull); Itatiba: MZUSP3724 (skin); Ituverava: MZUSP2971 (skull); Lins: MZUSP6262; Paranapiacaba: MZUSP401 (skull); Piedade: MZUSP6457 (skin); Ponte Alta: MZUSP6456 (skin); Ribeirão Fundo: FMNH94319 (skin, sull and skeleton); Rio Grande: MZUSP2321 (skin and skull), MZUSP2360 (skin and skull), MZUSP2362 (skull); São Paulo (Santo Amaro): MZUSP6459 (skin and skull); Serra da Bocaina: MNRJ50821 (skin); Tamanduá (Rio Ipiranga), Descalvado: MZUSP10425 (skin and skeleton); Ubatuba: MZUSP1877 (skull), MZUSP1878 (skin and skull); Valparaíso: MZUSP3799 (skin and skull), MZUSP3811 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: MZUSP1090 (skull), MZUSP1393 (skull), MZUSP1395 (skull), MZUSP2438 (skin and skull), MZUSP6728 (skin and skull). Unknown locality: FMNH296 (mounted), ZMB58116 (skull). PARAGUA C Y aaguazú: : Rio Yuqueri: MCZ30269 (skin), MCZ30270 (skin; melanistic); Ñeembucú: Rio Yguazú: MCZ28678 (skin and skull); Unknown locality: MACN31.191 (skin). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(19), 2017 APPENDIX II Gazetteers Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) – The numbers in the map (Fig.  8) refer to the following localities: 1.  Caracas, 9.4  km  N. Hotel Humboldt, District Federal, Venezuela; 2.  100  m Reactor R -1 Del I V vic, Mi- randa, Venezuela; 3. Autopista Coche-Tejerias, Distribuidor Los Totumos, Miranda, Vene 4.zuela;  Carrillo, S Llano (Llanuras) de Santa Clara, San Jose, Costa Rica; 5. Yamayaujaina, Rio Negro, Serranía de Perijá, Zulia, Venezuela; 6.  Cartago, Cartago, Costa Rica; 7.  Pozo Azul, Pirris, Costa Rica (type locality of Felis carrikeri Allen, 1904); 8. Montes de la Sierra, Merida, Venezuela; 9. near Merida, páramo de San Antonio (3,000 m), Merida, Venezuela; 10. Sierra Nevada, Merida, Venezuela; 11. Porto Ordaz, Bolivar, Venezuela; 12. Páramo El Zumbador, Táchira, Venezuela; 13. 2 km NW Represa Guri 1 km & Alcabala Obra, Bolivar, Venezuela; 14. El Manteco, 28 km SE, Los Patos, Bolivar, Venezuela; 15. Serrania de Los Pijiguaos 140 km SW de Caicara, Boli- var, Venezuela; 16. Sierra de Lema km 753, Bolivar, Venezuela; 17. Villa de Leyva, Mamarramos, Boyacá, Co- lombia; 18. Onoribo, on Para River, 5 km of Paranam, about 25 km S of Paramaribo, Para District, Suriname; 19. Coper, Boyacá, Colombia; 20. cuenca alta del rio Tapias, Neira, Caldas, Colombia; 21. Cayenne, French Guiana (type locality of Felis tigrina Schreber, 1775); 22. Saramaca District, Suriname; 23. Reserva Florestal Bremen, Circasia, Quindío, Colombia; 24. Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 25. Villavecencia, Meta, Co- lombia; 26. Río Chili, South of Manizales, Tolima, Colombia; 27. Rio Negro frente Isla Chicharral, Amazonas, Venezuela; 28. Leticia, Moscopán, Cauca, Colombia; 29. Las Pabas (= Valle de Las Papas), near San Antonio, Cauca, Colombia (type locality of Margay caucensis Allen, 1915); 30. Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia (type locality of Margay tigrina elenae Allen, 1915); 31. Aproximado 3 km S San Carlos de Rio Negro, Amazonas, Venezuela; 32. Uribe, Cauca, Colombia; 33. Dadanawa Ranch, 60 mi. E, Rupununi, Guyana; 34.  Malvatá, Cauca, Colombia; 35. Charguayaco, Cauca, Colombia; 36. Sabanetas, Cauca, Colombia; 37. Totoro, Cauca, Colombia; 38. La Quintana, Cauca, Colombia; 39. La Plata, Vereda La Segoviana, Huila, Colombia; 40. Huila, Andalucia, Colombia; 41. Almaguer, Cauca, Colombia; 42. Charguayaco, Cauca, Colombia; 43. San Adolfo, Huila, Colombia; 44. Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia; 45. El Tambo, Cauca, Colombia; 46. P.N.N. Volcan Gal- eras, Nariño, Colombia; 47. Estrada Campo Verde, Porto Peaton, Amapá, Brazil; 48. Alonguineho, Mojanda (south), Pichincha, Napo, Ecuador; 49. Mt. Pichincha, Napo, Ecuador; 50. Puerto Leguízamo, Río Putumayo, Amazonas, Colombia; 51. Rio Chalpichico entre Papallacta y Cuyuja, Napo, Ecuador; 52. San Francisco de Las Pampas, Cotopaxi, Ecuador; 53. Pozuzo, Oxapampa, Pasco, Peru; 54. Chanchamayo, Chanchamayo, Junín, Peru; 55. La Florida (región Alto Yurinaki), Junín, Peru; 56. San Juan, Sandia, Puno, Peru; 57. Río Carapari, Angostuta, Salta, Argentina. Leopardus emiliae (Thomas, 1914) – The numbers in the map (Fig.  11) refer to the following localities: 1. Óbidos, Pará; 2. Fazenda Carrapato (João Cativo), Itapipoca, Ceará, Brazil; 3. Sítio Novo, Boa Lembrança, Grajaú, Maranhão, Brazil; 4. Rio Jamari, Terra Santa, Pará, Brazil; 5. Tijuco, Aquiraz, Ceará, Brazil; 6. Macapá, São Benedito, Ceará, Brazil; 7. Comunidade Balança, Caridade, Ceará, Brazil; 8. Serra do Baturité, Mulungu, Ceará, Brazil; 9. Ipu, Ceará, Brazil (type locality of Felis emiliae Thomas, 10. 1914);  Cratéus, Ceará, Brazil; 11.  Barra do Corda, Maranhão, Brazil; 12.  Iguatu, Ceará, Brazil; 13.  Jaguaribe, Ceará, Brazil; 14.  Fazenda Juazeiro, Santana do Matos, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 15. Aldeia do Ponto, Maranhão, Brazil; 16. Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil; 17. Várzea (Sítio Corea), Paraíba, Brazil; 18. REBIO Guaribas, Área II, Estrada de Jacaraú, 300 m da sede, Mamangape, Paraíba, Brazil; 19. Tabuleiro de Patrocínio, Usina São João, Paraíba, Brazil; 20. -  São Ma mede, Paraíba, Brazil; 21. Olivedos, Paraíba, Brazil; 22. Comunidade Soledade, Paraíba, Brazil; 23. Juazerinho, Paraíba, Brazil; 24. Pocinhos, Paraíba, Brazil; 25. Estrada de Lucena a Santa Rita, Paraíba, Brazil; 26. Distrito de Socorro, Olho d’Água, Paraíba, Brazil; 27. Serra do Araripe, Crato, Ceará, Brazil; 28. Uruçuí, Piauí, Brazil; 29. São João do Cariri, Paraíba, Brazil; 30. Fazenda Genipapo, Exu, Pernambuco, Brazil; 31. BR 232, Distrito de Varzinha, Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil; 32. Ladeira do Timbó, BR 232, km 29, Moreno, Pernambuco, Brazil; 33. Carnaubeira (= Carnaubeira da Penha), Pernambuco, Brazil; 34. São Caetano, Pernambuco, Brazil; 35. vicinity of the REBIO Serra Negra, Inajá, Pernambuco, Brazil; 36. Quebrângulo, Alagoas, Brazil; - 37. Fa zenda São Manuel, Viçosa, Alagoas, Brazil; 38. between the municipalities of Pilar and Atalaia, Alagoas, Brazil; 39. BR 153, Paraíso do Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil; 40. Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia, Brazil; 41. Barreiras, Bahia, Brazil; 42. Palma, Goiás, Brazil; 43. BR 101, km 397, ponte Rio Ouriço, Bahia, Brazil; 44. Agroceres, Moçam- Nascimento, F.O. & Feijó, A.: Taxonomy of tigrina Larduseop tigrinus binho, Município de Manga, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 45. BR 101, km 645, 36 km S do Rio Pardo, Bahia, Brazil; 46. Rio das Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 47. Aragarças, Goiás, Brazil. Leopardus guttulus (Hensel, 1872) – The numbers in the map (Fig.  16) refer to the following localities: 1. Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2. São Lourenço, near the border between States of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; 3. Reserva Florestal de Linhares ES CVRD final da estrada do Parajá, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 4. Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 5. Serra do Mamão, São Roque do Canaã, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 6. Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 7. Rio do Norte, Santa Leopoldina, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 8. BR 262-MG (near the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo), Minas Gerais, Brazil; 9. Ituverava, São Paulo, Bra- zil; 10. Rio Caparaó, Serra do Caparaó, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 11. Franca, São Paulo, Brazil; 12. Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 13. Valparaíso, São Paulo; 14. Lins, São Paulo, Brazil; 15. Tamanduá (Rio Ipiranga), Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil; 16. Dourado, São Paulo, Brazil; 17. Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 18. Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 19. Ponte Alta, São Paulo, Brazil; 20. Estação Ecológica do Caiuá, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, Brazil; 21. Campos do Jordão, São Paulo; 22. Eugênio Lefèvre, Santo Antônio do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil; 23.  Serra da Bocaina, próximo Rio Paca Grande, São Paulo, Brazil; 24.  São Francisco, Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 25. Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil; 26. Itatiba, São Paulo, Brazil; 27. Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 28. Sertanópolis, Paraná, Brazil; 29. Conchas, São Paulo, Brazil; 30.  Fazenda Fortaleza, Guareí, São Paulo, Brazil; 31.  Itaquaquecetuba, São Paulo, Brazil; 32.  Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil; 33. Santo Amaro, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 34. Piedade, São Paulo, Brazil; 35.  Paranapia- caba, São Paulo, Brazil; 36. Rio Grande, São Paulo, Brazil; 37. Itararé, São Paulo, Brazil; 38. Horto São Nico- lau, Arauco Florestal, Arapoti, Paraná, Brazil; 39. Ribeirão Fundo, São Paulo, Brazil; 40. Iporanga (Lajeado), São Paulo, Brazil; 41. Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil; 42. Fazenda Lagoa, Castro, Paraná, Brazil; 43. Relógio, Pru- dentópolis, Paraná, Brazil; 44. Rio Yuqueri, Caaguazú, Paraguay; 45. Paraná, Brazil; 46. Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil; 47.  Palmeira, Paraná, Brazil; 48.  Fazenda Piraí-Guarapuava, Capão Rico, Paraná, Brazil; 49. Represa do Passaúna, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; 50. Estrada do Encantamento, Rio Iraí, Piraquara, Paraná, Brazil; 51.  Fazenda Banestado, Cajuru, Jaquariaíva, Paraná, Brazil; 52.  Bela Vista, Morretes, Paraná, Brazil; 53. Parque Nacional da Foz do Iguaçu, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil; 54. Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; 55.  Colombo, Paraná, Brazil; 56.  Candói, Paraná, Brazil; 57.  Pinhão, Paraná, Brazil; 58.  Arroyo Uruguaí, km 10, Misiones, Argentina; 59. Agudos do Sul, Paraná, Brazil; 60. Garuva, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 61. Paulo de Frontim, BR 153, Paraná, Brazil; 62. Arroyo Aguaray Guazú Inferior, Misiones, Argentina; - 63. Ar royo Aguaray Guazú Superior, Misiones, Argentina; 64. Departamento General Manuel Belgrano, Misiones, Argentina; 65. Corupá, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 66. Jaraguá do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 67. Ruta Nacional Nº 14, 5 km al N de San Pedro, Misiones, Argentina; 68. Rio Iguazu, Ñeembucú, Paraguay; 69. Cuartel Río Victoria, Departamento Guaraní, Misiones, Argentina; 70. Dos de Mayo, Departamento Cainguás, Misiones, Argentina; 71. Arroyo Doradito, Departamento Montecarlo, Misiones, Argentina; 72. Pinambi, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 73. Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 74. Rio Pardo, BR 290, km 141, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 75. São Lourenço, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Question mark. Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil [precise locality unknown; Hensel (1872) did not give a precise locality where the type specimens were collected].

Journal

Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo)Unpaywall

Published: Jun 13, 2017

There are no references for this article.