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Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India

Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Check List 8(3): 321-348, 2012 © 2012 Check List and Authors Chec List ISSN 1809-127X (available at www.checklist.org.br) Journal of species lists and distribution ie 1* 1 2 3 1 1 1 Amit Chawla , Om Parkash , Varun Sharma , S. Rajkumar , Brij Lal , Gopichand , R.D. Singh and A.K. Thukral 1 Biodiversity Division, CSIR - Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India 176 061. 2 Nature India Eco Solutions, #14, Thakker’s Pride, Opposite Siddharth Hotel, Nashik-Pune Road, Nashik, India 422 011. 3 NRC in DNA Fingerprinting, B202, NBPGR, IARI, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, India 110 012 4 Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Botanical & Environmental Sciences. Amritsar, India 143 005 * Corresponding author. E-mail: amitchawla21@gmail.com Abstract: In the present study, we provide a checklist of the vascular plants of Kinnaur district situated in the Himachal Pradesh state of India in the western Himalaya. This checklist includes 893 taxa (viz., species, subspecies and varieties) belonging to 881 species of angiosperms and gymnosperms distributed among 102 families and 433 genera, and 30 species of pteridophytes. Information about the growth habit, threat and endemicity status is also provided. Our results show that family Compositae is by far the most species rich family with 122 species, followed by Poaceae (69), Rosaceae (58), Leguminosae (49) and Lamiaceae (38). Among the genera, Artemisia is the most diverse genus with 19 species, followed by Potentilla (14), Saussurea (13), Polygonum (11), Astragalus (10), Lonicera (10) and Nepeta (10). Similar to other regions in the western Himalayan range, family-to-genera ratio was 1:4.25 and the genera-to-species ratio was 1:2.04. Out of 893 taxa, our checklist includes 606 herb species, 63 trees, 108 shrubs, 28 climbers, 67 graminoids and 21 sedges and rushes. Of all the species recorded, 108 (12.2%) are endemic to western Himalaya and 27 (3%) are placed under IUCN threatened categories. The present checklist on the flora of Kinnaur provides an important baseline data for further quantitative studies on the characteristics of plant communities in this region and will help in the identification of priority conservation areas. Introduction and Singh 1987). In the western Himalayan region, the Western Himalaya has long been recognized as a prominent angiosperm families are Asteraceae, Rosaceae, distinct floristic region in India (Hooker 1904; Mani 1974; Poaceae, Ranunculaceae and Brassicaceae (Rau 1975). Singh and Singh 1987). The mountain ranges situated The vegetation is represented by lower and upper western on the western side of river Sharda (or west of 77° E Himalayan temperate forests, dry temperate coniferous longitude) in northwestern India, constitutes the ‘Indian forests, sub-alpine forests and scrubs, alpine pastures, Western Himalaya’ which includes the states of Jammu and dwarf Juniper scrub, and dry alpine scrub communities Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. This region (Champion and Seth 1968). harbours a rich regional flora due to its diverse topography, Kinnaur is a northeastern frontier district in the wide altitudinal range and location at the intersection state of Himachal Pradesh that mostly consists of the of several biogeographical units. The flora of western valleys along river Sutlej and its tributaries (Spiti and Himalaya exhibits affinities with that of Mediterranean, Baspa rivers, Figure 1). The terrain is rugged with steep Siberian, Tibetan and Indo-Malayan regions. In contrast, precipitous slopes and narrow valleys (Figures 2 A- C). The the vegetation of eastern Himalaya displays affinities with wide range of altitudinal and climatic geospatial gradients Chinese and Malayasian elements, and supports luxuriant have endowed the landscape with a rich botanic diversity, evergreen broadleaf forests or ‘tropical rainforests’ at dominated by conifers in the temperate zone (Figures 3 lower elevations. Another notable difference between A-C), Betula utilis-dominated forests and Rhododendron the western and eastern Himalaya is that conifers are campanulatum-dominated scrubs in the sub-alpine zone less common and are generally mixed with broadleaved (Figures 3 D, E), medicinal and aromatic herbs in the species in the eastern Himalaya as compared to the alpine meadows (Figures 3 F-H) and scrubby vegetation western Himalaya. In the eastern Himalaya, number of in the cold arid zone (Figure 3I). In Kinnaur, there are vascular plant species, the number of epiphytes (mostly three, almost parallel mountain ranges: the Zanskar, the Orchidaceae), Rhododendron and Quercus species are also Great Himalaya and the Dhaula Dhar with their peaks several folds greater than that in western Himalaya (Singh varying between 5,180 m to 6,770 m and covered with and Singh 1987). The Himalayan Mountain Range forms snow throughout the year. Based on the amount and a distinct biogeographic ecoregion with large variation distribution of precipitation (rainfall and snowfall), the in topography, climate and harbours considerable plant region is classified into three broad climatic zones: the diversity (Olson et al. 2001). The proportion of endemic wet zone (Nichar and Sangla areas), the dry zone (Kalpa taxa is substantial in the entire Himalayan Range and thus, and Moorang areas) and the arid zone (Pooh area). Only this ecoregion has been designated as a global biodiversity the area south of the Great Himalayan range receives the hotspot (Myers et al. 2000). Around 4000 species of monsoon rains. The rainfall becomes lesser towards Shipki higher plants and about 29% of the endemic taxa of peak, the highest peak in Himachal Pradesh so that the Indian dicotyledonous flora occur in the Himalaya (Singh climate of north eastern Kinnaur is semiarid to arid. The L Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India annual rainfall varies from 45.4 mm at Pooh to 380 mm at not been precisely investigated. In spite of Kinnaur being Nichar. In the temperate zone, the minimum temperature a biodiversity rich region, no attempt has been made to ranges from -6.9 to 14.6°C and maximum from 7.5 to list the species content of this district and no comparative 23.1°C, the mean January temperature being about 0.3°C botanic studies have been carried out between Kinnaur (Source: Office of the Deputy Commissioner, Rekong and the neighbouring districts. In this communication, Peo, Kinnaur (H.P.), India). Seasons of the year comprise we provide an updated checklist of vascular plants from of winter from December to end of March, followed by different elevations representing all the vegetation types of spring season from April to May and summer from June Kinnaur as well as the species growing near streams, lakes, to September, with rains in the months of July and August towns, orchards, villages and other human settlements in particularly at lower elevations of Kinnaur. Autumn season the region. We have used here the latest delineation of the spans over October to November. families, ‘Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) III system, Based on the classification given by Champion and Seth 2009’. (Champion and Seth 1968), the vegetation of this region This study aims at finding out i) Is the flora of Kinnaur can be classified into 29 types which belong to Himalayan district dominated by the same families as those of other moist and dry temperate forests, sub-alpine forests, dry western Himalayan regions? ii) What are the family-to- and moist alpine scrub and meadows. Alpine meadows genera and genera-to-species ratios in Kinnaur and are cover large areas above the tree line (usually above these comparable to other regions in western Himalaya?, 3300 amsl). Below the tree line, thick coniferous forests and iii) What is the proportion of threatened and endemic are dominated by Cedrus deodara (Chawla et al. 2011). species in the flora of Kinnaur district? Pinus gerardiana (Chilgoza or Neoza pine) dominated forest occupies large area in the dry zone up to tree line Materials and Methods in Kinnaur. This species occurs mostly in Kinnaur district Study Sites in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The economy of Kinnaur The present study was undertaken in Kinnaur district is mainly dependent on apple cultivation. Among (30°22’40˝ N to 33°12’40” N Latitude and 75°47’55” E to the agro-ecosystems, besides Chilgoza forest plantations 79°04’20˝ E Longitude), which spans over an area of over and other agricultural crops, apple orchards constitute a 6,400 km in the western Himalaya (www.himachalgov. major land use in the whole valley (Figures 4 A-E). nic.in). River Sutlej enters the region at an elevation of Though the flora for Himachal Pradesh (Chowdhery 3,050 m, and leaves it at an elevation of 1,320 m above and Wadhwa 1984) presents an extensive list of species mean sea level dividing the region into almost two equal distributed across the state, the vegetation in Kinnaur has halves (Figure 1). Figure 1. Map of the study area. The points at which the photographs have been clicked are shown on the map and are indicated by figure numbers. 322 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Kinnaur is a region of high mountain ranges with most of the geographical area of Kinnaur. The district narrow valleys of the river Satluj and its tributaries. In has three administrative subdivisions, Pooh, Kalpa and southern Kinnaur, the Dhauladhars extend eastwards to Nichar. Pooh subdivision in the upper Kinnaur comprises meet the Greater Himalayan range, and separate Baspa three tehsils (an administrative unit under a district) of valley from district Shimla of Himachal Pradesh and Moorang, Pooh and Yangthang. Kalpa subdivision situated Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand state. Towards the in the middle Kinnaur, comprises of two tehsils, Kalpa and north east, the semi-arid to arid land areas occur across Sangla. Nichar subdivision in the lower Kinnaur has only the Zanskar mountains. The Greater Himalaya spans over one tehsil with the same name. The boundaries of the three sub-divisions are thus, co-terminus with the three ecological divisions of the area (Raha 2000). The upper Kinnaur consists of the last stretch of river Spiti which joins river Satluj at Khab, and the main Satluj valley from Shipki La to the Ropa valley lower down to village Shiasu. The gorge like valleys of this region present a cold desert landscape with naked mountains and a few villages with irrigated fields and apple orchards. Almost the whole landscape is covered with steppe vegetation dominated by Artemisia spp. scrub. The middle Kinnaur, represented by the Kinner Kailash Massif (highest peak, 6473 m), has beautiful Baspa (or Sangla) valley on one side and Kalpa on the other side reaching upstream the Satluj towards Charang stream. Sangla valley has temperate climate with lush green Cedrus deodara, Abies pindrow dominated forests, broadleaved forests and alpine meadows. Towards Kalpa, the climate gradually changes to semi-arid, with vegetation dominated by Pinus gerardiana forests. The lower Kinnaur receives the maximum rainfall during the monsoon season and is the greenest zone. The valleys of the tributaries of Satluj present a large altitudinal gradient and thus inhabit different forest types with large area under alpine meadows at higher elevations. The ‘Linear Imaging Self Scannner (LISS III)’ sensor satellite image (ground resolution, 24.5 m and scene date, 15-Oct-2005) of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite was used to classify the vegetation of Kinnaur into forests, grasslands, scrublands, snow covered area, rocks and barren area, and cultivated and builtup area (Figure 5). More than half of the total area of Kinnaur (51.91 %) is covered by bare rocks and perpetual snow. Only 44.2 % of the total area of Kinnaur is represented by forests (10.24 %), grasslands (31.04 %) and scrublands (2.95 %) (Chawla et al. 2011). The localities and the points of collections are depicted on the classified map. The areas surveyed in the lower Kinnaur represent an altitudinal range from 1500 m to 4600 m that include major localities viz., Solding, Nigulseri, Bhabhanagar, Bari, Nichar on the left bank of river Satluj; Majhgaon in the Rupi valley, and Rarang Panoong, Surchoo, Kafnu, Mulling, Fusteerang, Tau Dor, Kara, Fusteerang in the Bhabha valley on the right banks of river Satluj; and Sholtu, Tapri, Urni further upstream on both the banks of river Satluj. In the middle Kinnaur, the localities surveyed included Kuppa, Sangla, Kharogla, Chitkul, Chansu, Rupin Pass, Nalgon Pass in the Sangla valley encompassing a range of altitudes from 2500 m in Sangla valley to 5200 m towards the Chitkul pass. Besides, Roghi, Kalpa, Sharbo and Pangi, localities were surveyed in the Chilgoza pine dominated zone. The upper Kinnaur Figure 2. A) An Upper Satluj valley landscape (semi-arid zone) with presents an arid zone and the studied localites include forests dominated by Pinus gerardiana, and apple orchards. B) The lower Satluj valley landscape in the Nichar subdivision with scrub, coniferous Ropa valley, Kanam, Jangi, Ribba, Moorang, Thangi, alpine and Betula dominated forests on the upper reaches of mountains, and meadows in Charang valley, and cold desert areas of Pooh apple orchards in the lower elevations. C) A degraded forest landscape (Pooh, Chulling, Yangthang, Nako etc.). due to construction of roads and dams, and expansion of agricultural land and orchards. 323 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India C D E F G H Figure 3. A) The coniferous forest dominated landscape with Kinner Kailash mountain range in the background. B) The Bhabha valley landscape with forests dominated by conifers. C) A landscape dominated by Pinus gerardiana (Neoza/Chilgoza pine) forests. D) Tree line forest landscape dominated by Betula utilis (senescent leaves) with patches of Pinus wallichiana (evergreen) forests in the Sangla valley. E) Tree line ecotonal landscape in the Bhabha valley. F) The alpine meadows and mountain peaks landscape in the Sangla valley. G) An alpine meadows landscape with Saussurea obovallata populations near Nalgon Pass in the Sangla valley. H) The patchy distribution of Cassiopes festigiata scrub in the alpine meadows. I) Upper Kinnaur landscape dominated by Artemisia spp. and Ephedra gerardiana in the arid zone (cold desert area). 324 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India C D March to November, from year 2002 to 2006. We have, therefore, covered most of the geographical framework of the district and collected plants with various phenologies. The plant specimens were dried, processed, mounted, identified and authenticated with the help of regional floras and at Botanical Survey of India (BSI) herbarium, Dehradun (BSD) (Rau 1975; Chowdhery and Wadhwa 1984; Aswal and Mehrotra 1994; Gour, 2003). Vouchers are deposited in the IHBT herbarium (PLP, http:// sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/herbarium.php?irn=142973 and registered in the ‘Index Herbariorum’). The endemicity of plant species to the western Himalaya was assessed following Nayar (1996) and the threatened status assessed following Rao (2003) and Ved et al. (2003) . The APG III classification system was followed and the nomenclature Figure 4. A) Apple orchards dominated landscape in the Sangla valley. B) was updated from the website ‘www.theplantlist.org’. A high altitude village agro-ecosystem in Upper Kinnaur (Pooh). C) Apple The delineation of only a few dominant families has orchards in the cold desert zone (Leo village, on the right bank of Spiti changed in the APG III system with re-structuring of river). D) Neoza forest (Pinus gerardiana) at Jangi in the upper Kinnaur. E) Agricultural fields in Nako in upper Kinnaur. genera e.g., genera from Scrophulariaceae now belong to Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae etc. Thus, comparison of floristic summaries of the present checklist with those Data Collection of the previous lists from other regions in the Himalaya Systematic surveys were conducted in district remains minimally affected. Kinnaur to cover different altitudinal zones, to include all representative vegetation types: forests, scrubs, temperate Results and Discussion grasslands, alpine meadows, vegetation transitional zones A total of 893 taxa (viz., species, subspecies and and anthropogenized environments. Alpine grasslands varieties) belonging to 881 plant species, 433 genera and differ from the temperate grasslands in terms of species 102 families of higher plants, and 30 species of ferns and composition and diversity due to altitudinal gradient. fern allies were recorded from the study area (Tables 1,2). Surveys were conducted during the snow free period of 325 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Figure 5. Classified map of Kinnaur showing the area under forests, grasslands and scrublands. The localities and points of collections are depicted in this map as circles and points respectively. The codes for localities are as follows: 1 Majhgaon, Rupi, 2432m; 2 Nigulseri, 1763m (figure 2B, 2C); 3 Bari, 1869m; 4 Solding, 1545m; 5 Bhabhanagar, 1572m; 6 Nichar, 2298m; 7 Rarang Panoong, 1843m; 8 Surchoo, 2695m; 9 Kafnu, 2450m (figure 3B); 10 Mulling, 3250m (figure 3E); 11 Fusteerang, 4166m; 12 Tau Dor, 3440m; 13 Kara, 3462m; 14 Sholtu, Tapri, 1762m; 15 Urni (Figure 2A), 2238m; 16 Roghi, Kalpa, 3532m; 17 Sharbo, 2304m (figure 3A, figure 3C); 18 Pangi, 2651m; 19 Chansu, 3628m; 20 Rupin Pass, 3739m (figure 3F, figure 3H); 21 Nalgon Pass, 4432m (figure 3G); 22 Kuppa, Sangla, 2547m (figure 4A); 23 Sangla, 2641m; 24 Kharogla, 3086m; 25 Khadra, Moorang, 2434m; 26 Jangi, 2737m (figure 4D); 27 Ribba, 2711m; 28 Thangi, 2666m; 29 Lambar, 3392m; 30 Charang, 3899m; 31 Chitkul Pass (Base camp), 4865m; 32 Chitkul Pass beyond, 4725m; 33 Towards Chitkul, 3726m; 34 Chitkul, 3492m (figure 3D); 35 Kanam, 2858m; 36 Ropa, 3047m; 37 Pooh, 2852m (figure 4B); 38 Chulling, 3234m; 39 Leo, 3113m (figure 4C); 40 Yangthang, 3296m (figure 3I); 41 Nako, 3710m (figure 4E); 42 Ka, 2848m; 43 Lalanti, 4278m. Among species of higher plants, 869 are angiosperms districts has semi-arid to arid climates with scanty rainfall and 13 are gymnosperms (Table 3). Chowdhery and and thus almost no epiphytic orchids can be found in this Wadhwa (1984) reported 3243 species of angiosperms region. The opposite trend was found for the Brassicaceae. from Himachal Pradesh, 26.8% of which are accounted in This family occupies the sixth, third and seventh positions Kinnaur. in Kinnaur, Lahaul and Spiti and western Himalaya In Kinnaur, the ten most dominant families are respectively, but does not figure among the 10 dominant Asteraceae (122 species), Poaceae (69), Rosaceae (58), families in the eastern Himalaya and British India flora. Leguminosae (49), Lamiaceae (38), Ranunculaceae (30), Poaceae, the second most prominent family in both Brassicaceae (29), Polygonaceae (29), Apiaceae (25) and Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti districts, is also a prominent Caryophyllaceae (22). Altogether, they constitute 53.4 % family in district Shimla. This may be due to large cover of the total number of species in Kinnaur and 48.7 % of of grasslands (especially alpine meadows) and dry areas the genera occurring in this region. The flora of Kinnaur in the first two districts. However in Shimla, the large has close affinities with the flora of the adjacent district occurrence of grasses may be the result of anthropogenic of Lahaul and Spiti with eight of the ten families being influences. dominant in both of the regions, whereas Lamiaceae The taxonomic structure of biotas which can be and Caryophyllaceae dominate only in Kinnaur (Aswal measured as the ratio of family-to-genera, genera-to- and Mehrotra 1994) (Table 4). The upper Kinnaur has species, or family-to-species, does not vary randomly on a similar climate as that of the Spiti region of the Lahaul regional or global scales (Krug et al. 2007). The species- and Spiti district. It may be noted that Asteraceae, which genus (S/G) ratios are sensitive to diversity and increase is the most represented family in Kinnaur and Lahaul with number of species in the sample (Jarvinen 1982). and Spiti, ranks second, fourth, and seventh in western In Kinnaur, the ratio of family-to-genera is 1:4.25 and Himalaya, eastern Himalaya, and the Flora of British India, genera-to-species is 1:2.04. The genera-to-species ratio respectively (Hooker 1904; Hara and Hohashi 1966- 1974; of Kinnaur is similar to that of Shimla (1:2.08), Lahaul Rau 1975). Orchidaceae, a prominent family in the eastern and Spiti (1:2.5), Mussoorie (1:1.88), Nainital (1:1.9) and Himalaya and the Flora of British India, which ranks other areas of western Himalaya (Table 5). All of the above ninth in western Himalaya, does not even appear among mentioned areas have been found to host roughly the the first 10 dominant families of Kinnaur and Lahaul and same number of species (~700 to 1300 spp.) except for Spiti). Most of the area under Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti Srinagar and Garhwal. In Srinagar, the genera-to-species 326 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India ratio (1:3.95) is slightly higher, whereas, in Garhwal, The checklist of Kinnaur will help in undertaking further this remains similar to other regions, but the family-to- studies on quantitative assessments of plant species genera ratio is higher (1:5.46). Moreover, different regions making use of remote sensing and mapping technologies. 2 4 2 compared are also mesoscale landscapes (~10 to 10 km . The vegetation of Kinnaur district is undergoing rapid area). Thus, it may be inferred that overall the family-to- destruction due to anthropogenic disturbances such as genera and genera-to-species ratios are stable throughout construction of roads, hydropower projects, illegal felling the western Himalaya. of trees, unreasonable extraction of medicinal plants, and There are 9 families each with 10 genera or more and expansion of orchards and agricultural lands. The present these 9 families together represent 49.65 % of the total genera observed. Similarly, 24 families have 10 species or more accounting for 74.58 % of the total taxa. A total of 253 (58.43 %) genera are represented by single species. Furthermore, 54 families, represented by a low number of species (3 or less), abound in the study area. There are 46 (45.1 %) families represented by a single genus, and 26 (25.5 %) families represented by a single species. This shows the dominance of families with less taxa which make up the flora of the region. Our checklist includes 606 herbs, 63 trees, 108 shrubs, 28 climbers, 67 graminoids and 21 sedges and rushes (Figure 6a). Herbs are dominant since grasslands cover a large portion of the landscape. The tree diversity in the western Himalaya is considerably low compared to that in the eastern Himalaya. Most likely, low precipitation limits tree growth in western Himalaya. Out of total 881 species, 108 (12.2 %) are endemic to western Himalaya and 27 (3 %) have been placed under IUCN threatened categories for Himachal Pradesh (Figures 6b and 6c). Out of total 27 threatened species, 14 species are vulnerable, 7 are endangered and 1 is critically endangered in this region (Figure 6d). The collection of several species for traditional medicine or ornamental purposes could be at the origin of their rarity. The populations of the terrestrial orchid Dactylorhiza hatagirea (locally known as Hathpanja, referring to its roots resembling a baby’s hand with five fingers) have critically dwindled. It is collected for its roots which have important medicinal properties viz., aphrodisiac, general weakness, bone fracture, cough, stomach ache etc. The endangered medicinal plant species viz., Sinopodophyllum hexandrum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, and Aconitum heterophyllum are illegally extracted in very large quantities from alpine meadows. Similarly, Jurinea dolomiaea is also extracted in large quantities and its populations are also decreasing in the district. Further, it is very rare to find Saussurea obvalata, which locals call as ‘Brahmkamal’, because it’s beautiful, and fragrant flowers are commonly collected as an offering to the Gods. We could find this species in only two localities in Kinnaur viz., Nalgon Pass (~4600 m amsl) and Chitkul Pass (~4900- 5000 m amsl), population in the latter area containing only a few plants. The trees Ulmus wallichiana and Betula utilis fall under the ‘endangered’ category, while Pinus gerardiana or ‘Chilgoza pine’ is under the rare category. The latter tree is prominent in this region of Himachal Pradesh. However, Betula utilis or ‘Bhoj patra’which forms the tree line (at ~ 3300-3500 m amsl) and is reported as ‘endangered’ in Himachal Pradesh, was observed in large populations in Kinnaur, especially in the Sangla valley. Therefore, efforts should be made to conserve this species Figure 6. A) The proportion of different growth forms in the flora of Kinnaur. B) The proportion of endemic and threatened plants in Kinnaur. in Kinnaur. Further studies in this region should focus on C) The proportion of different IUCN risk categories among the threatened regular ‘quantitative assessments’ of the populations of plants of Kinnaur. D) The proportion of ten dominant families in kinnaur threatened species listed in the present study. in terms of species richness. 327 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India study provides an updated checklist of the vascular plants viz., topographic, edaphic and climatic attributes. The occurring in Kinnaur by extensive collections throughout population dynamics of plant species along the altitudinal the district, and includes a list of endemic and threatened gradient could be studied by establishing permanent species. Further research should now focus on the monitoring plots (PMPs) in the areas identified for quantitative assessement of these plants throughtout the potential conservation, which will also help in elucidating landscape and to identify potential areas for conservation. the effect of climate change on the distribution of plant Besides this, the biodiversity studies of the area should be species and their communities. performed along with a study of environmental variables Table 1. List of higher plant species found in Kinnaur. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Acanthaceae Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees PLP7642 Herb - Solding Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (Syn. D. roxburghiana Nees) PLP3026 Herb - F Strobilanthes atropurpureus Nees PLP3582 Herb - Solding, Yangpa Strobilanthes urticifolia Wall. ex Kuntze (Syn. S. alatus Nees) PLP7689 Herb - F Strobilanthes wallichii Nees (Syn. Pteracanthus alatus (Nees) Bremek.) PLP7940 Herb Endemic Solding, Rupi Adoxaceae Viburnum cotinifolium D. Don PLP4115 Shrub - F Viburnum foetens Decne PLP7422 Shrub - Rupi, Katgaon Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC. PLP3148 Shrub - Surchoo Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera L. PLP6375 Herb - Bhabhanagar Achyranthes bidentata Blume PLP7722 Herb - F Amaranthus caudatus L. PLP8447 Herb - Bari Amaranthus cruentus L. (Syn. Amaranthus paniculatus L.) PLP3606 Herb - Shango Amaranthus retroflexus L. PLP6371 Herb - F Axyris hybrida L. PLP6382 Herb - GA, S Chenopodium album L. PLP2878 Herb - F, G, GA, S Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants (Syn. Chenopodium botrys L.) PLP3020 Herb - F, GA, S Chenopodium foliosum Asch. PLP3598 Herb - S Chenopodium murale L. PLP5006 Herb - S Cyathula capitata Moq. PLP6369 Herb - Sangla Cyathula tomentosa (Roth) Moq. PLP2686 Herb - F, G Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst PLP4395 Herb - S Leo, Mulling, Salsola collina Pall. PLP4340 Herb - Nako Amaryllidaceae Allium carolinianum DC. PLP2988 Herb - Katgaon, Sangla Allium humile Kunth PLP2808 Herb - Sangla Allium jacqumontii Kunth PLP2560 Herb - Sangla Allium stracheyi Baker PLP2682 Herb Vulnerable G Allium victorialis L. PLP9486 Herb - GA Anacardiaceae Cotinus coggygria Scopoli (Syn. Rhus cotinus L.) PLP7742 Shrub - Ponda Toxicodendron wallichii var. wallichii (Syn. Rhus wallichii Hook. f.) PLP6387 Tree - Bari Apiaceae Angelica glauca Edgew. PLP7910 Herb - F Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch PLP2845 Herb - F Bupleurum candollii Wall. ex DC. PLP9828 Herb - Pangi Bupleurum falcatum L. PLP2671 Herb Endemic F, S Bupleurum falcatum ssp. marginatum Wall. ex DC. PLP3122 Herb - Rarang Panoong Karaba, Nichar, Bupleurum jucundum Kurz PLP3621 Herb Endemic Kharogla Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (Syn. Bupleurum himalayense Klotz.) PLP3189 Herb - F, GA Carum carvi L. PLP2956 Herb - G, GA Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. PLP2816 Herb - Sangla Chaerophyllum villosum Wall. ex DC. PLP2957 Herb - F, S Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke PLP2568 Herb Vulnerable F, G, S Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. PLP2856 Herb - Ralli 328 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Heracleum lanatum Michx. PLP2813 Herb Vulnerable F Endemic and Heracleum pinnatum C.B. Clarke PLP11328 Herb Rarang Panoong Vulnerable Meeboldia achilleifolia (DC.) P.K. Mukh. and Constance (Syn. Pimpinella PLP3230 Herb - F achilleifolia (DC.) C.B. Clarke) Pimpinella acuminata (Edgew.) C.B. Clarke PLP4110 Herb Endemic F Pimpinella diversifolia DC. PLP7634 Herb - F Pleurospermum brunonis (DC.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP3254 Herb Endemic GA Pleurospermum candoleii Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP9844 Herb Endemic GA Pleurospermum stellatum (D. Don) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP9827 Herb - GA Pleurospermum stylosum C.B. Clarke PLP3156 Herb - Homte Selinum coniifolium (Wall. ex DC.) Benth. and Hook. f. PLP9658 Herb - F Endemic and Selinum vaginatum (Edgew.) C.B. Clarke PLP3251 Herb Lower Risk F, GA, S Least Concern Selinum wallichianum (DC.) Raizada and H.O. Saxena (Syn. Selinum candollei PLP4061 Herb Endemic F, GA Edgew., Selinum tenuifolium Wall. ex C.B. Clarke) Seseli thomsonii (C.B. Clarke) Pimenov and Kljuykov (Syn. Eriocycla thomsonii PLP9767 Herb - Shurting (Cl.) Wolff ) Nigulseri, Bari, Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. PLP3543 Herb - Kafnu Apocynaceae Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight PLP3168 Herb - Shelti Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. PLP7978 Herb - Rupi Aquifoliaceae Bhabhanagar, Ilex dipyrena Wall. PLP7419 Tree Endemic Nichar Araceae Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott PLP3546 Herb - F Arisaema jacquemontii Blume PLP3184 Herb - F, GA Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott PLP8471 Herb - F Araliaceae Hedera nepalensis K. Koch PLP7743 Climber - F Asparagaceae Asparagus adscendens Roxb. PLP2685 Herb - F Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP3154 Shrub - F Maianthemum purpureum (Wall.) LaFrankie (Syn. Smilacina pallida Royle) PLP4049 Herb - F, S Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle PLP2928 Herb - Nichar Polygonatum geminiflorum Decne. PLP3253 Herb - GA Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. PLP4051 Herb Vulnerable F Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. PLP3185 Herb Vulnerable F, GA Balsaminaceae Impatiens amplexicaulis Edgew PLP8504 Herb - F Impatiens brachycentra Kar. and Kir PLP6235 Herb - Pangi Impatiens racemosa DC. PLP2840 Herb - F, S Impatiens scabrida DC. PLP4076 Herb - F, GA Impatiens thomsonii Hook. f. PLP2744 Herb - F, GA Berberidaceae Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. PLP2920 Shrub - Sering Chey Berberis chitria Buch.-Ham. ex Lindl. PLP2708 Shrub Endemic F, S Berberis coriaria Royle ex Lindl. PLP4112 Shrub Endemic Sangla Berberis jaeschkeana C. K. Schneid PLP2792 Shrub - F, S Berberis kunawurensis Royle PLP7493 Shrub Endemic Roghi Berberis lycium Royle PLP2696 Shrub Endemic F, S Berberis pachyacantha Bien ex Koehne PLP2866 Shrub - F, GA Endemic and Berberis pseudo-umbellata R. Parker PLP8520 Shrub F Indeterminate 329 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying (Syn. Podophyllum hexandrum PLP3176 Herb Endangered F, GA Royle) Betulaceae Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. PLP2501 Tree Endemic F Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP6303 Tree - F Betula utilis D. Don PLP2934 Tree Endangered F Corylus jacquemontii Decne. PLP3009 Tree Endemic F Bignoniaceae Incarvillea arguta Royle PLP2718 Herb - S Incarvillea emodi (Royle ex Lindl.) Chatterjee PLP9862 Herb - Nichar Boraginaceae Arnebia euchroma (Royle) I.M. Johnst. PLP7717 Herb - S Arnebia guttata Bunge PLP4398 Herb - S Cynoglossum wallichii var. glochidiatum (Wall. ex Benth.) Kazmi (Syn. PLP7667 Herb - F, G Cynoglossum glochidiatum Wall. ex Benth.) Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. PLP6218 Herb - F Cynoglossum microglochin Benth. PLP9626 Herb - F Cynoglossum wallichii G. Don PLP3112 Herb - F, GA, S Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Lehm.) Brand PLP2714 Herb - G, GA, S Ehretia acuminata R. Br. (Syn. E. acuminata var. serrata (Roxb.) I.M. Jhonst.) PLP7428 Tree - S Eritrichium canum (Benth.) Kitam. (Syn. E. strictum Decne.) PLP2947 Herb - Solding, Chitkul Eritrichum nanum (L.) Schrad. ex Gaudin PLP8551 Herb Endemic Rupi Hackelia uncinata (Benth.) C.E.C. Fisch. PLP3202 Herb - F, GA Heliotropium strigosum Willd. PLP2666 Herb - F Lappula barbata (M. Bieb.) Gürke PLP2880 Herb - Pooh Lasiocaryum munroi (C.B. Clarke) Johnst. PLP2646 Herb - Rekong Peo Lepechiniella microcarpa (Boiss.) Riedl. (Syn. Paracaryum microcarpum PLP2842 Herb - Roghi Boiss.) Lindelofia macrostyla (Bunge) Popov (Syn. L. anchusoides (Lindl.) Lehm.) PLP3227 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Lithospermum arvense L. PLP7491 Herb - Bhabhanagar Myosotis sylvatica Ehrh ex Hoffm. PLP3266 Herb - F, GA Rochelia rectipes Stocks (Syn. R. macrocalyx Bunge) PLP2655 Herb - Rekong Peo Setulocarya diffusa (Brand) R.R. Mill and D.G. Long (Syn. Lasiocaryum PLP4096 Herb - Boktu diffusum (Brand) Johnst.) Brassicaceae Boktu, Ribba, Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande (Syn. A. officinalis Andrz. ex PLP2864 Herb - Surchoo, DC.) Bhabhanagar Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynn. PLP2745 Herb - F, GA, S Arabis nova Vill. PLP2633 Herb - F, S Arabis tibetica Hook. f. and Thomson PLP3307 Herb - F Brassica nigra (L.) K. Koch. PLP6353 Herb - Nichar Brassica oleoreca L. PLP3633 Herb - Karaba Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. PLP2780 Herb - F Cardamine hirsuta L. PLP11311 Herb - Bhabhanagar Cardamine impatiens L. PLP2523 Herb - F, GA Cardamine macrophyllya Willd. PLP8514 Herb - Bhabhanagar Chorispora sabulosa Cambess. PLP3314 Herb - GA Crucihimalaya himalaica (Edgew.) Al-Shehbaz, O’Kane and R.A. Price (Syn. PLP2986 Herb - Kharogla Arabidopsis himalaica (Edgew.) O.E. Schulz.) Crucihimalaya mollissima (C.A. Mey.) Al-Shehbaz, O’Kane and R.A. Price PLP3218 Herb - GA (Syn. Arabidopsis mollissima (C.A. Mey) N. Busch) Katgaon, Kalpa, Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. ex Prantl PLP2753 Herb - Kuppa, Sangla Draba lasiophylla Royle PLP3303 Herb - GA Draba setosa Royle PLP8423 Herb - G Erysimum hieraciifolium L. f. PLP3108 Herb - S Erysimum malicentae Dunn PLP3584 Herb - Surchoo, Sangla 330 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Lepidium latifolium L. PLP5016 Herb - Yangthang Lepidium virginicum L. PLP6350 Herb - S Litwinowia tenuissima (Pall.) Woronow ex Pavlov (Syn. Euclidium PLP2642 Herb - S tenuissimum (Pall.) B. Fedtsch.) Mattihola flavida Boiss. PLP2918 Herb - Katgaon Neurotropis platycarpa (Fisch. and C.A. Mey.) F.K. Mey. (Syn. Thlaspi PLP2608 Herb - Chandriam cardiocarpum Hook. f. and Thomson) Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (Syn. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek) PLP2899 Herb - Katgaon, Sunnam Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern. (Syn. R. montana (Wall. ex Hook. f. and Thomson) PLP7458 Herb - GA Small) Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. PLP7761 Herb - Ponda Sisymbrium orientale L. PLP2891 Herb - Sunnam Thlaspi arvense L. PLP7710 Herb - S Turritis glabra L. PLP2996 Herb - Kharogla Buxaceae Buxus wallichiana Baill. PLP11366 Tree Endemic F Sarcococca pruniformis Lindl. (Syn. S. saligna Müll.Arg.) PLP7626 Shrub Endemic F Campanulaceae Campanula alsinoides Hook. f. and Thomson PLP9774 Herb - Shurting Campanula latifolia L. PLP9500 Herb - GA Campanula pallida Wall. (Syn. C. colorata Wall.) PLP2887 Herb - GA, S Codonopsis rotundifolia Benth. PLP9491 Herb Endemic GA Cyananthus lobatus Wall. ex Benth. PLP9484 Herb Endemic GA Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L. PLP3543 Herb - F, G, S Celtis australis L. PLP2854 Tree - Ribba Bhabhanagar, Celtis tetrandra Roxb. PLP7926 Tree - Sholtu Capparaceae Capparis spinosa L. PLP2898 Shrub Endemic Sunnam, Ka Caprifoliaceae Abelia biflora Turcz. PLP9627 Shrub - F Abelia triflora R. Br. ex Wall. PLP6294 Shrub - Ralli, Shurting Homte, Kharogla, Dipsacus inermis Wall. (Syn. Dipsacus mitis D. Don) PLP3006 Herb Endemic Neugal Lonicera asperifolia Hook. f. and Thomson PLP9794 Shrub - GA, S Lonicera karelinii Bunge ex P. Kir. (Syn. L. heterophylla Decne.) PLP2969 Shrub - F, S Lonicera hispida Pall. ex Roem. and Schult. PLP2801 Shrub - F, S Lonicera hypoleuca Decne. PLP2852 Shrub - F, S Lonicera japonica Thunb. PLP7727 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Lonicera myrtillus Hook. f. and Thomson PLP2707 Shrub - F, GA, S Lonicera obovata Royle PLP7435 Shrub - F Lonicera orientalis Lam. PLP2936 Shrub - F Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw. PLP11297 Shrub - F Lonicera spinosa Jacq. ex Walp. PLP9791 Shrub Endemic GA, S Morina coulteriana Royle PLP2964 Herb Endemic GA Morina longifolia Wall. PLP3137 Herb - GA Valeriana hardwickii Wall. PLP2822 Herb - Sangla Valeriana jatamansi Jones PLP4053 Herb - F Valeriana stracheyi C.B. Clarke PLP3206 Herb Endemic F, GA Caryophyllaceae Arenaria festucoides Benth. PLP2953 Herb Endemic GA, S Arenaria kansuensis Maxim. PLP11387 Herb - GA Arenaria orbiculata Royle ex Edgew. and Hook. f. PLP3658 Herb - GA Arenaria serpyllifolia L. PLP2667 Herb - F, GA Arenaria tenuifolia L. PLP5002 Herb - S Cerastium cerastoides (L.) Britton PLP6266 Herb - GA Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. PLP9481 Herb - GA 331 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Cucubalus viciferous L. PLP11292 Herb - Bhabhanagar Dianthus angulatus Royle PLP2908 Herb - F, GA Gypsophila cerastioides D. Don PLP8000 Herb - F Minuartia kashmirica (Edgew. and Hook. f.) Mattf. PLP2559 Herb - S Sagina saginoides (L.) H. Karst. PLP9685 Herb - Kharogla Silene baccifera (L.) Roth. (Syn. Cucubalus baccifer L.) PLP2849 Herb - Ribba Silene falconeriana Royle PLP2916 Herb Endemic Jangi Silene indica var. edgeworthii Boquet. Y.J. Nasir (Syn. Silene edgeworthii PLP7666 Herb Endemic G Bocquet) Silene persica Boiss. PLP2905 Herb - Ropa Silene songarica (Fisch., C.A. Mey. and Avé- Lall.) Bocquet. PLP9675 Herb - Kharogla Silene uralensis (Rupr.) Bocquet. PLP9483 Herb - GA Silene viscosa (L.) Pers. PLP2970 Herb - F Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke PLP2857 Herb - F, S Stellaria media (L.) Vill. PLP2524 Herb Endemic F, S Stellaria monosperma var. monosperma (Syn. S. crispata Wall. ex D. Don) PLP2993 Herb - F Stellaria monosperma Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP2893 Herb - Kharogla, Sunnam Celastraceae Euonymus fimbriatus Wall. PLP9777 Tree - GA Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis L. PLP6373 Herb - F, S Compositae Achillea millefolium L. PLP2790 Herb - G, GA Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L. PLP7636 Herb - F Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King and H. Rob (Syn. Eupatorium PLP7645 Herb - F adenophorum Spreng.) Ainsliaea aptera DC. PLP4054 Herb - F, S Ainsliaea latifolia (D. Don) Sch.-Bip. PLP7692 Herb - Sangla Anaphalis adnata Wall. ex DC. PLP2997 Herb - Surchoo, Kharogla Anaphalis busua (Buch.-Ham.) DC. PLP3167 Herb - F, S Anaphalis contorta (D.Don) Hook. f. PLP7499 Herb - F, GA Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. and Hook. f. (Syn. A. cinnamonea (DC.) PLP9655 Herb - F C.B. Clarke) Anaphalis nepalensis (Spreng.) Hand.-Mazz. PLP3264 Herb - F, GA, S Anaphalis royleana DC. PLP2941 Herb - F, G, GA, S Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims) Sims ex C. B. Clarke PLP3161 Herb - F, GA, S Anaphalis virgata Thomson PLP7489 Herb - Roghi Arctium lappa L. PLP2819 Herb - S Artemisia biennis Willd. PLP4164 Herb - F, GA, S Artemisia capillaris Thunb. PLP4379 Herb - F, GA, S Artemisia dracunculus L. PLP7697 Herb - F, S Artemisia dracunculus var. glauca (Pall. ex Willd.) H.M. Hall and Clem. (Syn. PLP7470 Herb - F, S A. glauca Pall. ex Willd.) Artemisia dubia Wall. PLP4083 Herb - F Artemisia gmelinii Weber PLP2950 Herb - F, G, GA, S Artemisia indica Willd. PLP2929 Herb - Sering Chey Artemisia indica var. elegantissima (Pamp.) Y.R. Ling and Humphries (Syn. A. PLP2859 Herb Endemic Ribba, Solding elegantissima Pamp.) Artemisia japonica Thunb. PLP3560 Herb Endemic F, S Artemisia laciniata Willd. PLP9652 Herb - F Artemisia maritima L. PLP2917 Herb - F, S Artemisia mryiantha Wall. ex Besser PLP2591 Herb - Katgaon Artemisia nilagirica (C.B. Clarke) Pamp. PLP4067 Herb - F, G, S Artemisia parviflora D. Don PLP2981 Herb - S Artemisia persica Boiss. PLP2637 Herb - Boktu, Sangla Artemisia roxburghiana Wall. ex Besser(Syn. A. strongylocephala Pamp.) PLP3032 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Artemisia scoparia Waldst and Kitam. PLP8439 Herb - F Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb. PLP4394 Herb - S 332 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Artemisia vestita Wall. ex Besser PLP2575 Herb - F, G, S Aster albescens (DC.) Wall. ex Hand.-Mazz. PLP6300 Herb - F Aster falconeri (C.B. Clarke) Hutch. PLP3231 Herb Endemic F Aster molliusculus (Lindl. ex DC.) C.B. Clarke PLP11230 Herb - GA Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. and Shreff. PLP3592 Herb - F Bidens pilosa L. PLP8589 Herb - S Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC. (Syn. B. mollis (D.Don) Merr.) PLP9804 Herb - Charang Blumea laciniata (Wall. ex Roxb.) DC. PLP3575 Herb - F, S Blumea membranacea DC. PLP3656 Herb - Yangpa Brachyactis pubescens Aitch. and C. B. Clarke PLP11222 Herb - GA Brachyactis robusta Benth. PLP9401 Herb - Kharogla Carduus edelbergii Rech. f PLP7764 Herb - Ponda Carduus onopordioides Fisch. ex M. Bieb. PLP2903 Herb - Ropa Carpesium nepalense Less. PLP3580 Herb Endemic F Cephalorrynchus macrorhizus (Royle) Tuisl (Syn. Lactuca macrorhiza PLP6339 Herb - F, G, GA (Royle) Hook. f.) Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Syn. Breea arvensis (L.) Less.) PLP3234 Herb - F, G, S Cirsium wallichii DC. PLP2519 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist (Syn. E. bonariensis L.) PLP6374 Herb - S Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist(Syn. Erigeron canadensis L.) PLP3605 Herb - F Conyza stricta Willd. PLP3113 Herb - F Cousinia thomsonii C.B. Clarke PLP9795 Herb - S Cremanthodium arnicoides (DC. ex Royle) R.D. Good. PLP9479 Herb - GA Crepis flexuosa (Ledeb.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP3125 Herb - G Crepis multicaulis Ledeb. PLP2989 Herb - F, S Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. ex DC. PLP7739 Herb - Ponda Erigeron alpinus L. PLP3653 Herb - F Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. PLP7947 Herb - Solding Erigeron borealis (Vierh.) Simmons PLP4393 Herb - S Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl ex DC.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP6396 Herb - F, S Erigeron umbrosus (Kar. and Kir.) Boiss.(Syn. Brachyactis roylei (DC.) PLP7494 Herb - GA Wendelbo) Filago hurdwarica (Wall. ex DC.) Wagenitz PLP2657 Herb - F Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) S.F. Blake PLP2992 Herb - Kharogla Galinsoga parviflora Cav. PLP7747 Herb - F Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauverd PLP2619 Herb - Bhabhanagar Gnaphalium affine D. Don PLP7950 Herb - F, G Gynura bicolor (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. PLP2647 Herb - Chaura Helichrysum luteoalbum (L.) Rchb. (Syn. Gnaphalium luteoalbum L.) PLP7985 Herb - F Heteropappus altaicus (Willd.) Novopokr. PLP2912 Herb - Moorang Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) DC. PLP7607 Herb - F Inula orientalis Lam. (Syn. I. grandiflora Willd.) PLP3144 Herb - F Jurinea ceratocarpa (Decne.) Benth. PLP2654 Herb - GA Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss. PLP3194 Herb Vulnerable GA Lactuca dissecta D. Don PLP2510 Herb - F, GA, S Lactuca dolichophylla Kitam. PLP3171 Herb Endemic Hoye, Kara Lactuca orientalis (Boiss.) Boiss. PLP2883 Herb - F, S Launaea aspleniifolia Hook. f. PLP11319 Herb - Bhabhanagar Bhabhanagar, Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya and Rajagopal PLP2659 Herb - Nichar Leontopodium alpinum Colm. ex Cass. PLP6277 Herb - S, GA Leontopodium brachyactis Gand. PLP2558 Herb - GA Leontopodium monocephalum Edgew. (Syn. L. fimbrilligerum J.R. Drumm.) PLP2704 Herb - GA Leucanthemum vulgare (Vaill.) Lam. (Syn. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.) PLP7930 Herb - Bhabhanagar Ligularia sp. PLP6247 Herb - Surchoo Myriactis nepalensis Less. PLP3655 Herb - F, GA Myriactis wallichii Less. PLP5046 Herb Endemic F, GA Pentanema indicum (L.) Ling PLP3558 Herb - Katgaon 333 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Picris angustifolia subsp. angustifolia (Syn. P. hieracioides L.) PLP9800 Herb - Charang Prenanthes brunoniana Wall. ex DC. PLP3610 Herb - F Prenanthes violaefolia Decne. PLP6395 Herb - F Saussurea albescens (DC.) Sch.Bip. PLP2598 Herb - F Saussurea auriculata (DC.) Sch.Bip. (Syn. S. hypoleuca Spreng. ex DC.) PLP3157 Herb - Homte Saussurea caespitosa Wall. PLP3296 Herb Endemic GA Saussurea ceratocarpa Decne. PLP9838 Herb Endemic GA Endemic and Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. PLP9810 Herb Charang Endangered Saussurea glanduligera Sch.Bip. PLP11340 Herb Endemic Urni Saussurea heteromalla (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz. PLP2563 Herb - F Saussurea jacea (Kl.) C.B. Clarke PLP5003 Herb - Yangthang Saussurea obovallata (DC.) Edgew. PLP3256 Herb Vulnerable GA Saussurea roylei C.B. Clarke PLP9831 Herb Indeterminate Kafnu Saussurea simpsoniana (Fielding and Gardner) Lipsch. PLP3257 Herb - GA Saussurea taraxacifolia Wall. ex DC. PLP9868 Herb - GA Scorzonera virgata DC. PLP9707 Herb - F, GA Senecio desfontainei Druce PLP2582 Herb - G, S Senecio graciliflorus DC. PLP3625 Herb - Karaba, Hoye Senecio kashmerianus Balakr. PLP2553 Herb - Ribba Senecio krasheninnikovii Schisch. PLP2553 Herb - F Senecio kunthianus (Wall. ex DC.) Jeff. and Chenn. PLP9488 Herb - G Senecio laetus Edgew. (Syn. S. chrysanthemoides DC.) PLP3293 Herb - F, GA, S Senecio nudicaulis Buch.-Ham ex D. Don PLP2556 Herb - Bhabhanagar Senecio rufinervis DC. PLP2750 Herb - Nichar Serratula pallida DC. PLP3005 Herb Endemic Charang Siegesbeckia orientalis L. PLP3573 Herb - F Solidago virga-aurea L. PLP3247 Herb - F, GA Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. PLP7748 Herb - F, S Sonchus wightianus DC. PLP6365 Herb - Chaura Tagetes minuta L. PLP2537 Herb - F, S Tanacetum dolichophyllum (Kitam.) Kitam. PLP3280 Herb - GA Taraxacum officinale Webb. PLP2532 Herb - F, G, GA, S Tragopogon gracilis D. Don PLP2571 Herb - G Tricholepis elongata DC. PLP2579 Herb Endemic F, G, S Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel PLP3290 Herb - GA Waldheimia tomentosa (Decne.) Regel PLP3311 Herb - GA Xanthium strumarium L. PLP3011 Herb - Tapri Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L. PLP2897 Climber - Sunnam Cuscuta campestris Yunck. PLP7766 Climber - Ponda Cuscuta chinensis Lam. PLP2879 Climber - Pooh Ponda, Hoye, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. PLP3607 Climber - Chansu Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth PLP8481 Climber - F, S Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth PLP3597 Climber - Surchoo Coriariaceae Coriaria nepalensis Wall. PLP7627 Shrub - F Cornaceae Cornus capitata Wall. PLP3017 Tree - F Cornus macrophylla Wall. (Syn. Swida macrophylla (Wall.) Soják) PLP7772 Tree - F Crassulaceae Rhodiola heterodonta (Hook. f. and Thomson) Boriss. PLP2945 Herb - GA Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. PLP9843 Herb Endemic GA Sedum quadrifidum Pall. (Syn. Rhodiola quadrifida (Pall.) Fisch. and C.A. PLP2944 Herb - G, GA Mey.) Sedum roseum (L.) Scop. (Syn. Rhodiola rosea L.) PLP2931 Herb - G, GA Rhodiola tibetica (Hook. f. and Thomson) S.H. Fu PLP9835 Herb - GA 334 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Rhodiola wallichiana (Hook.) S.H. Fu PLP3308 Herb - GA Rosularia adenotricha (Wall. ex Edgew.) C.-A. Jansson PLP7903 Herb - GA Rosularia alpestris (Kar. and Kir.) Boriss. PLP3030 Herb - F, S Rosularia rosulata (Edgew.) H. Ohba PLP2865 Herb - Ribba, Kharogla Sedum ewersii Ledeb. (Syn. Hylotelephium ewersii (Ledeb.) H. Ohba) PLP9469 Herb - F, GA Sedum multicaule Wall. and Lindl. PLP3164 Herb - F Sedum oreades (Decne.) Raym-Hamet PLP3572 Herb - F Sedum trullipetalum Hook. f. and Thomson PLP6383 Herb - F, GA Sinocrassula indica (Decne.) A. Berger PLP2930 Herb - S Cucurbitaceae Herpetospermum pedunculosum (Ser.) C.B. Clarke PLP3618 Climber - Nichar Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Syn. Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) PLP3588 Climber - Surchoo Cogn.) Cyperaceae Carex cruenta Nees PLP11206 Sedge - GA Carex haematostoma Nees PLP6284 Sedge Endemic GA Carex muricata L. PLP2726 Sedge - GA Carex nivalis Boott. PLP9836 Sedge - GA Carex nubigena D. Don ex Tilloch and Taylor PLP8518 Sedge - F Carex setigera D. Don PLP2534 Sedge - F Carex wallichiana Sprengel PLP7457 Sedge - GA Cyperus alulatus Kern. PLP2770 Sedge - G Cyperus niveus Retz. PLP3104 Sedge - F Cyperus paniceus (Rottb.) Boeckeler PLP8413 Sedge - Bari, Nigulseri Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv PLP3596 Sedge - Surchoo Eriophorum comosum (Wall.) Nees PLP2630 Sedge - F Isolepis setacea (L.) R. Br. (Syn. Scirpus setaceus L.) PLP7464 Sedge - GA Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem. and Schult.(Syn. Scirpus cernuus Vahl) PLP7943 Sedge - Solding Kobresia nepalensis (Nees) Kük. PLP2803 Sedge - G Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T. Koyama (Syn. Cyperus flavidus Retz.) PLP7935 Sedge - Solding Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees (Syn. Cyperus sanguinolentus Vahl) PLP7933 Sedge - Solding Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb. PLP3150 Climber Vulnerable F, S Droseraceae Drosera peltata Thunb. PLP8502 Herb - F Elaeagnaceae Surchoo, Hoye, Elaeagnus parviflolia Wall. ex Royle PLP3574 Shrub - Akpa, Sangla, Katgaon Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson(Syn. Hippophae rhamnoides L.) PLP4400 Tree - F, S Hippophae salicifolia D. Don PLP2730 Tree Endemic S Hippophae tibetana Schltdl. PLP9807 Shrub - S Ericaceae Cassiope fastigiata (Wall.) D. Don PLP3278 Shrub - GA Gaultheria nummularoides D. Don PLP2710 Herb - F, S Gaultheria trichophylla Royle PLP2983 Herb - GA Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude PLP7981 Tree - F Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don PLP3273 Shrub Vulnerable GA Rhododendron arboreum Sm. PLP7655 Tree - F Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don PLP7431 Shrub - F, GA, S Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don PLP2995 Shrub - GA Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hispida Boiss. PLP3559 Herb - G Euphorbia maddenii Boiss. PLP2615 Herb - Surchoo, Sangla Euphorbia pilosa L. PLP6372 Herb - Pangi Fagaceae Quercus baloot Grift. PLP3010 Tree Endemic F 335 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Quercus floribunda Lindl. f ex A. Camus (Syn. Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex A. PLP2814 Tree Endemic F DC.) Quercus ilex L. PLP4078 Tree - F Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus PLP4162 Tree Endemic F Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. PLP9689 Tree - F Gentianaceae Comastoma tenellum (Rottb.) Toyok. (Syn. Gentiana tenella Rottb., PLP9473 Herb - GA Gentianella tenella (Rottb.) Börner) Gentiana argentea (Royle ex D. Don) Royle ex D. Don PLP2773 Herb - G Gentiana capitata Buch.-Ham ex D. Don(Syn. G. marginata Wall.) PLP3297 Herb - GA Gentiana kurroo Royle PLP9841 Herb - GA Gentiana stipitata Edgew. PLP8969 Herb - GA Gentiana tianshanica Rupr. ex Kusn. PLP9824 Herb - GA Gentiana tubiflora (G. Don) Griseb. PLP3298 Herb - GA Gentiana venusta (G .Don) Wall. ex Griseb. PLP3284 Herb - GA Gentianella aurea (L.) Harry Sm. PLP7439 Herb - GA Gentianopsis detonsa (Rottb.) Ma PLP9784 Herb - GA Halenia elliptica D. Don PLP9430 Herb - Kharogla Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulfen) Richb. PLP9732 Herb - GA Lomatogonium spathulatum (A. Kern) Fernald PLP3285 Herb - GA Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham ex D. Don PLP7432 Herb - Karcham Swertia ciliata (D. Don ex G. Don) B. L. Burtt PLP3268 Herb - F, GA Swertia cordata (Wall. ex G.Don) C.B. Clarke PLP3226 Herb - GA Swertia petiolata Royle ex D. Don PLP3289 Herb - GA Swertia speciosa D. Don PLP9478 Herb - GA Geraniaceae Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Her. PLP2641 Herb - S Geranium aconitifolium L’Her. PLP2521 Herb - Solding Geranium collinum Stephan ex Willd. PLP2962 Herb - F, S Geranium himalayense Klotzsch PLP3286 Herb - F, GA, S Geranium nepalense Sweet PLP11302 Herb - F, S, GA Geranium pratense L. PLP8421 Herb - F, GA Geranium robertianum L. PLP4070 Herb - Surchoo Geranium rotundifolium L. PLP2587 Herb - G, S Geranium sibiricum L. PLP3002 Herb - GA Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet PLP3181 Herb - F, G, GA, S Grossulariaceae Ribes alpestre Wall. ex Decne. PLP9782 Shrub - S Ribes orientale Desf. PLP6329 Shrub - S Hydrangeaceae Deutzia compacta Craib PLP9451 Shrub - Kharogla, Yangpa Deutzia staminea R. Br. ex Wall. PLP7793 Shrub - F Hypericaceae Hypericum elodeoides Choisy PLP7740 Shrub - Ponda Hypericum oblongifolium Choisy PLP2566 Shrub - Nigulseri Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis aurea Lour. PLP8503 Herb - Rupi Iridaceae Iris ensata Thunb. PLP2601 Herb - GA Iris hookeriana Foster PLP7728 Herb Endemic GA Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. PLP2755 Tree Endemic F Juncaceae Juncus articulatus L. PLP9428 Rush - Kharogla Juncus articulatus subsp. articulatus (Syn. J. lampocarpus Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) PLP4386 Rush - Hango Juncus himalensis Klotzsch PLP9796 Rush - GA Juncus thomsonii Ten. PLP2763 Rush - Chansu Lamiaceae 336 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. (Syn. A. bracteosa Wall. ex Benth.) PLP8544 Herb - F Ajuga parviflora Benth. PLP2552 Herb - F, G, S Clinopodium umbrosum (M. Bieb.) Kuntze(Syn. Calamintha umbrosa (M. PLP2697 Herb - F Bieb.) Fisch and C.A. Mey.) Clinopodium vulgare L. PLP2922 Herb - F, S Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyl. (Syn. E. cristata Willd.) PLP5043 Herb - F, S Elsholtzia eriostachya (Benth.) Benth. PLP9459 Herb - F, GA, S Elsholtzia fruticosa (D. Don) Rehder PLP2727 Shrub - F Elsholtzia pilosa (Benth.) Benth. PLP9444 Herb - F Elsholtzia strobilifera (Benth.) Benth. PLP9450 Herb - Kharogla Hyssopus officinalis L. PLP5001 Herb - S Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd.(Syn. Plectranthus rugosus Wall. ex PLP2506 Shrub - F, S Benth.) Lamium album L. PLP2764 Herb - Urni Hoye, Pangi, Leonurus cardiaca L. PLP3612 Herb - Chansu Leucas lanata Benth. PLP2742 Herb - Wangtoo Mentha longifolia (L.) L. PLP2518 Herb - F, G, S Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Benth. PLP2583 Herb - F, G, S Nepeta discolor Royle ex Benth. PLP7483 Herb Endemic F, GA Nepeta erecta (Royle ex Benth.) Benth. PLP3007 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Nepeta eriostachya Benth. PLP3270 Herb - F, GA Nepeta floccosa Benth. PLP5005 Herb Endemic S Nepeta glutinosa Benth. PLP4389 Herb - GA, S Nepeta hindostana (Roth.) Haines PLP2570 Herb - Chetetang Tee Nepeta laevigata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz. PLP6345 Herb - S Nepeta linearis Royle ex Benth. PLP11294 Herb - Sangla Nepeta nervosa Royle ex Benth. PLP3613 Herb - Hoye Nepeta podostachys Benth. PLP11294 Herb - F Ocimum americanum L.(Syn. O. canum Sims.) PLP2771 Herb - Sangla Origanum vulgare L. PLP2533 Herb - F, G, GA, S Phlomis bracteosa Royle ex Benth. PLP3201 Herb - GA Solding, Rupi, Prunella vulgaris L. PLP3170 Herb - Yangpa Salvia coccinea Buc’hoz ex Etl. PLP3195 Herb - GA Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth. PLP2562 Herb Endemic F Salvia mukerjeei Bennet and Raizada PLP2581 Herb - F, G, S Salvia nubicola Wall. ex Sweet PLP2544 Herb - F, G, GA, S Scutellaria prostrata Jacquem ex Benth. PLP9822 Herb - GA Stachys melissaefolia Benth. PLP3249 Herb - F Stachys sericea Cav. PLP3393 Herb Endemic GA Thymus linearis Benth. PLP2567 Herb - F, G, GA, S Leguminosae Astracantha strobilifera (Benth.) Podlech(Syn. Astragalus strobiliferus PLP2913 Herb - Leo, Moorang Benth.) Astragalus amherstianus Benth. PLP9744 Herb - S Astragalus chlorostachys Lindl. PLP2776 Herb - Pangi Astragalus graveolens Benth. PLP2868 Herb - F, S Astragalus himalayanus Klotzsch (Syn. Astragalus maddenianus Baker) PLP9684 Shrub Endemic Kharogla Astragalus oplites Benth. ex R. Parker PLP9799 Shrub Endemic S Astragalus peduncularis Royle PLP9811 Herb - GA Astragalus rhizanthus Benth. PLP7484 Shrub Endemic F, GA, S Astragalus rhizanthus subsp. candolleanus (Benth.) Podlech. (Syn. PLP2954 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Astragalus candolleanus Benth.) Astragalus rhizanthus subsp. rhizanthus Benth. (Syn. Astragalus PLP2966 Herb - F melacophyllus Bunge) Caragana brevispora Royle PLP3659 Shrub - S Caragana gerardiana Benth. PLP4383 Shrub Endemic GA, S 337 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Chesneya cuneata (Benth.) Ali PLP6317 Herb - GA Colutea nepalensis Sims PLP2886 Shrub - S Desmodium elegans DC. PLP2573 Shrub Endemic F, G, S Desmodium multiflorum DC. (Syn. D. sambuense (D. Don) DC.) PLP8578 Shrub - Katgaon, Nigulseri Rarang Panoong, Desmodium nutans Wall. PLP5051 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. PLP7723 Shrub - Katgaon Dolichos tennuicaulis (Baker) Craib PLP4377 Herb - Shudhrang Hedysarum microcalyx Baker PLP4119 Herb Endemic F Endemic and Indigofera cedororum Dunn PLP3547 Shrub F, GA Indeterminate Indigofera dosua D. Don PLP3262 Herb Endemic F, GA Indigofera hebepetala Baker PLP3208 Shrub - S Indigofera heterantha Brandis PLP2585 Shrub - F Lathyrus emodi (Fritch.) Ali PLP3637 Herb - F, S Lespedeza elegans Cambess. PLP7468 Herb - Sharbo Lespedeza juncea (L.f.) Pers. PLP3029 Herb - F Lotus corniculatus L. PLP3647 Herb - F, GA Medicago falcata L. PLP4156 Herb - S Medicago lupulina L. PLP6257 Herb - Urni, Pangi Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. (Syn. Medicago officinalis (L.) E.H.L.Krause) PLP2783 Herb - F, S Medicago sativa L. PLP2906 Herb - S Oxytropis humifusa Kar. and Kir. PLP6265 Herb - GA Oxytropis mollis Benth. PLP2967 Herb Endemic F Parochetus communis D. Don PLP2778 Herb - Rekong Peo Phaseolus coccineus L. PLP7618 Herb - F Piptanthus nepalensis (Hook.) D. Don PLP9653 Shrub - Kharogla Pisum sativum L. PLP3624 Herb - Hoye Robinia pseudo-acacia L. PLP2502 Tree - F Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker PLP2554 Shrub Endemic F Thermopsis barbata Benth. PLP3190 Herb - F, GA Trifolium pratense L. PLP2789 Herb - F, G, GA Trifolium repens L. PLP2661 Herb - G, GA Trigonella emodi Benth. PLP2846 Herb - GA Medicago edgeworthii Sirj. (Syn. Trigonella pubescens Baker) PLP2803 Herb Endemic F Vicia bakeri Ali PLP2810 Herb Endemic Sangla Vicia faba L. PLP2765 Herb - Sangla Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray PLP6292 Herb - Pangi Vicia pallida Hook. and Arn. PLP6246 Herb - Pangi, Sangla Vicia sativa L. PLP2593 Herb - F Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. PLP3117 Herb - Rarang Panoong Liliaceae Herb - Gagea lutea (L.) Ker.Gawl. PLP2736 Herb - S Lilium polyphyllum D. Don PLP6301 Herb - Ralli Notholirion thomsonianum (Royle) Stapf PLP2561 Herb - Karcham Linaceae Linum perenne L. PLP4155 Herb - Chulling Reinwardtia indica Dumort. PLP2802 Shrub - Nigulseri Malvaceae Grewia optiva J.R. Drumm. ex Burret PLP2721 Tree - Sangla Malva neglecta Wallr. PLP3127 Herb - F, G, GA, S Malva pusilla Sm. (Syn. M. rotundifolia L.) PLP2751 Herb - Sangla Malva sylvestris L. PLP6348 Herb - Kalpa Malva verticillata L. PLP2809 Herb - Nichar Melanthiaceae Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D. Don (Syn. Trillidium govanianum (Wall. ex PLP3245 Herb - F, GA D. Don) Kunth. Melastomataceae 338 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Osbeckia stellata Buch. -Ham. ex Ker.Gawl. PLP2817 Shrub - Tapri Meliaceae Toona sinensis (Juss.) M. Roem. (Syn. T. serrata (Royle) M. Roem.) PLP2820 Tree - Sholtu Menispermaceae Cissampelos pariera L. PLP11216 Climber - Chaura Moraceae Ficus palmata Forssk. PLP2535 Tree - F, S Morus serrata Roxb. PLP11255 Tree Endemic Tapri Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia diffusa L. PLP5037 Herb - Pangi Oxybaphus himalaicus Edgew. PLP3120 Herb - F Olacaceae Olax scandens Roxb. PLP11284 Shrub - Karcham Oleaceae Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (G. Don) Wall. ex A. DC. PLP2888 Tree Endemic F, S Jasminum humile L. PLP6296 Shrub - F Olea cuspidata Wall. ex G. Don PLP2640 Tree - Sholtu Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. and G. Don) Cif. PLP3036 Tree - F (Syn. O. ferruginea Royle) Syringa emodi Wall. ex Royle PLP9454 Shrub - F Onagraceae Circaea alpina L. PLP2955 Herb - GA Circaea alpina subsp. imaicola (Asch. and Magnus) Kitam. (Syn. Circaea PLP8549 Herb - GA imaicola (Asch.-Magus) Hand.- Mazz.) Epilobium angustifolium L. PLP9779 Herb - GA Epilobium chitralense P.H. Raven PLP3259 Herb - GA, S Epilobium cylindricum D. Don PLP3248 Herb - GA Epilobium hirsutum L. PLP3639 Herb - Yangpa Epilobium latifolium L. PLP3274 Herb Endemic F, GA Epilobium roseum (Schreb.) Schreb. PLP9490 Herb - F, GA Epilobium royleanum Hausskn. PLP8516 Herb - F Oenothera rosea L’Her. ex Aiton PLP7606 Herb - F Raimannia drummondii Rose PLP2919 Herb - Sering Chey Orchidaceae Calanthe plantaginea Lindl. PLP8591 Herb - Rupi Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch.(Syn. C. ensifolia Rich.) PLP2985 Herb - Kharogla Critically Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo PLP3252 Herb F, GA Endangered Epipactis gigantea Douglas ex Hook. PLP5040 Herb - F Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz PLP4128 Herb - F Epipactis helleborine subsp. Helleborine(Syn. Epipactis latifolia (L.) All.) PLP8512 Herb - F Epipactis veratrifolia Boiss. and Hohen. PLP9785 Herb - Shurting Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. PLP9677 Herb - F Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijkj PLP3654 Herb - Yangpa Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze. PLP7962 Herb - Sangla Neottia listeroides Lindl. PLP9442 Herb - Kharogla Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. PLP7955 Herb - Solding Orobanchaceae Euphrasia himalayica Wettst. PLP7447 Herb - F, GA Euphrasia platyphylla Pennell PLP9735 Herb - GA Leptorhabdos parviflora (Benth.) Benth. PLP3158 Herb - F, S Orobanche alba Stephen PLP2872 Herb - F, GA, S Orobanche epithymum DC. PLP3025 Herb - Hoye Pedicularis bicornuta Klotzsch PLP3163 Herb Endemic F Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph PLP3394 Herb - F, GA Pedicularis pectinata Wall. ex Benth. PLP3211 Herb Endemic GA Pedicularis porrecta Wall. PLP3153 Herb - F Pedicularis tenuirostris Aitch. PLP3004 Herb Endemic Kharogla 339 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Oxalidaceae Oxalis acetosella L. PLP9635 Herb - Sangla Oxalis corniculata L. PLP2578 Herb - F, G, S Papaveraceae Corydalis cashmeriana Royle PLP9848 Herb - GA Corydalis cornuta Royle PLP3235 Herb - F, GA Corydalis govaniana Wall. PLP3626 Herb Endemic Hoye Corydalis meifolia Wall. PLP3292 Herb - GA Corydalis moorcroftiana Wall. ex Hook. f. and Thomson PLP11300 Herb - F Corydalis vaginans Royle (Syn. C. ramosa Hook. f. and Thomson) PLP9743 Herb - GA Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsley PLP2663 Herb - Karaba, Boktu Endemic and Meconopsis aculeata Royle PLP3216 Herb GA Vulnerable Papaver dubium L. PLP2596 Herb - Katgaon Papaver nudicaule L. PLP2767 Herb - Sangla Papaver somniferum L. PLP9806 Herb - F Parnessiaceae Parnassia laxmanii Pall. ex Schult. PLP3141 Herb - GA Parnassia nubicola Wall. ex Royle PLP8507 Herb - F Phrymaceae Lancea tibetica Hook. f and Thomson PLP6327 Herb - Nako Mazus surculosus D. Don PLP7988 Herb - F Phyllanthaceae Leptopus cordifolius Decne. (Syn. Andrachne cordifolia (Decne.) Müll. Arg.) PLP2539 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Phytolacaceae Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. PLP9812 Herb - Nichar, Sangla Piperaceae Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forst.) Hook. and Arn. PLP2687 Herb - Wangtoo Plantaginaceae Hemiphragma heterophyllum Wall. PLP7967 Herb - Rupi Hippuris vulgaris L. PLP7670 Herb - Rupi Endemic and Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. PLP3255 Herb GA Endangered Plantago depressa Willd. PLP2821 Herb - F, G, GA Plantago erosa Wall. PLP6242 Herb - Sangla Plantago himalaica Pilg. PLP2733 Herb - G, S Plantago major L. PLP2984 Herb - F Veronica agrestis L. PLP2785 Herb - Kuppa Veronica beccabunga L. PLP3272 Herb - GA Veronica biloba L. PLP2644 Herb - Kalpa Veronica hederifolia L. PLP2645 Herb - Rekong Peo Veronica lanosa Royle ex Benth. PLP7445 Herb Endemic GA Veronica persica Poir. PLP3381 Herb - Sangla Poaceae Agrostis canina L. PLP9801 Grass - GA Agrostis munroana Aitch. and Hemsl. PLP9649 Grass Endemic G Agrostis pilosula Trin. PLP11236 Grass - GA Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir PLP2804 Grass - G, S Andropogon munroi C.B. Clarke PLP2651 Grass - Katgaon, Kafnu Apluda mutica L. PLP2662 Grass - Urni Arundo donax L. PLP3556 Grass - S Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv. PLP9665 Grass - GA Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. PLP2653 Grass - S Bromus arvensis L. PLP5032 Grass - F Bromus catharticus Vahl (Syn. B. uniloides Kunth.) PLP3033 Grass - Surchoo Bromus japonicus Thunb. PLP2652 Grass - Kalpa Bromus lanceolatus Roth PLP6320 Grass - Shyasu Khud Bromus pectinatus Thunb. PLP2592 Grass - F, GA, S 340 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Haller) Koeler PLP3549 Grass - Kafnu, Kharogla Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. (Syn. C. echinulatus (Nees) W. Watson) PLP7993 Grass - F, GA Cymbopogon distans (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson PLP2876 Grass - S Cymbopogon jawarancusa (Jones) Schult PLP2972 Grass - Rarang Panoong Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) W. Watson PLP8551 Grass - Katgaon Cymbopogon pospischilii (K. Schum.) C.E. Hubb. (Syn. C. stracheyi (Hook. f.) PLP3105 Grass - F, S Raizada and S.K. Jain) Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. PLP2540 Grass - F, G, S Dactylis glomerata L. PLP3586 Grass - F, G, GA Danthonia cachemyriana Jaub. ex Spach. PLP2520 Grass - GA Danthonia cumminsii Hook. f. (Syn. D. jacquemontii Bor) PLP9642 Grass - F, GA, G, S Digitaria cillaris (Retz.) Koeler (Syn. Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard) PLP7449 Grass - F, GA, S Digitaria cruciata (Nees) A. Camus PLP3123 Grass - G, GA Digitaria stricta Roth PLP4109 Grass - F Elymus nutans Griseb. PLP9751 Grass - S Elymus semicostatus (Nees ex Steud.) Melderis PLP7941 Grass - S Festuca undata Stapf PLP3577 Grass - Surchoo Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin PLP3260 Grass - GA Helictotrichon junghuhnii (Buse) Henrard (Syn. H. virescens (Nees ex Steud.) PLP2914 Grass - Sangla Henrard) Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult PLP4169 Grass - Nichar Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. PLP3310 Herb - G Koeleria royleana (L.) Pers. PLP7486 Grass - S Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes PLP2909 Grass - Moorang Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.) P. Beauv.(Syn. K. cristata (L.) Pers.) PLP2624 Grass - F, GA, S Melica persica Kunth PLP9789 Grass - S Microstegium nudum (Trin.) A. Camus PLP7960 Grass - Solding Muhlenbergia duthieana Hack. PLP9415 Grass - GA Muhlenbergia himalayensis Hack. ex Hook. f. PLP6224 Grass - F Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henr. PLP6367 Grass - S Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv. PLP7609 Grass - F, S Oryzopsis aequiglumis Duthie ex Hook. f. PLP7497 Grass - F, GA Oryzopsis munroi Stapf ex Hook. f. PLP5029 Grass - F, S Oryzopsis vicaria Grig. (Syn. O. microcarpa Pilg., Piptatherum microcarpam PLP3183 Grass - Mulling, Jangi (Pilg.) Tzvelev) Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb. PLP3551 Grass - F, G Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (Syn. Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv.) PLP8464 Grass - F Pennisetum lanatum Klotzsch PLP2861 Grass - F, GA, S Bhabhanagar, Pennisetum orientale Rich. PLP6381 Grass - Katgaon Phacelurus speciosus (Steud.) C.E. Hubb PLP2775 Grass - Urni Phleum alpinum L. PLP3193 Grass - GA Phleum himalaicum Mez PLP11335 Grass - F Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. PLP2514 Grass - F Poa annua L. PLP8545 Grass - F Poa polycolea Stapf PLP6248 Grass - F Poa supina Schrad. PLP7462 Grass - F Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud. PLP7615 Grass - F Saccharum filifolium Steud. PLP2837 Grass - Sangla Schizachyrium exile (Hochst.) Pilg. PLP2572 Grass - F, G Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem and Schult. PLP3569 Grass - F Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. PLP2827 Grass - Kafnu Stipa brandisii Mez PLP5044 Grass - F Themeda anathera (Nees ex Steud.) Hack. PLP3019 Grass - F Themeda arundinacea (Roxb.) A. Camus PLP3568 Grass - F, GA Themeda triandra Forssk. PLP2612 Grass - G Trisetum klarkei (Hook. f.) R.R. Stewart PLP7414 Grass - F, GA Trisetum spicatum (L.) K. Richt. PLP3192 Grass - F, GA 341 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Polemoniaceae Polemonium caeruleum L. PLP3395 Herb - Chansu Polygalaceae Polygala hottentotta C. Presl (Syn. P. abyssinica R. Br. ex Fresen.) PLP2716 Herb - Wangtoo Polygonaceae Bistorta vaccinifolia (Wall. ex Meisn.) Greene (Syn. Polygonum vaccinifolia) PLP9605 Herb - GA Fagopyrum esculentum Moench PLP2597 Herb - F, S Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. PLP2757 Herb - Sangla Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve (Syn. Polygonum convolvulus L.) PLP2689 Climber - F Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub (Syn. Polygonum dumetorum L.) PLP9619 Herb - F Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill PLP3221 Herb - F, GA, S Persicaria amplexicaulis (D. Don) Ronse Decr. (Syn. Polygonum amplexicaule PLP2549 Herb - F D. Don) Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross (Syn. Polygonum PLP6239 Herb - F capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don) Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre (Syn. Polygonum hydropiper L.) PLP3638 Herb - F Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe(Syn. Polygonum nepalense Meisn.) PLP7964 Herb - F Persicaria vivipara (L.) Ronse Decr. (Syn. Polygonum viviparum L.) PLP2971 Herb - F, GA, S Persicaria wallichii Greuter and Burdet (Syn. Polygonum polystachyum Wall. PLP3138 Shrub - F, GA ex Meisn.) Polygonum affine D. Don PLP3142 Herb - GA Polygonum aviculare L. PLP3589 Herb - F, G, GA, S Polygonum cognatum Meisn. PLP9790 Herb - S Polygonum glaciale var. glaciale (Syn. P. glaciale (Meissn.) Hook. f.) PLP3602 Herb - Katgaon Polygonum molliforme Boiss. PLP6312 Herb - S Polygonum paronychioides C.A. Mey. PLP2881 Herb Endemic F, G, S Polygonum plebeium R. Br. PLP3557 Herb - S Polygonum pubescens Blume (Syn. Persicaria pubescens (Blume) Hara) PLP7641 Herb - F Polygonum somdevae Aswal and Mehrotra PLP3388 Shrub - GA Polygonum tortuosum D. Don PLP3315 Herb - GA, S Polygonum rottboellioides Jaub. and Spach(Syn. P. tubulosum Boiss.) PLP3018 Herb - F, GA Rheum australe D. Don PLP2673 Herb Vulnerable F, GA Rheum webbianum Royle. PLP6280 Herb Endemic GA Rumex acetosa L. PLP9472 Herb - Chansu Rumex hastatus D. Don PLP2541 Herb - G Rumex nepalensis Spreng. PLP2895 Herb - F, G, GA, S Rumex patientia subsp. orientalis (Bernh. ex Schult. and Schult. f. ) PLP6338 Herb - GA Danser(Syn. R. orientalis Benth. ex Schult. and Schult. f.) Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea L. PLP3118 Herb - F Primulaceae Androsace globifera Duby PLP3294 Herb - GA Androsace lanuginosa Wall. PLP3136 Herb - F, GA Androsace rotundifolia Hardw. PLP7661 Herb - F Androsace sarmentosa Wall. PLP4106 Herb - Rupi, Kharogla Myrsine africana L. PLP2921 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Primula denticulata Sm. PLP2806 Herb - GA Primula floribunda Wall. PLP2569 Herb Endemic G Primula macrophylla D. Don PLP9847 Herb - GA Primula sessilis Royle ex Craib PLP3034 Herb Endemic Sangla Ranunculaceae Endemic and Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle PLP3215 Herb GA Endangered Aconitum rotundifolium Kar and Kir PLP11260 Herb - GA Endemic and Aconitum violaceum Jacquem ex Stapf PLP3288 Herb GA Vulnerable Adonis aestivalis L. PLP2719 Herb - F, S Anemone obtusifolia D. Don PLP7656 Herb - F 342 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. PLP3140 Herb - F, GA Aquilegia fragrans Benth. PLP3617 Herb Endemic F, S Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. ex Royle PLP2937 Herb - F Caltha palustris L. PLP3242 Herb - GA Rekong Peo, Ceratocephala falcata (L.) Pers. (Syn. Ranunculus falcatus L.) PLP2656 Herb - Sangla Clematis buchananiana DC. PLP7731 Climber - Ponda Clematis connata DC. PLP3609 Climber - Hoye Clematis grata Wall. PLP3151 Climber - F, S Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. ex DC. PLP4122 Climber - F Clematis orientalis L. PLP2896 Climber Endemic S Delphinium brunonianum Royle PLP3291 Herb - GA Delphinium cashemerianum Royle PLP3630 Herb Endemic GA Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook. f. and Thomson PLP2616 Herb Endemic F Delphinium vestitum Wall. ex Royle PLP9463 Herb Endemic GA Ranunculus brotherusii Freyn. PLP2940 Herb - F Ranunculus hirtellus Royle PLP4124 Herb - F, GA Ranunculus distans Royle PLP3642 Herb - F (Syn. R. laetus Wall. ex Royle) Thalictrum chelidonii DC. PLP2855 Herb - Katgaon, Ribba Thalictrum cultratum Wall. PLP5036 Herb - F, GA Thalictrum foetidum L. PLP11363 Herb - F Thalictrum foliolosum DC. PLP2717 Herb - F, G, S Thalictrum minus L. PLP6331 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Thalictrum pauciflorum Royle PLP4384 Herb - F Thalictrum platycarpum (Trel.) Greene PLP2836 Herb - F, GA Thalictrum reniforme Wall. PLP4057 Herb - F Rhamnaceae Rhamnus triquetra (Wall.) Brandis PLP2723 Tree - F Rhamnus virgata Roxb. PLP7785 Tree - F Sageretia thea var. thea (Syn. S. theezans (L.) Brongn.) PLP2528 Shrub - F Rosaceae Acomastylis elata (Wall. ex G. Don) F. Bolle (Syn. Geum elatum Wall. ex G. PLP3269 Herb Endemic F, GA Don) Agrimonia aitchisonii Schonbeck-Temesy PLP8410 Herb - Nigulseri, Rupi Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. PLP9614 Herb - GA Cerasus cerasoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) S.Y. Sokolov (Syn. Prunus PLP7913 Tree - Kalpa cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Cotoneaster acuminatus Lindl. PLP9446 Shrub - Kharogla Cotoneaster affinis Lindl. PLP2884 Shrub - Pooh Cotoneaster bacillaris Wall. ex Lindl. PLP9688 Shrub - Kharogla Cotoneaster falconeri Klotz PLP3143 Shrub - F, GA Cotoneaster gilgitensis Klotz PLP2910 Shrub - S Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. ex Lindl. PLP7498 Shrub - GA Cotoneaster obovata Wall. ex Dunn PLP4117 Shrub Endemic F Cotoneaster rotundifolius Wall. ex Lindl. PLP6259 Shrub - Sangla Cotoneaster schubertii Klotz PLP4092 Shrub - F Crataegus curvisepala Lindm. (Syn. C. oxyacantha L.) PLP7919 Tree - Kalpa Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke (Syn. Fragaria indica Andrews) PLP2698 Herb - F Filipendula vestita (Wall. ex G. Don) Maxim. PLP3204 Herb - F, GA Fragaria nubicola (Hook. f.) Lindl. ex Lacaita PLP2545 Herb - F, GA, S Fragaria vesca L. PLP4069 Herb - F, S Geum roylei F. Bolle PLP3657 Herb - Yangpa Geum urbanum L. PLP4068 Herb - Surchoo Malus pumila Mill. (Syn. Pyrus malus L.) PLP3585 Tree - F Padus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) Carrière(Syn. Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) PLP3165 Tree - F Steud.) Photinia nussia (Buch.-Ham ex D. Don) Kalkman PLP3608 Tree - Hoye 343 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Potentilla anserina L. PLP6342 Herb - Nako Potentilla argyrophylla Wall. ex Lehm. PLP3258 Herb - F, GA, S Potentilla atrosanguinea Lodd., G. Lodd. and W. Lodd. PLP2948 Herb - F, G, GA Potentilla bifurca L. PLP3109 Herb - G, GA Potentilla cuneata Wall. ex Lehm. PLP9604 Herb - GA Potentilla cuneifolia (Rydb.) Th. Wolf PLP2961 Herb - GA Potentilla fragarioides L. PLP2739 Herb - S Potentilla fruticosa var. arbuscula (D. Don) Maxim. (Syn. P. arbuscula D. Don) PLP9814 Herb - GA Potentilla gerardiana Lindl. ex Lehmann PLP11316 Herb - Bhabhanagar Potentilla leucochroa Lindl. PLP2580 Herb - F, G Potentilla multifida L. PLP6344 Herb Endemic Nako Potentilla nepalensis Hook. PLP3214 Herb - F, GA Potentilla parviflora Desf. PLP6397 Herb - F, GA Potentilla sundaica Kuntze PLP3222 Herb - F, GA Prinsepia utilis Royle PLP2505 Shrub - F, S Prunus amygdalus Batsch (Syn. P. communis (L.) Arcang) PLP5020 Tree - F Prunus armeniaca L. PLP2747 Tree - Sangla, Nigani Prunus domestica L. PLP2746 Tree - Sangla Prunus persica (L.) Stokes PLP2715 Tree - S Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham ex D. Don PLP7758 Tree - F Rosa brunonii Lindl. PLP7643 Shrub - F Rosa cymosa Tratt. (Syn. R. indica L.) PLP5049 Shrub - F Rosa macrophylla Lindl. PLP2794 Shrub Endemic F, GA, S Rosa sericea Lindl. PLP4062 Shrub - Katgaon Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle PLP2875 Shrub - F, S Rubus biflorus Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. PLP7782 Shrub - Katgaon Rubus ellipticus Sm. PLP7651 Shrub - F Rubus irritans Focke (Syn. R. purpureus Bunge ex Hook. f.) PLP2722 Shrub - F, GA Rubus niveus Thunb.(Syn. R. foliolosus D. Don) PLP7625 Shrub - F Rubus paniculatus Sm. PLP4113 Climber - Sangla Sibbaldia cuneata Hornem. ex Kuntze PLP6278 Herb - GA Sibbaldia parviflora Willd. PLP3182 Herb - G, GA Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder PLP2724 Shrub - F Sorbus lanata (Don) Schauer PLP7421 Shrub - Homte Spiraea canescens D. Don PLP7434 Shrub - F, S Rubiaceae Agrostemma verticillatum L. PLP2738 Herb - Wangtoo Asperula oppositifolia Regel and Schmalh. PLP9775 Herb - GA Galium aparine L. PLP3387 Climber - F, G, GA, S Galium asperifolium Wall. PLP7695 Climber - S Galium asperuloides Edgew. PLP3236 Climber - F Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb. (Syn. Galium vestitum D. Don) PLP8428 Climber - F Galium serpylloides Royle ex Hook. f. PLP9730 Climber - GA, S Galium verum L. PLP3197 Herb - F, GA Leptodermis lanceolata Wall. PLP7908 Shrub - Ponda Rubia cordifolia L. PLP3601 Climber - F, S Rutaceae Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn. PLP7768 Herb - Chaura Dictamnus albus L. PLP7737 Herb - Pangi Skimmia anquetilia N.P. Taylor and Airy Shaw PLP3566 Shrub Endemic Surchoo Zanthoxylum armatum DC. PLP7735 Shrub - Ponda Salicaceae Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle PLP4118 Tree - F Populus nigra L. PLP2900 Tree - F Salix alba L. PLP2503 Tree - F Salix denticulata Andersson PLP2965 Shrub Endemic F, GA Salix flabellaris Andersson PLP3275 Shrub - F, GA 344 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Salix pycnostachya var. oxycarpa (Andersson) Y.L. Chou and C.F. Fang (Syn. PLP4065 Tree - F, GA, S S. oxycarpa Andersson) Salix pycnostachya Andersson PLP2731 Tree - F Salix tetrasperma Roxb. PLP11280 Tree - F Santalaceae Arceuthobium minutissimum Hook. f. PLP2703 Herb Endemic F Thesium multicaule Ledeb. PLP2973 Herb - F Viscum album L. PLP2700 Shrub - F Sapindaceae Endemic and Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis PLP3239 Tree F Vulnerable Acer lobelia subsp. pictum (Thunb.) Wesm. (Syn. Acer pictum Thunb.) PLP3578 Tree - F Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook. PLP7754 Tree - F Saxifragaceae Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. PLP4059 Herb Endemic F Bergenia stracheyi (Hook. f. and Thomson) Engl. PLP2728 Herb - F, G, GA Saxifraga diversifolia Wall. ex Ser. PLP2711 Herb - GA Saxifraga jacquemontiana Decne. PLP3295 Herb Endangered GA Saxifraga parnassifolia D. Don PLP3283 Herb - GA Scrophulariaceae Buddleja asiatica Lour. PLP2586 Shrub - Rarang Panoong Buddleja crispa Benth. PLP5031 Shrub - Pangi Scrophularia decomposita Royle ex Benth. PLP2610 Herb - GA Scrophularia koelzii Pennell PLP9608 Herb Endemic F Scrophularia polyantha Royle ex Benth. PLP4160 Herb - Chulling Verbascum thapsus L. PLP2543 Herb - F, G, GA, S Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle PLP2525 Tree - F, S Smilacaceae Smilax menispermoidea A. DC. PLP3001 Climber - Ponda Smilax vaginata Decne. PLP2636 Climber - F Solanaceae Datura stramonium L. PLP8584 Herb - S Hyoscyamus niger L. PLP5014 Herb - S Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. PLP7939 Herb - Solding Physalis divaricata D. Don PLP8468 Herb - Bhabhanagar Physochlaena praealta (Walp.) Miers. PLP6328 Herb - Nako Solanum americanum Mill. (Syn. S. nigrum L.) PLP3027 Herb - F, S Solanum viarum Dunal PLP8484 Herb - Bhabhanagar Tamaricaceae Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv. PLP4159 Shrub - GA, S Thymelaeaceae Daphne cannabina Lour PLP4371 Shrub - Shudhrang Daphne mucronata Royle PLP2643 Shrub - F, S Daphne oleoides Schreb. PLP4080 Shrub - F Daphne papyracea Wall. ex W.W. Sm. and Cave PLP7786 Shrub - Moorang Wikstroemia canescens Wall. ex Meisn. PLP4390 Shrub - Rarang Ulmaceae Ulmus villosa Brandis. PLP7788 Tree - F Endemic and Ulmus wallichiana Planch. PLP4127 Tree F Endangered Urticaceae Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk.) Hepper and J.R.I. Wood PLP2522 Shrub - F Elatostema monandrum (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Hara (Syn. E. surculosum PLP4125 Herb - Surchoo Wight.) Girardinia ardens Blume PLP7726 Herb - F Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis PLP8461 Herb - F Girardinia palmata (Forssk.) Gaudich. PLP7684 Herb - F 345 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq. PLP6237 Herb - Chaura Pilea scripta (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Wedd. PLP6240 Herb - Bhabhanagar Pilea umbrosa Blume PLP2517 Herb - F Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn. and R. Br. PLP7649 Herb - F Urtica ardens Link. PLP2512 Herb - F Urtica dioica L. PLP2589 Herb - G Urtica parviflora Roxb. PLP6232 Herb - Nichar Violaceae Viola betonicifolia J. Sm. PLP2617 Herb - GA, S Viola biflora L. PLP6227 Herb - GA Viola canescens Wall. PLP2542 Herb - F, GA, S Viola kashmiriana W. Becker PLP2550 Herb - Bhabhanagar Viola pilosa Blume PLP7495 Herb - F Viola pilosa Blume var. canescens (Wall.) Hook. f. and Thomson PLP3205 Herb - G, GA Vitaceae Ampelocissus divaricata (Wall. ex M.A. Lawson) Planch. PLP3146 Climber - Surchoo, Shelti Parthenocissus semicordata (Wall.) Planch. PLP7604 Climber Endemic F Xanthorrhoeaceae Eremurus himalaicus Baker PLP2761 Herb Endemic S Zingiberaceae Hedychium spicatum Sm. PLP7976 Herb - F Gymnosperms Pinaceae Abies pindrow (Royle ex D. Don) Royle PLP2834 Tree - F Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lamb.) G.Don PLP6287 Tree - F Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. PLP2833 Tree - F Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don PLP2639 Tree Rare F Pinus roxburghii Sarg. PLP2574 Tree - F Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks. PLP2968 Tree - F Cupresussaceae Juniperus communis L. PLP2952 Shrub - F, GA Juniperus indica Bertol. PLP3386 Shrub - F Juniperus polycarpos K. Koch PLP2885 Tree - S Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP9770 Tree - F, S Taxaceae Taxus wallichiana Zucc. (Syn. Taxus baccata L. ssp. wallichiana L.) PLP4052 Tree - F Ephederaceae Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf PLP2762 Shrub - S Ephedra intermedia Schrenk and C.A. Mey. PLP 5011 Shrub - S F: Forests, G: Temperate Grasslands, GA: Alpine grasslands and meadows, S: Scrublands; Localities: Akpa 2194m, Bari 2117m, Bhabhanagar 1606m, Boktu 2478m, Chandriam 2581m, Chansu 2800m, Charang 3400m, Chaura 1535m, Chetetang Tee 2074m, Chitkul 3389m, Chulling 2700m, Hango 2800m, Homte 2670m, Hoye 2521m, Jangi 2779m, Ka 2983m, Kafnu 2951m, Kalpa 2759m, Karaba 2707m, Karcham , Katgaon 2341m, Kharogla 2982m, Kuppa 2580m, Leo 2947m, Moorang 2810m, Mulling, 3199m, Nako 3646m, Neugal 3463m, Nichar 2108m, Nigani 1600m, Nigulseri 1687m, Pangi 2593m, Ponda 1874m, Pooh 2749m, Ralli 2199m, Rarang 2770m, Rarang Panoong 1876m, Rekong Peo 2311m, Ribba 2262m, Rupi 1543m, Sangla 2640m, Sering Chey 2400m, Shango 2230m, Sharbo 2184m, Shelti 2810m, Sholtu 1776m, Shudhrang 2600m, Shurting 3408m, Shyasu Khud 2390m, Solding 1573m, Sunnam 2670m, Surchoo 2455m, Tapri 1781m, Urni 2286m, Wangtoo 1550m, Yangpa 2440m, Yangthang 3296m.” Table 2. List of Ferns and Fern Allies from Kinnaur. SPECIES VOUCHER NO. LOCALITY Adiantaceae Adiantum venustum D.Don PLP2546 Bhabhanagar Adiantum incisum Forssk. subsp. incisum PLP7664 Nigulseri Adiantum capillus-veneris L. PLP7662 Sangla Aspleniaceae Asplenium dalhousiae Hooker PLP2530 Bhabhanagar Asplenium septintrionale Hoffm. PLP9445 Kharogla Asplenium trichomanes L subsp. trichomanes PLP2531 Bhabhanagar Asplenium laciniatum D.Don subsp. laciniatum PLP7682 Rupi 346 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 2. Continued. SPECIES VOUCHER NO. LOCALITY Athriaceae Athyrium schimperi Moug ex Fée subsp. biserrulatum (Christ) Fraser-Jenk. PLP11381 Rupin Pass Blechnaceae Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai PLP9862 Ponda Cryptogrammaceae Cryptogramma brunoniana (Wall. ex Hk.) Grev. PLP2529 Bhabhanagar Davalliaceae Araiostegia delavayi (Bedd. ex C.B.Clarke and Baker) Ching PLP8519 Raksham Dryopteridaceae Deparia allantodioides (Bedd.) M. Kato PLP3385 Mulling Dryopteris barbigire (Hook.) Ktze. PLP9464 Chansu Dryopteris redactopinnata S.K.Basu and Panigrahi PLP3544 Kharogla Dryopteris cochleata (Don.) C. Chr. PLP2511 Solding Dryopteris chrysocoma (Christ) C.Chr PLP11290 Katgoan, Rupi Dryopteris juxtaposita Christ PLP3563 Rekong Peo Diplazium maximum (D.Don) C.Chr PLP7720 Solding Polystichum squarrosum (D. Don) J.Sm. PLP7657 Ralli Polystichum discretum (D.Don) J.Sm. PLP9752 Ralli Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense L. PLP2729 Sangla Equisetum diffusum L. PLP9746 Solding, Karaba, Kuppa, Shurting Hymenophyllacae Mecodium exsertum (Wall. ex Hook. et Grev.) Cop PLP2735 Sangla Ophioglossaceae Botrychium ternatum (Thunb.) Swartz PLP2740 Sangla Pteridaceae Pteris cretica L. PLP2516 Bari, Ponda, Solding Pteris pseudo-quadriaurita PLP3564 Surchoo Notholaena marantae (L.) Desv. PLP2683 Roghi Onychium contiguum (Wall.) Hope. PLP7738 Ponda Onychium japonicum (Thunberg) Kunze var. lucidum (D. Don) Christ PLP8579 Kafnu Selaginellaceae Selaginella subdiaphana Spreng. PLP8542 Rupi Table 3. The number of families, genera and species of higher plants in Kinnaur. GROUPS FAMILIES GENERA SPECIES Angiosperms 98 (96.07 %) 426 (98.37 %) 869 (98.52 %) Gymnosperms 4 (3.92 %) 7 (1.62 %) 13 (1.47 %) Total 102 433 882 Table 4. Comparison of ten dominant families of Angiosperms with flora of adjacent regions in Himalaya and India. RANK FAMILIES PRESENT STUDY - FLORA LAHAUL-SPITI WESTERN HIMALAYA EASTERN HIMALAYA BRITISH INDIA KINNAUR SIMLENSIS Compositae 1 1 3 2 4 7 Poaceae 2 2 1 1 2 3 Rosaceae 3 5 6 8 8 Leguminosae 4 4 2 3 3 2 Lamiaceae 5 4 5 9 Ranunculaceae 6 7 10 6 Polygonaceae 7 9 Brassicaceae 8 3 7 Apiaceae 9 8 Caryophyllaceae 10 Cyperaceae 10 5 4 5 8 Orchidaceae 8 9 1 1 Scrophulariaceae 6 7 10 7 347 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 4. Continued. RANK FAMILIES PRESENT STUDY - FLORA LAHAUL-SPITI WESTERN HIMALAYA EASTERN HIMALAYA BRITISH INDIA KINNAUR SIMLENSIS Urticaceae 9 6 10 Rubiaceae 9 4 Euphorbiaceae 10 5 Acanthaceae 6 Table 5 . The genus-to-species and family-to-genera ratios of different regions of Western Himalaya (Source: Collett 1902; Raizada and Saxena 1978; Aswal and Mehrotra 1994; Singh and Rawat 1999). REGION FAMILIES GENERA SPECIES GENERA-TO-SPECIES FAMILY-TO-GENERA Nainital 107 457 869 1:1.90 1:4.27 Shimla - 639 1326 1:2.08 - Mussoorie 131 649 1219 1:1.88 1:4.95 Upper Liddar valleys Kashmir 86 341 764 1:2.24 1:3.97 Tons valley 132 480 761 1:1.58 1:3.64 GHNP 128 427 832 1:1.94 1:3.33 Srinagar - 741 2928 1:3.95 - Sirmour 139 544 898 1:1.65 1:3.91 Lahaul & Spiti 79 353 985 1:2.5 1:4.47 Garhwal 189 1032 2150 1:2.08 1:5.46 Udhampur 119 495 807 1:1.63 1:4.16 Kullu 126 504 930 1:1.84 1:4 Acknowledgments : We are thankful to Dr. P.S. Ahuja, Director, IHBT for Myers, N, R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. daFonseca, and J. Kent. providing facilities and to Department of Biotechnology, Government of 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, India for funding our research. We are grateful to Mr. P.C. Pant, ex staff, 853-858. Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Dehradun for helping in authentication Nayar, M.P. 1996. “Hot spots” of Endemic Plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. of herbarium samples. We are also thankful to the project and field staff Thiruvanthapuram: Director, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research for support. We express our heartiest gratitude to Late Dr. H.R. Negi for Institute. initiating this work and for his constant encouragement. This is IHBT Olson, D.M., E. Dinerstein, E.D. Wikramanayake, N.D. Burgess, G.V.N. Publication No. 3166. Powell, et al., 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. Bioscience 51(11), 933-938. Raha, M. K. 2000. Structure and culture in a high Himalayan society. Literature Cited Science and Culture 66, 77-83. Aswal, B.S., and B.N. Mehrotra. 1994. Flora of Lahaul-Spiti. Dehradun: Raizada, M.B., and H.O. Saxena. 1978. Flora of Mussoorie. Dehradun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Bennet, S.S.R. 1987. Name Changes in Flowering Plants of India and Rau, M.A. 1975. High Altitude Flowering Plants of Western Himalaya. Adjacent Regions. Dehradun: Triseas Publishers. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India. Champion, H.G., and S.K. Seth. 1968. A Revised Survey of the Forest Types Singh, J.S., and S.P. Singh. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Himalaya. of India. Delhi, India: Manager of Publications, Govt. of India Press. Botanical Review 53 (1):80-192. Chawla, A., A. Kumar , B. Lal, R.D. Singhand A.K. Thukral. 2011. Ecological Ved, D.K., G.K. Kinhal, K. Ravikumar, V. Prabhakaran, U. Ghate, R. Vijaya characterization of high altitude Himalayan landscapes in the upper Shankar, and J. H. Indreshu, (ed.). 2003. Conservation Assessment Satluj river watershed in Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of and Management Prioritisation for the Medicinal Plants of Jammu & Indian Society of Remote Sensing OnlineFirst DOI: 10.1007/s12524- Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. A Synthesis of Regional 011-0169-0 . Expertise in Medicinal Plants Taxonomy and Distribution. Bangalore, Chowdhery, H.J., and B. M. Wadhwa. 1984. Flora of Himachal Pradesh India: Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions. Analysis. 3 vols. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India. Collett, H. 1982. Flora Simlensis. Dehradun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Hara, H., and H. Hohashi. 1966-1974. The Flora of Eastern Himalaya. 3 Vols. Tokyo, Japan: The University of Tokyo Press. Hooker, J.D. 1904. A Sketch of the Flora of British India. London: Kessinger Publishing. Jarvinen, O. 1982. Species-to-genus ratios in biogeography: a historical note. Journal of Biogeography 9(4): 363-370. Krug, A.Z., D. Jablonski, and J.W. Valentine 2008. Species–genus ratios Received: March 2011 reflect a global history of diversification and range expansion in Accepted : April 2012 marine bivalves. Proceedings of the Royal Scociety: Biological Sciences Published online : June 2012 275(1639): 1117-1123. Editorial responsibility : Marco Schmidt http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Check List Unpaywall

Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India

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Check List 8(3): 321-348, 2012 © 2012 Check List and Authors Chec List ISSN 1809-127X (available at www.checklist.org.br) Journal of species lists and distribution ie 1* 1 2 3 1 1 1 Amit Chawla , Om Parkash , Varun Sharma , S. Rajkumar , Brij Lal , Gopichand , R.D. Singh and A.K. Thukral 1 Biodiversity Division, CSIR - Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India 176 061. 2 Nature India Eco Solutions, #14, Thakker’s Pride, Opposite Siddharth Hotel, Nashik-Pune Road, Nashik, India 422 011. 3 NRC in DNA Fingerprinting, B202, NBPGR, IARI, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, India 110 012 4 Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Botanical & Environmental Sciences. Amritsar, India 143 005 * Corresponding author. E-mail: amitchawla21@gmail.com Abstract: In the present study, we provide a checklist of the vascular plants of Kinnaur district situated in the Himachal Pradesh state of India in the western Himalaya. This checklist includes 893 taxa (viz., species, subspecies and varieties) belonging to 881 species of angiosperms and gymnosperms distributed among 102 families and 433 genera, and 30 species of pteridophytes. Information about the growth habit, threat and endemicity status is also provided. Our results show that family Compositae is by far the most species rich family with 122 species, followed by Poaceae (69), Rosaceae (58), Leguminosae (49) and Lamiaceae (38). Among the genera, Artemisia is the most diverse genus with 19 species, followed by Potentilla (14), Saussurea (13), Polygonum (11), Astragalus (10), Lonicera (10) and Nepeta (10). Similar to other regions in the western Himalayan range, family-to-genera ratio was 1:4.25 and the genera-to-species ratio was 1:2.04. Out of 893 taxa, our checklist includes 606 herb species, 63 trees, 108 shrubs, 28 climbers, 67 graminoids and 21 sedges and rushes. Of all the species recorded, 108 (12.2%) are endemic to western Himalaya and 27 (3%) are placed under IUCN threatened categories. The present checklist on the flora of Kinnaur provides an important baseline data for further quantitative studies on the characteristics of plant communities in this region and will help in the identification of priority conservation areas. Introduction and Singh 1987). In the western Himalayan region, the Western Himalaya has long been recognized as a prominent angiosperm families are Asteraceae, Rosaceae, distinct floristic region in India (Hooker 1904; Mani 1974; Poaceae, Ranunculaceae and Brassicaceae (Rau 1975). Singh and Singh 1987). The mountain ranges situated The vegetation is represented by lower and upper western on the western side of river Sharda (or west of 77° E Himalayan temperate forests, dry temperate coniferous longitude) in northwestern India, constitutes the ‘Indian forests, sub-alpine forests and scrubs, alpine pastures, Western Himalaya’ which includes the states of Jammu and dwarf Juniper scrub, and dry alpine scrub communities Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. This region (Champion and Seth 1968). harbours a rich regional flora due to its diverse topography, Kinnaur is a northeastern frontier district in the wide altitudinal range and location at the intersection state of Himachal Pradesh that mostly consists of the of several biogeographical units. The flora of western valleys along river Sutlej and its tributaries (Spiti and Himalaya exhibits affinities with that of Mediterranean, Baspa rivers, Figure 1). The terrain is rugged with steep Siberian, Tibetan and Indo-Malayan regions. In contrast, precipitous slopes and narrow valleys (Figures 2 A- C). The the vegetation of eastern Himalaya displays affinities with wide range of altitudinal and climatic geospatial gradients Chinese and Malayasian elements, and supports luxuriant have endowed the landscape with a rich botanic diversity, evergreen broadleaf forests or ‘tropical rainforests’ at dominated by conifers in the temperate zone (Figures 3 lower elevations. Another notable difference between A-C), Betula utilis-dominated forests and Rhododendron the western and eastern Himalaya is that conifers are campanulatum-dominated scrubs in the sub-alpine zone less common and are generally mixed with broadleaved (Figures 3 D, E), medicinal and aromatic herbs in the species in the eastern Himalaya as compared to the alpine meadows (Figures 3 F-H) and scrubby vegetation western Himalaya. In the eastern Himalaya, number of in the cold arid zone (Figure 3I). In Kinnaur, there are vascular plant species, the number of epiphytes (mostly three, almost parallel mountain ranges: the Zanskar, the Orchidaceae), Rhododendron and Quercus species are also Great Himalaya and the Dhaula Dhar with their peaks several folds greater than that in western Himalaya (Singh varying between 5,180 m to 6,770 m and covered with and Singh 1987). The Himalayan Mountain Range forms snow throughout the year. Based on the amount and a distinct biogeographic ecoregion with large variation distribution of precipitation (rainfall and snowfall), the in topography, climate and harbours considerable plant region is classified into three broad climatic zones: the diversity (Olson et al. 2001). The proportion of endemic wet zone (Nichar and Sangla areas), the dry zone (Kalpa taxa is substantial in the entire Himalayan Range and thus, and Moorang areas) and the arid zone (Pooh area). Only this ecoregion has been designated as a global biodiversity the area south of the Great Himalayan range receives the hotspot (Myers et al. 2000). Around 4000 species of monsoon rains. The rainfall becomes lesser towards Shipki higher plants and about 29% of the endemic taxa of peak, the highest peak in Himachal Pradesh so that the Indian dicotyledonous flora occur in the Himalaya (Singh climate of north eastern Kinnaur is semiarid to arid. The L Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India annual rainfall varies from 45.4 mm at Pooh to 380 mm at not been precisely investigated. In spite of Kinnaur being Nichar. In the temperate zone, the minimum temperature a biodiversity rich region, no attempt has been made to ranges from -6.9 to 14.6°C and maximum from 7.5 to list the species content of this district and no comparative 23.1°C, the mean January temperature being about 0.3°C botanic studies have been carried out between Kinnaur (Source: Office of the Deputy Commissioner, Rekong and the neighbouring districts. In this communication, Peo, Kinnaur (H.P.), India). Seasons of the year comprise we provide an updated checklist of vascular plants from of winter from December to end of March, followed by different elevations representing all the vegetation types of spring season from April to May and summer from June Kinnaur as well as the species growing near streams, lakes, to September, with rains in the months of July and August towns, orchards, villages and other human settlements in particularly at lower elevations of Kinnaur. Autumn season the region. We have used here the latest delineation of the spans over October to November. families, ‘Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) III system, Based on the classification given by Champion and Seth 2009’. (Champion and Seth 1968), the vegetation of this region This study aims at finding out i) Is the flora of Kinnaur can be classified into 29 types which belong to Himalayan district dominated by the same families as those of other moist and dry temperate forests, sub-alpine forests, dry western Himalayan regions? ii) What are the family-to- and moist alpine scrub and meadows. Alpine meadows genera and genera-to-species ratios in Kinnaur and are cover large areas above the tree line (usually above these comparable to other regions in western Himalaya?, 3300 amsl). Below the tree line, thick coniferous forests and iii) What is the proportion of threatened and endemic are dominated by Cedrus deodara (Chawla et al. 2011). species in the flora of Kinnaur district? Pinus gerardiana (Chilgoza or Neoza pine) dominated forest occupies large area in the dry zone up to tree line Materials and Methods in Kinnaur. This species occurs mostly in Kinnaur district Study Sites in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The economy of Kinnaur The present study was undertaken in Kinnaur district is mainly dependent on apple cultivation. Among (30°22’40˝ N to 33°12’40” N Latitude and 75°47’55” E to the agro-ecosystems, besides Chilgoza forest plantations 79°04’20˝ E Longitude), which spans over an area of over and other agricultural crops, apple orchards constitute a 6,400 km in the western Himalaya (www.himachalgov. major land use in the whole valley (Figures 4 A-E). nic.in). River Sutlej enters the region at an elevation of Though the flora for Himachal Pradesh (Chowdhery 3,050 m, and leaves it at an elevation of 1,320 m above and Wadhwa 1984) presents an extensive list of species mean sea level dividing the region into almost two equal distributed across the state, the vegetation in Kinnaur has halves (Figure 1). Figure 1. Map of the study area. The points at which the photographs have been clicked are shown on the map and are indicated by figure numbers. 322 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Kinnaur is a region of high mountain ranges with most of the geographical area of Kinnaur. The district narrow valleys of the river Satluj and its tributaries. In has three administrative subdivisions, Pooh, Kalpa and southern Kinnaur, the Dhauladhars extend eastwards to Nichar. Pooh subdivision in the upper Kinnaur comprises meet the Greater Himalayan range, and separate Baspa three tehsils (an administrative unit under a district) of valley from district Shimla of Himachal Pradesh and Moorang, Pooh and Yangthang. Kalpa subdivision situated Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand state. Towards the in the middle Kinnaur, comprises of two tehsils, Kalpa and north east, the semi-arid to arid land areas occur across Sangla. Nichar subdivision in the lower Kinnaur has only the Zanskar mountains. The Greater Himalaya spans over one tehsil with the same name. The boundaries of the three sub-divisions are thus, co-terminus with the three ecological divisions of the area (Raha 2000). The upper Kinnaur consists of the last stretch of river Spiti which joins river Satluj at Khab, and the main Satluj valley from Shipki La to the Ropa valley lower down to village Shiasu. The gorge like valleys of this region present a cold desert landscape with naked mountains and a few villages with irrigated fields and apple orchards. Almost the whole landscape is covered with steppe vegetation dominated by Artemisia spp. scrub. The middle Kinnaur, represented by the Kinner Kailash Massif (highest peak, 6473 m), has beautiful Baspa (or Sangla) valley on one side and Kalpa on the other side reaching upstream the Satluj towards Charang stream. Sangla valley has temperate climate with lush green Cedrus deodara, Abies pindrow dominated forests, broadleaved forests and alpine meadows. Towards Kalpa, the climate gradually changes to semi-arid, with vegetation dominated by Pinus gerardiana forests. The lower Kinnaur receives the maximum rainfall during the monsoon season and is the greenest zone. The valleys of the tributaries of Satluj present a large altitudinal gradient and thus inhabit different forest types with large area under alpine meadows at higher elevations. The ‘Linear Imaging Self Scannner (LISS III)’ sensor satellite image (ground resolution, 24.5 m and scene date, 15-Oct-2005) of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite was used to classify the vegetation of Kinnaur into forests, grasslands, scrublands, snow covered area, rocks and barren area, and cultivated and builtup area (Figure 5). More than half of the total area of Kinnaur (51.91 %) is covered by bare rocks and perpetual snow. Only 44.2 % of the total area of Kinnaur is represented by forests (10.24 %), grasslands (31.04 %) and scrublands (2.95 %) (Chawla et al. 2011). The localities and the points of collections are depicted on the classified map. The areas surveyed in the lower Kinnaur represent an altitudinal range from 1500 m to 4600 m that include major localities viz., Solding, Nigulseri, Bhabhanagar, Bari, Nichar on the left bank of river Satluj; Majhgaon in the Rupi valley, and Rarang Panoong, Surchoo, Kafnu, Mulling, Fusteerang, Tau Dor, Kara, Fusteerang in the Bhabha valley on the right banks of river Satluj; and Sholtu, Tapri, Urni further upstream on both the banks of river Satluj. In the middle Kinnaur, the localities surveyed included Kuppa, Sangla, Kharogla, Chitkul, Chansu, Rupin Pass, Nalgon Pass in the Sangla valley encompassing a range of altitudes from 2500 m in Sangla valley to 5200 m towards the Chitkul pass. Besides, Roghi, Kalpa, Sharbo and Pangi, localities were surveyed in the Chilgoza pine dominated zone. The upper Kinnaur Figure 2. A) An Upper Satluj valley landscape (semi-arid zone) with presents an arid zone and the studied localites include forests dominated by Pinus gerardiana, and apple orchards. B) The lower Satluj valley landscape in the Nichar subdivision with scrub, coniferous Ropa valley, Kanam, Jangi, Ribba, Moorang, Thangi, alpine and Betula dominated forests on the upper reaches of mountains, and meadows in Charang valley, and cold desert areas of Pooh apple orchards in the lower elevations. C) A degraded forest landscape (Pooh, Chulling, Yangthang, Nako etc.). due to construction of roads and dams, and expansion of agricultural land and orchards. 323 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India C D E F G H Figure 3. A) The coniferous forest dominated landscape with Kinner Kailash mountain range in the background. B) The Bhabha valley landscape with forests dominated by conifers. C) A landscape dominated by Pinus gerardiana (Neoza/Chilgoza pine) forests. D) Tree line forest landscape dominated by Betula utilis (senescent leaves) with patches of Pinus wallichiana (evergreen) forests in the Sangla valley. E) Tree line ecotonal landscape in the Bhabha valley. F) The alpine meadows and mountain peaks landscape in the Sangla valley. G) An alpine meadows landscape with Saussurea obovallata populations near Nalgon Pass in the Sangla valley. H) The patchy distribution of Cassiopes festigiata scrub in the alpine meadows. I) Upper Kinnaur landscape dominated by Artemisia spp. and Ephedra gerardiana in the arid zone (cold desert area). 324 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India C D March to November, from year 2002 to 2006. We have, therefore, covered most of the geographical framework of the district and collected plants with various phenologies. The plant specimens were dried, processed, mounted, identified and authenticated with the help of regional floras and at Botanical Survey of India (BSI) herbarium, Dehradun (BSD) (Rau 1975; Chowdhery and Wadhwa 1984; Aswal and Mehrotra 1994; Gour, 2003). Vouchers are deposited in the IHBT herbarium (PLP, http:// sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/herbarium.php?irn=142973 and registered in the ‘Index Herbariorum’). The endemicity of plant species to the western Himalaya was assessed following Nayar (1996) and the threatened status assessed following Rao (2003) and Ved et al. (2003) . The APG III classification system was followed and the nomenclature Figure 4. A) Apple orchards dominated landscape in the Sangla valley. B) was updated from the website ‘www.theplantlist.org’. A high altitude village agro-ecosystem in Upper Kinnaur (Pooh). C) Apple The delineation of only a few dominant families has orchards in the cold desert zone (Leo village, on the right bank of Spiti changed in the APG III system with re-structuring of river). D) Neoza forest (Pinus gerardiana) at Jangi in the upper Kinnaur. E) Agricultural fields in Nako in upper Kinnaur. genera e.g., genera from Scrophulariaceae now belong to Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae etc. Thus, comparison of floristic summaries of the present checklist with those Data Collection of the previous lists from other regions in the Himalaya Systematic surveys were conducted in district remains minimally affected. Kinnaur to cover different altitudinal zones, to include all representative vegetation types: forests, scrubs, temperate Results and Discussion grasslands, alpine meadows, vegetation transitional zones A total of 893 taxa (viz., species, subspecies and and anthropogenized environments. Alpine grasslands varieties) belonging to 881 plant species, 433 genera and differ from the temperate grasslands in terms of species 102 families of higher plants, and 30 species of ferns and composition and diversity due to altitudinal gradient. fern allies were recorded from the study area (Tables 1,2). Surveys were conducted during the snow free period of 325 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Figure 5. Classified map of Kinnaur showing the area under forests, grasslands and scrublands. The localities and points of collections are depicted in this map as circles and points respectively. The codes for localities are as follows: 1 Majhgaon, Rupi, 2432m; 2 Nigulseri, 1763m (figure 2B, 2C); 3 Bari, 1869m; 4 Solding, 1545m; 5 Bhabhanagar, 1572m; 6 Nichar, 2298m; 7 Rarang Panoong, 1843m; 8 Surchoo, 2695m; 9 Kafnu, 2450m (figure 3B); 10 Mulling, 3250m (figure 3E); 11 Fusteerang, 4166m; 12 Tau Dor, 3440m; 13 Kara, 3462m; 14 Sholtu, Tapri, 1762m; 15 Urni (Figure 2A), 2238m; 16 Roghi, Kalpa, 3532m; 17 Sharbo, 2304m (figure 3A, figure 3C); 18 Pangi, 2651m; 19 Chansu, 3628m; 20 Rupin Pass, 3739m (figure 3F, figure 3H); 21 Nalgon Pass, 4432m (figure 3G); 22 Kuppa, Sangla, 2547m (figure 4A); 23 Sangla, 2641m; 24 Kharogla, 3086m; 25 Khadra, Moorang, 2434m; 26 Jangi, 2737m (figure 4D); 27 Ribba, 2711m; 28 Thangi, 2666m; 29 Lambar, 3392m; 30 Charang, 3899m; 31 Chitkul Pass (Base camp), 4865m; 32 Chitkul Pass beyond, 4725m; 33 Towards Chitkul, 3726m; 34 Chitkul, 3492m (figure 3D); 35 Kanam, 2858m; 36 Ropa, 3047m; 37 Pooh, 2852m (figure 4B); 38 Chulling, 3234m; 39 Leo, 3113m (figure 4C); 40 Yangthang, 3296m (figure 3I); 41 Nako, 3710m (figure 4E); 42 Ka, 2848m; 43 Lalanti, 4278m. Among species of higher plants, 869 are angiosperms districts has semi-arid to arid climates with scanty rainfall and 13 are gymnosperms (Table 3). Chowdhery and and thus almost no epiphytic orchids can be found in this Wadhwa (1984) reported 3243 species of angiosperms region. The opposite trend was found for the Brassicaceae. from Himachal Pradesh, 26.8% of which are accounted in This family occupies the sixth, third and seventh positions Kinnaur. in Kinnaur, Lahaul and Spiti and western Himalaya In Kinnaur, the ten most dominant families are respectively, but does not figure among the 10 dominant Asteraceae (122 species), Poaceae (69), Rosaceae (58), families in the eastern Himalaya and British India flora. Leguminosae (49), Lamiaceae (38), Ranunculaceae (30), Poaceae, the second most prominent family in both Brassicaceae (29), Polygonaceae (29), Apiaceae (25) and Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti districts, is also a prominent Caryophyllaceae (22). Altogether, they constitute 53.4 % family in district Shimla. This may be due to large cover of the total number of species in Kinnaur and 48.7 % of of grasslands (especially alpine meadows) and dry areas the genera occurring in this region. The flora of Kinnaur in the first two districts. However in Shimla, the large has close affinities with the flora of the adjacent district occurrence of grasses may be the result of anthropogenic of Lahaul and Spiti with eight of the ten families being influences. dominant in both of the regions, whereas Lamiaceae The taxonomic structure of biotas which can be and Caryophyllaceae dominate only in Kinnaur (Aswal measured as the ratio of family-to-genera, genera-to- and Mehrotra 1994) (Table 4). The upper Kinnaur has species, or family-to-species, does not vary randomly on a similar climate as that of the Spiti region of the Lahaul regional or global scales (Krug et al. 2007). The species- and Spiti district. It may be noted that Asteraceae, which genus (S/G) ratios are sensitive to diversity and increase is the most represented family in Kinnaur and Lahaul with number of species in the sample (Jarvinen 1982). and Spiti, ranks second, fourth, and seventh in western In Kinnaur, the ratio of family-to-genera is 1:4.25 and Himalaya, eastern Himalaya, and the Flora of British India, genera-to-species is 1:2.04. The genera-to-species ratio respectively (Hooker 1904; Hara and Hohashi 1966- 1974; of Kinnaur is similar to that of Shimla (1:2.08), Lahaul Rau 1975). Orchidaceae, a prominent family in the eastern and Spiti (1:2.5), Mussoorie (1:1.88), Nainital (1:1.9) and Himalaya and the Flora of British India, which ranks other areas of western Himalaya (Table 5). All of the above ninth in western Himalaya, does not even appear among mentioned areas have been found to host roughly the the first 10 dominant families of Kinnaur and Lahaul and same number of species (~700 to 1300 spp.) except for Spiti). Most of the area under Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti Srinagar and Garhwal. In Srinagar, the genera-to-species 326 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India ratio (1:3.95) is slightly higher, whereas, in Garhwal, The checklist of Kinnaur will help in undertaking further this remains similar to other regions, but the family-to- studies on quantitative assessments of plant species genera ratio is higher (1:5.46). Moreover, different regions making use of remote sensing and mapping technologies. 2 4 2 compared are also mesoscale landscapes (~10 to 10 km . The vegetation of Kinnaur district is undergoing rapid area). Thus, it may be inferred that overall the family-to- destruction due to anthropogenic disturbances such as genera and genera-to-species ratios are stable throughout construction of roads, hydropower projects, illegal felling the western Himalaya. of trees, unreasonable extraction of medicinal plants, and There are 9 families each with 10 genera or more and expansion of orchards and agricultural lands. The present these 9 families together represent 49.65 % of the total genera observed. Similarly, 24 families have 10 species or more accounting for 74.58 % of the total taxa. A total of 253 (58.43 %) genera are represented by single species. Furthermore, 54 families, represented by a low number of species (3 or less), abound in the study area. There are 46 (45.1 %) families represented by a single genus, and 26 (25.5 %) families represented by a single species. This shows the dominance of families with less taxa which make up the flora of the region. Our checklist includes 606 herbs, 63 trees, 108 shrubs, 28 climbers, 67 graminoids and 21 sedges and rushes (Figure 6a). Herbs are dominant since grasslands cover a large portion of the landscape. The tree diversity in the western Himalaya is considerably low compared to that in the eastern Himalaya. Most likely, low precipitation limits tree growth in western Himalaya. Out of total 881 species, 108 (12.2 %) are endemic to western Himalaya and 27 (3 %) have been placed under IUCN threatened categories for Himachal Pradesh (Figures 6b and 6c). Out of total 27 threatened species, 14 species are vulnerable, 7 are endangered and 1 is critically endangered in this region (Figure 6d). The collection of several species for traditional medicine or ornamental purposes could be at the origin of their rarity. The populations of the terrestrial orchid Dactylorhiza hatagirea (locally known as Hathpanja, referring to its roots resembling a baby’s hand with five fingers) have critically dwindled. It is collected for its roots which have important medicinal properties viz., aphrodisiac, general weakness, bone fracture, cough, stomach ache etc. The endangered medicinal plant species viz., Sinopodophyllum hexandrum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, and Aconitum heterophyllum are illegally extracted in very large quantities from alpine meadows. Similarly, Jurinea dolomiaea is also extracted in large quantities and its populations are also decreasing in the district. Further, it is very rare to find Saussurea obvalata, which locals call as ‘Brahmkamal’, because it’s beautiful, and fragrant flowers are commonly collected as an offering to the Gods. We could find this species in only two localities in Kinnaur viz., Nalgon Pass (~4600 m amsl) and Chitkul Pass (~4900- 5000 m amsl), population in the latter area containing only a few plants. The trees Ulmus wallichiana and Betula utilis fall under the ‘endangered’ category, while Pinus gerardiana or ‘Chilgoza pine’ is under the rare category. The latter tree is prominent in this region of Himachal Pradesh. However, Betula utilis or ‘Bhoj patra’which forms the tree line (at ~ 3300-3500 m amsl) and is reported as ‘endangered’ in Himachal Pradesh, was observed in large populations in Kinnaur, especially in the Sangla valley. Therefore, efforts should be made to conserve this species Figure 6. A) The proportion of different growth forms in the flora of Kinnaur. B) The proportion of endemic and threatened plants in Kinnaur. in Kinnaur. Further studies in this region should focus on C) The proportion of different IUCN risk categories among the threatened regular ‘quantitative assessments’ of the populations of plants of Kinnaur. D) The proportion of ten dominant families in kinnaur threatened species listed in the present study. in terms of species richness. 327 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India study provides an updated checklist of the vascular plants viz., topographic, edaphic and climatic attributes. The occurring in Kinnaur by extensive collections throughout population dynamics of plant species along the altitudinal the district, and includes a list of endemic and threatened gradient could be studied by establishing permanent species. Further research should now focus on the monitoring plots (PMPs) in the areas identified for quantitative assessement of these plants throughtout the potential conservation, which will also help in elucidating landscape and to identify potential areas for conservation. the effect of climate change on the distribution of plant Besides this, the biodiversity studies of the area should be species and their communities. performed along with a study of environmental variables Table 1. List of higher plant species found in Kinnaur. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Acanthaceae Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees PLP7642 Herb - Solding Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (Syn. D. roxburghiana Nees) PLP3026 Herb - F Strobilanthes atropurpureus Nees PLP3582 Herb - Solding, Yangpa Strobilanthes urticifolia Wall. ex Kuntze (Syn. S. alatus Nees) PLP7689 Herb - F Strobilanthes wallichii Nees (Syn. Pteracanthus alatus (Nees) Bremek.) PLP7940 Herb Endemic Solding, Rupi Adoxaceae Viburnum cotinifolium D. Don PLP4115 Shrub - F Viburnum foetens Decne PLP7422 Shrub - Rupi, Katgaon Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC. PLP3148 Shrub - Surchoo Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera L. PLP6375 Herb - Bhabhanagar Achyranthes bidentata Blume PLP7722 Herb - F Amaranthus caudatus L. PLP8447 Herb - Bari Amaranthus cruentus L. (Syn. Amaranthus paniculatus L.) PLP3606 Herb - Shango Amaranthus retroflexus L. PLP6371 Herb - F Axyris hybrida L. PLP6382 Herb - GA, S Chenopodium album L. PLP2878 Herb - F, G, GA, S Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants (Syn. Chenopodium botrys L.) PLP3020 Herb - F, GA, S Chenopodium foliosum Asch. PLP3598 Herb - S Chenopodium murale L. PLP5006 Herb - S Cyathula capitata Moq. PLP6369 Herb - Sangla Cyathula tomentosa (Roth) Moq. PLP2686 Herb - F, G Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst PLP4395 Herb - S Leo, Mulling, Salsola collina Pall. PLP4340 Herb - Nako Amaryllidaceae Allium carolinianum DC. PLP2988 Herb - Katgaon, Sangla Allium humile Kunth PLP2808 Herb - Sangla Allium jacqumontii Kunth PLP2560 Herb - Sangla Allium stracheyi Baker PLP2682 Herb Vulnerable G Allium victorialis L. PLP9486 Herb - GA Anacardiaceae Cotinus coggygria Scopoli (Syn. Rhus cotinus L.) PLP7742 Shrub - Ponda Toxicodendron wallichii var. wallichii (Syn. Rhus wallichii Hook. f.) PLP6387 Tree - Bari Apiaceae Angelica glauca Edgew. PLP7910 Herb - F Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch PLP2845 Herb - F Bupleurum candollii Wall. ex DC. PLP9828 Herb - Pangi Bupleurum falcatum L. PLP2671 Herb Endemic F, S Bupleurum falcatum ssp. marginatum Wall. ex DC. PLP3122 Herb - Rarang Panoong Karaba, Nichar, Bupleurum jucundum Kurz PLP3621 Herb Endemic Kharogla Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (Syn. Bupleurum himalayense Klotz.) PLP3189 Herb - F, GA Carum carvi L. PLP2956 Herb - G, GA Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. PLP2816 Herb - Sangla Chaerophyllum villosum Wall. ex DC. PLP2957 Herb - F, S Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke PLP2568 Herb Vulnerable F, G, S Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. PLP2856 Herb - Ralli 328 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Heracleum lanatum Michx. PLP2813 Herb Vulnerable F Endemic and Heracleum pinnatum C.B. Clarke PLP11328 Herb Rarang Panoong Vulnerable Meeboldia achilleifolia (DC.) P.K. Mukh. and Constance (Syn. Pimpinella PLP3230 Herb - F achilleifolia (DC.) C.B. Clarke) Pimpinella acuminata (Edgew.) C.B. Clarke PLP4110 Herb Endemic F Pimpinella diversifolia DC. PLP7634 Herb - F Pleurospermum brunonis (DC.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP3254 Herb Endemic GA Pleurospermum candoleii Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP9844 Herb Endemic GA Pleurospermum stellatum (D. Don) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP9827 Herb - GA Pleurospermum stylosum C.B. Clarke PLP3156 Herb - Homte Selinum coniifolium (Wall. ex DC.) Benth. and Hook. f. PLP9658 Herb - F Endemic and Selinum vaginatum (Edgew.) C.B. Clarke PLP3251 Herb Lower Risk F, GA, S Least Concern Selinum wallichianum (DC.) Raizada and H.O. Saxena (Syn. Selinum candollei PLP4061 Herb Endemic F, GA Edgew., Selinum tenuifolium Wall. ex C.B. Clarke) Seseli thomsonii (C.B. Clarke) Pimenov and Kljuykov (Syn. Eriocycla thomsonii PLP9767 Herb - Shurting (Cl.) Wolff ) Nigulseri, Bari, Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. PLP3543 Herb - Kafnu Apocynaceae Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight PLP3168 Herb - Shelti Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. PLP7978 Herb - Rupi Aquifoliaceae Bhabhanagar, Ilex dipyrena Wall. PLP7419 Tree Endemic Nichar Araceae Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott PLP3546 Herb - F Arisaema jacquemontii Blume PLP3184 Herb - F, GA Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott PLP8471 Herb - F Araliaceae Hedera nepalensis K. Koch PLP7743 Climber - F Asparagaceae Asparagus adscendens Roxb. PLP2685 Herb - F Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP3154 Shrub - F Maianthemum purpureum (Wall.) LaFrankie (Syn. Smilacina pallida Royle) PLP4049 Herb - F, S Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle PLP2928 Herb - Nichar Polygonatum geminiflorum Decne. PLP3253 Herb - GA Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. PLP4051 Herb Vulnerable F Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. PLP3185 Herb Vulnerable F, GA Balsaminaceae Impatiens amplexicaulis Edgew PLP8504 Herb - F Impatiens brachycentra Kar. and Kir PLP6235 Herb - Pangi Impatiens racemosa DC. PLP2840 Herb - F, S Impatiens scabrida DC. PLP4076 Herb - F, GA Impatiens thomsonii Hook. f. PLP2744 Herb - F, GA Berberidaceae Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. PLP2920 Shrub - Sering Chey Berberis chitria Buch.-Ham. ex Lindl. PLP2708 Shrub Endemic F, S Berberis coriaria Royle ex Lindl. PLP4112 Shrub Endemic Sangla Berberis jaeschkeana C. K. Schneid PLP2792 Shrub - F, S Berberis kunawurensis Royle PLP7493 Shrub Endemic Roghi Berberis lycium Royle PLP2696 Shrub Endemic F, S Berberis pachyacantha Bien ex Koehne PLP2866 Shrub - F, GA Endemic and Berberis pseudo-umbellata R. Parker PLP8520 Shrub F Indeterminate 329 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying (Syn. Podophyllum hexandrum PLP3176 Herb Endangered F, GA Royle) Betulaceae Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. PLP2501 Tree Endemic F Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP6303 Tree - F Betula utilis D. Don PLP2934 Tree Endangered F Corylus jacquemontii Decne. PLP3009 Tree Endemic F Bignoniaceae Incarvillea arguta Royle PLP2718 Herb - S Incarvillea emodi (Royle ex Lindl.) Chatterjee PLP9862 Herb - Nichar Boraginaceae Arnebia euchroma (Royle) I.M. Johnst. PLP7717 Herb - S Arnebia guttata Bunge PLP4398 Herb - S Cynoglossum wallichii var. glochidiatum (Wall. ex Benth.) Kazmi (Syn. PLP7667 Herb - F, G Cynoglossum glochidiatum Wall. ex Benth.) Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. PLP6218 Herb - F Cynoglossum microglochin Benth. PLP9626 Herb - F Cynoglossum wallichii G. Don PLP3112 Herb - F, GA, S Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Lehm.) Brand PLP2714 Herb - G, GA, S Ehretia acuminata R. Br. (Syn. E. acuminata var. serrata (Roxb.) I.M. Jhonst.) PLP7428 Tree - S Eritrichium canum (Benth.) Kitam. (Syn. E. strictum Decne.) PLP2947 Herb - Solding, Chitkul Eritrichum nanum (L.) Schrad. ex Gaudin PLP8551 Herb Endemic Rupi Hackelia uncinata (Benth.) C.E.C. Fisch. PLP3202 Herb - F, GA Heliotropium strigosum Willd. PLP2666 Herb - F Lappula barbata (M. Bieb.) Gürke PLP2880 Herb - Pooh Lasiocaryum munroi (C.B. Clarke) Johnst. PLP2646 Herb - Rekong Peo Lepechiniella microcarpa (Boiss.) Riedl. (Syn. Paracaryum microcarpum PLP2842 Herb - Roghi Boiss.) Lindelofia macrostyla (Bunge) Popov (Syn. L. anchusoides (Lindl.) Lehm.) PLP3227 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Lithospermum arvense L. PLP7491 Herb - Bhabhanagar Myosotis sylvatica Ehrh ex Hoffm. PLP3266 Herb - F, GA Rochelia rectipes Stocks (Syn. R. macrocalyx Bunge) PLP2655 Herb - Rekong Peo Setulocarya diffusa (Brand) R.R. Mill and D.G. Long (Syn. Lasiocaryum PLP4096 Herb - Boktu diffusum (Brand) Johnst.) Brassicaceae Boktu, Ribba, Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande (Syn. A. officinalis Andrz. ex PLP2864 Herb - Surchoo, DC.) Bhabhanagar Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynn. PLP2745 Herb - F, GA, S Arabis nova Vill. PLP2633 Herb - F, S Arabis tibetica Hook. f. and Thomson PLP3307 Herb - F Brassica nigra (L.) K. Koch. PLP6353 Herb - Nichar Brassica oleoreca L. PLP3633 Herb - Karaba Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. PLP2780 Herb - F Cardamine hirsuta L. PLP11311 Herb - Bhabhanagar Cardamine impatiens L. PLP2523 Herb - F, GA Cardamine macrophyllya Willd. PLP8514 Herb - Bhabhanagar Chorispora sabulosa Cambess. PLP3314 Herb - GA Crucihimalaya himalaica (Edgew.) Al-Shehbaz, O’Kane and R.A. Price (Syn. PLP2986 Herb - Kharogla Arabidopsis himalaica (Edgew.) O.E. Schulz.) Crucihimalaya mollissima (C.A. Mey.) Al-Shehbaz, O’Kane and R.A. Price PLP3218 Herb - GA (Syn. Arabidopsis mollissima (C.A. Mey) N. Busch) Katgaon, Kalpa, Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. ex Prantl PLP2753 Herb - Kuppa, Sangla Draba lasiophylla Royle PLP3303 Herb - GA Draba setosa Royle PLP8423 Herb - G Erysimum hieraciifolium L. f. PLP3108 Herb - S Erysimum malicentae Dunn PLP3584 Herb - Surchoo, Sangla 330 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Lepidium latifolium L. PLP5016 Herb - Yangthang Lepidium virginicum L. PLP6350 Herb - S Litwinowia tenuissima (Pall.) Woronow ex Pavlov (Syn. Euclidium PLP2642 Herb - S tenuissimum (Pall.) B. Fedtsch.) Mattihola flavida Boiss. PLP2918 Herb - Katgaon Neurotropis platycarpa (Fisch. and C.A. Mey.) F.K. Mey. (Syn. Thlaspi PLP2608 Herb - Chandriam cardiocarpum Hook. f. and Thomson) Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (Syn. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek) PLP2899 Herb - Katgaon, Sunnam Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern. (Syn. R. montana (Wall. ex Hook. f. and Thomson) PLP7458 Herb - GA Small) Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. PLP7761 Herb - Ponda Sisymbrium orientale L. PLP2891 Herb - Sunnam Thlaspi arvense L. PLP7710 Herb - S Turritis glabra L. PLP2996 Herb - Kharogla Buxaceae Buxus wallichiana Baill. PLP11366 Tree Endemic F Sarcococca pruniformis Lindl. (Syn. S. saligna Müll.Arg.) PLP7626 Shrub Endemic F Campanulaceae Campanula alsinoides Hook. f. and Thomson PLP9774 Herb - Shurting Campanula latifolia L. PLP9500 Herb - GA Campanula pallida Wall. (Syn. C. colorata Wall.) PLP2887 Herb - GA, S Codonopsis rotundifolia Benth. PLP9491 Herb Endemic GA Cyananthus lobatus Wall. ex Benth. PLP9484 Herb Endemic GA Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L. PLP3543 Herb - F, G, S Celtis australis L. PLP2854 Tree - Ribba Bhabhanagar, Celtis tetrandra Roxb. PLP7926 Tree - Sholtu Capparaceae Capparis spinosa L. PLP2898 Shrub Endemic Sunnam, Ka Caprifoliaceae Abelia biflora Turcz. PLP9627 Shrub - F Abelia triflora R. Br. ex Wall. PLP6294 Shrub - Ralli, Shurting Homte, Kharogla, Dipsacus inermis Wall. (Syn. Dipsacus mitis D. Don) PLP3006 Herb Endemic Neugal Lonicera asperifolia Hook. f. and Thomson PLP9794 Shrub - GA, S Lonicera karelinii Bunge ex P. Kir. (Syn. L. heterophylla Decne.) PLP2969 Shrub - F, S Lonicera hispida Pall. ex Roem. and Schult. PLP2801 Shrub - F, S Lonicera hypoleuca Decne. PLP2852 Shrub - F, S Lonicera japonica Thunb. PLP7727 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Lonicera myrtillus Hook. f. and Thomson PLP2707 Shrub - F, GA, S Lonicera obovata Royle PLP7435 Shrub - F Lonicera orientalis Lam. PLP2936 Shrub - F Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw. PLP11297 Shrub - F Lonicera spinosa Jacq. ex Walp. PLP9791 Shrub Endemic GA, S Morina coulteriana Royle PLP2964 Herb Endemic GA Morina longifolia Wall. PLP3137 Herb - GA Valeriana hardwickii Wall. PLP2822 Herb - Sangla Valeriana jatamansi Jones PLP4053 Herb - F Valeriana stracheyi C.B. Clarke PLP3206 Herb Endemic F, GA Caryophyllaceae Arenaria festucoides Benth. PLP2953 Herb Endemic GA, S Arenaria kansuensis Maxim. PLP11387 Herb - GA Arenaria orbiculata Royle ex Edgew. and Hook. f. PLP3658 Herb - GA Arenaria serpyllifolia L. PLP2667 Herb - F, GA Arenaria tenuifolia L. PLP5002 Herb - S Cerastium cerastoides (L.) Britton PLP6266 Herb - GA Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. PLP9481 Herb - GA 331 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Cucubalus viciferous L. PLP11292 Herb - Bhabhanagar Dianthus angulatus Royle PLP2908 Herb - F, GA Gypsophila cerastioides D. Don PLP8000 Herb - F Minuartia kashmirica (Edgew. and Hook. f.) Mattf. PLP2559 Herb - S Sagina saginoides (L.) H. Karst. PLP9685 Herb - Kharogla Silene baccifera (L.) Roth. (Syn. Cucubalus baccifer L.) PLP2849 Herb - Ribba Silene falconeriana Royle PLP2916 Herb Endemic Jangi Silene indica var. edgeworthii Boquet. Y.J. Nasir (Syn. Silene edgeworthii PLP7666 Herb Endemic G Bocquet) Silene persica Boiss. PLP2905 Herb - Ropa Silene songarica (Fisch., C.A. Mey. and Avé- Lall.) Bocquet. PLP9675 Herb - Kharogla Silene uralensis (Rupr.) Bocquet. PLP9483 Herb - GA Silene viscosa (L.) Pers. PLP2970 Herb - F Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke PLP2857 Herb - F, S Stellaria media (L.) Vill. PLP2524 Herb Endemic F, S Stellaria monosperma var. monosperma (Syn. S. crispata Wall. ex D. Don) PLP2993 Herb - F Stellaria monosperma Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP2893 Herb - Kharogla, Sunnam Celastraceae Euonymus fimbriatus Wall. PLP9777 Tree - GA Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis L. PLP6373 Herb - F, S Compositae Achillea millefolium L. PLP2790 Herb - G, GA Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L. PLP7636 Herb - F Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King and H. Rob (Syn. Eupatorium PLP7645 Herb - F adenophorum Spreng.) Ainsliaea aptera DC. PLP4054 Herb - F, S Ainsliaea latifolia (D. Don) Sch.-Bip. PLP7692 Herb - Sangla Anaphalis adnata Wall. ex DC. PLP2997 Herb - Surchoo, Kharogla Anaphalis busua (Buch.-Ham.) DC. PLP3167 Herb - F, S Anaphalis contorta (D.Don) Hook. f. PLP7499 Herb - F, GA Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. and Hook. f. (Syn. A. cinnamonea (DC.) PLP9655 Herb - F C.B. Clarke) Anaphalis nepalensis (Spreng.) Hand.-Mazz. PLP3264 Herb - F, GA, S Anaphalis royleana DC. PLP2941 Herb - F, G, GA, S Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims) Sims ex C. B. Clarke PLP3161 Herb - F, GA, S Anaphalis virgata Thomson PLP7489 Herb - Roghi Arctium lappa L. PLP2819 Herb - S Artemisia biennis Willd. PLP4164 Herb - F, GA, S Artemisia capillaris Thunb. PLP4379 Herb - F, GA, S Artemisia dracunculus L. PLP7697 Herb - F, S Artemisia dracunculus var. glauca (Pall. ex Willd.) H.M. Hall and Clem. (Syn. PLP7470 Herb - F, S A. glauca Pall. ex Willd.) Artemisia dubia Wall. PLP4083 Herb - F Artemisia gmelinii Weber PLP2950 Herb - F, G, GA, S Artemisia indica Willd. PLP2929 Herb - Sering Chey Artemisia indica var. elegantissima (Pamp.) Y.R. Ling and Humphries (Syn. A. PLP2859 Herb Endemic Ribba, Solding elegantissima Pamp.) Artemisia japonica Thunb. PLP3560 Herb Endemic F, S Artemisia laciniata Willd. PLP9652 Herb - F Artemisia maritima L. PLP2917 Herb - F, S Artemisia mryiantha Wall. ex Besser PLP2591 Herb - Katgaon Artemisia nilagirica (C.B. Clarke) Pamp. PLP4067 Herb - F, G, S Artemisia parviflora D. Don PLP2981 Herb - S Artemisia persica Boiss. PLP2637 Herb - Boktu, Sangla Artemisia roxburghiana Wall. ex Besser(Syn. A. strongylocephala Pamp.) PLP3032 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Artemisia scoparia Waldst and Kitam. PLP8439 Herb - F Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb. PLP4394 Herb - S 332 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Artemisia vestita Wall. ex Besser PLP2575 Herb - F, G, S Aster albescens (DC.) Wall. ex Hand.-Mazz. PLP6300 Herb - F Aster falconeri (C.B. Clarke) Hutch. PLP3231 Herb Endemic F Aster molliusculus (Lindl. ex DC.) C.B. Clarke PLP11230 Herb - GA Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. and Shreff. PLP3592 Herb - F Bidens pilosa L. PLP8589 Herb - S Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC. (Syn. B. mollis (D.Don) Merr.) PLP9804 Herb - Charang Blumea laciniata (Wall. ex Roxb.) DC. PLP3575 Herb - F, S Blumea membranacea DC. PLP3656 Herb - Yangpa Brachyactis pubescens Aitch. and C. B. Clarke PLP11222 Herb - GA Brachyactis robusta Benth. PLP9401 Herb - Kharogla Carduus edelbergii Rech. f PLP7764 Herb - Ponda Carduus onopordioides Fisch. ex M. Bieb. PLP2903 Herb - Ropa Carpesium nepalense Less. PLP3580 Herb Endemic F Cephalorrynchus macrorhizus (Royle) Tuisl (Syn. Lactuca macrorhiza PLP6339 Herb - F, G, GA (Royle) Hook. f.) Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Syn. Breea arvensis (L.) Less.) PLP3234 Herb - F, G, S Cirsium wallichii DC. PLP2519 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist (Syn. E. bonariensis L.) PLP6374 Herb - S Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist(Syn. Erigeron canadensis L.) PLP3605 Herb - F Conyza stricta Willd. PLP3113 Herb - F Cousinia thomsonii C.B. Clarke PLP9795 Herb - S Cremanthodium arnicoides (DC. ex Royle) R.D. Good. PLP9479 Herb - GA Crepis flexuosa (Ledeb.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP3125 Herb - G Crepis multicaulis Ledeb. PLP2989 Herb - F, S Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. ex DC. PLP7739 Herb - Ponda Erigeron alpinus L. PLP3653 Herb - F Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. PLP7947 Herb - Solding Erigeron borealis (Vierh.) Simmons PLP4393 Herb - S Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl ex DC.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke PLP6396 Herb - F, S Erigeron umbrosus (Kar. and Kir.) Boiss.(Syn. Brachyactis roylei (DC.) PLP7494 Herb - GA Wendelbo) Filago hurdwarica (Wall. ex DC.) Wagenitz PLP2657 Herb - F Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) S.F. Blake PLP2992 Herb - Kharogla Galinsoga parviflora Cav. PLP7747 Herb - F Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauverd PLP2619 Herb - Bhabhanagar Gnaphalium affine D. Don PLP7950 Herb - F, G Gynura bicolor (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. PLP2647 Herb - Chaura Helichrysum luteoalbum (L.) Rchb. (Syn. Gnaphalium luteoalbum L.) PLP7985 Herb - F Heteropappus altaicus (Willd.) Novopokr. PLP2912 Herb - Moorang Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) DC. PLP7607 Herb - F Inula orientalis Lam. (Syn. I. grandiflora Willd.) PLP3144 Herb - F Jurinea ceratocarpa (Decne.) Benth. PLP2654 Herb - GA Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss. PLP3194 Herb Vulnerable GA Lactuca dissecta D. Don PLP2510 Herb - F, GA, S Lactuca dolichophylla Kitam. PLP3171 Herb Endemic Hoye, Kara Lactuca orientalis (Boiss.) Boiss. PLP2883 Herb - F, S Launaea aspleniifolia Hook. f. PLP11319 Herb - Bhabhanagar Bhabhanagar, Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya and Rajagopal PLP2659 Herb - Nichar Leontopodium alpinum Colm. ex Cass. PLP6277 Herb - S, GA Leontopodium brachyactis Gand. PLP2558 Herb - GA Leontopodium monocephalum Edgew. (Syn. L. fimbrilligerum J.R. Drumm.) PLP2704 Herb - GA Leucanthemum vulgare (Vaill.) Lam. (Syn. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.) PLP7930 Herb - Bhabhanagar Ligularia sp. PLP6247 Herb - Surchoo Myriactis nepalensis Less. PLP3655 Herb - F, GA Myriactis wallichii Less. PLP5046 Herb Endemic F, GA Pentanema indicum (L.) Ling PLP3558 Herb - Katgaon 333 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Picris angustifolia subsp. angustifolia (Syn. P. hieracioides L.) PLP9800 Herb - Charang Prenanthes brunoniana Wall. ex DC. PLP3610 Herb - F Prenanthes violaefolia Decne. PLP6395 Herb - F Saussurea albescens (DC.) Sch.Bip. PLP2598 Herb - F Saussurea auriculata (DC.) Sch.Bip. (Syn. S. hypoleuca Spreng. ex DC.) PLP3157 Herb - Homte Saussurea caespitosa Wall. PLP3296 Herb Endemic GA Saussurea ceratocarpa Decne. PLP9838 Herb Endemic GA Endemic and Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. PLP9810 Herb Charang Endangered Saussurea glanduligera Sch.Bip. PLP11340 Herb Endemic Urni Saussurea heteromalla (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz. PLP2563 Herb - F Saussurea jacea (Kl.) C.B. Clarke PLP5003 Herb - Yangthang Saussurea obovallata (DC.) Edgew. PLP3256 Herb Vulnerable GA Saussurea roylei C.B. Clarke PLP9831 Herb Indeterminate Kafnu Saussurea simpsoniana (Fielding and Gardner) Lipsch. PLP3257 Herb - GA Saussurea taraxacifolia Wall. ex DC. PLP9868 Herb - GA Scorzonera virgata DC. PLP9707 Herb - F, GA Senecio desfontainei Druce PLP2582 Herb - G, S Senecio graciliflorus DC. PLP3625 Herb - Karaba, Hoye Senecio kashmerianus Balakr. PLP2553 Herb - Ribba Senecio krasheninnikovii Schisch. PLP2553 Herb - F Senecio kunthianus (Wall. ex DC.) Jeff. and Chenn. PLP9488 Herb - G Senecio laetus Edgew. (Syn. S. chrysanthemoides DC.) PLP3293 Herb - F, GA, S Senecio nudicaulis Buch.-Ham ex D. Don PLP2556 Herb - Bhabhanagar Senecio rufinervis DC. PLP2750 Herb - Nichar Serratula pallida DC. PLP3005 Herb Endemic Charang Siegesbeckia orientalis L. PLP3573 Herb - F Solidago virga-aurea L. PLP3247 Herb - F, GA Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. PLP7748 Herb - F, S Sonchus wightianus DC. PLP6365 Herb - Chaura Tagetes minuta L. PLP2537 Herb - F, S Tanacetum dolichophyllum (Kitam.) Kitam. PLP3280 Herb - GA Taraxacum officinale Webb. PLP2532 Herb - F, G, GA, S Tragopogon gracilis D. Don PLP2571 Herb - G Tricholepis elongata DC. PLP2579 Herb Endemic F, G, S Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel PLP3290 Herb - GA Waldheimia tomentosa (Decne.) Regel PLP3311 Herb - GA Xanthium strumarium L. PLP3011 Herb - Tapri Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L. PLP2897 Climber - Sunnam Cuscuta campestris Yunck. PLP7766 Climber - Ponda Cuscuta chinensis Lam. PLP2879 Climber - Pooh Ponda, Hoye, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. PLP3607 Climber - Chansu Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth PLP8481 Climber - F, S Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth PLP3597 Climber - Surchoo Coriariaceae Coriaria nepalensis Wall. PLP7627 Shrub - F Cornaceae Cornus capitata Wall. PLP3017 Tree - F Cornus macrophylla Wall. (Syn. Swida macrophylla (Wall.) Soják) PLP7772 Tree - F Crassulaceae Rhodiola heterodonta (Hook. f. and Thomson) Boriss. PLP2945 Herb - GA Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. PLP9843 Herb Endemic GA Sedum quadrifidum Pall. (Syn. Rhodiola quadrifida (Pall.) Fisch. and C.A. PLP2944 Herb - G, GA Mey.) Sedum roseum (L.) Scop. (Syn. Rhodiola rosea L.) PLP2931 Herb - G, GA Rhodiola tibetica (Hook. f. and Thomson) S.H. Fu PLP9835 Herb - GA 334 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Rhodiola wallichiana (Hook.) S.H. Fu PLP3308 Herb - GA Rosularia adenotricha (Wall. ex Edgew.) C.-A. Jansson PLP7903 Herb - GA Rosularia alpestris (Kar. and Kir.) Boriss. PLP3030 Herb - F, S Rosularia rosulata (Edgew.) H. Ohba PLP2865 Herb - Ribba, Kharogla Sedum ewersii Ledeb. (Syn. Hylotelephium ewersii (Ledeb.) H. Ohba) PLP9469 Herb - F, GA Sedum multicaule Wall. and Lindl. PLP3164 Herb - F Sedum oreades (Decne.) Raym-Hamet PLP3572 Herb - F Sedum trullipetalum Hook. f. and Thomson PLP6383 Herb - F, GA Sinocrassula indica (Decne.) A. Berger PLP2930 Herb - S Cucurbitaceae Herpetospermum pedunculosum (Ser.) C.B. Clarke PLP3618 Climber - Nichar Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Syn. Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) PLP3588 Climber - Surchoo Cogn.) Cyperaceae Carex cruenta Nees PLP11206 Sedge - GA Carex haematostoma Nees PLP6284 Sedge Endemic GA Carex muricata L. PLP2726 Sedge - GA Carex nivalis Boott. PLP9836 Sedge - GA Carex nubigena D. Don ex Tilloch and Taylor PLP8518 Sedge - F Carex setigera D. Don PLP2534 Sedge - F Carex wallichiana Sprengel PLP7457 Sedge - GA Cyperus alulatus Kern. PLP2770 Sedge - G Cyperus niveus Retz. PLP3104 Sedge - F Cyperus paniceus (Rottb.) Boeckeler PLP8413 Sedge - Bari, Nigulseri Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv PLP3596 Sedge - Surchoo Eriophorum comosum (Wall.) Nees PLP2630 Sedge - F Isolepis setacea (L.) R. Br. (Syn. Scirpus setaceus L.) PLP7464 Sedge - GA Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem. and Schult.(Syn. Scirpus cernuus Vahl) PLP7943 Sedge - Solding Kobresia nepalensis (Nees) Kük. PLP2803 Sedge - G Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T. Koyama (Syn. Cyperus flavidus Retz.) PLP7935 Sedge - Solding Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees (Syn. Cyperus sanguinolentus Vahl) PLP7933 Sedge - Solding Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb. PLP3150 Climber Vulnerable F, S Droseraceae Drosera peltata Thunb. PLP8502 Herb - F Elaeagnaceae Surchoo, Hoye, Elaeagnus parviflolia Wall. ex Royle PLP3574 Shrub - Akpa, Sangla, Katgaon Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson(Syn. Hippophae rhamnoides L.) PLP4400 Tree - F, S Hippophae salicifolia D. Don PLP2730 Tree Endemic S Hippophae tibetana Schltdl. PLP9807 Shrub - S Ericaceae Cassiope fastigiata (Wall.) D. Don PLP3278 Shrub - GA Gaultheria nummularoides D. Don PLP2710 Herb - F, S Gaultheria trichophylla Royle PLP2983 Herb - GA Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude PLP7981 Tree - F Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don PLP3273 Shrub Vulnerable GA Rhododendron arboreum Sm. PLP7655 Tree - F Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don PLP7431 Shrub - F, GA, S Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don PLP2995 Shrub - GA Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hispida Boiss. PLP3559 Herb - G Euphorbia maddenii Boiss. PLP2615 Herb - Surchoo, Sangla Euphorbia pilosa L. PLP6372 Herb - Pangi Fagaceae Quercus baloot Grift. PLP3010 Tree Endemic F 335 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Quercus floribunda Lindl. f ex A. Camus (Syn. Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex A. PLP2814 Tree Endemic F DC.) Quercus ilex L. PLP4078 Tree - F Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus PLP4162 Tree Endemic F Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. PLP9689 Tree - F Gentianaceae Comastoma tenellum (Rottb.) Toyok. (Syn. Gentiana tenella Rottb., PLP9473 Herb - GA Gentianella tenella (Rottb.) Börner) Gentiana argentea (Royle ex D. Don) Royle ex D. Don PLP2773 Herb - G Gentiana capitata Buch.-Ham ex D. Don(Syn. G. marginata Wall.) PLP3297 Herb - GA Gentiana kurroo Royle PLP9841 Herb - GA Gentiana stipitata Edgew. PLP8969 Herb - GA Gentiana tianshanica Rupr. ex Kusn. PLP9824 Herb - GA Gentiana tubiflora (G. Don) Griseb. PLP3298 Herb - GA Gentiana venusta (G .Don) Wall. ex Griseb. PLP3284 Herb - GA Gentianella aurea (L.) Harry Sm. PLP7439 Herb - GA Gentianopsis detonsa (Rottb.) Ma PLP9784 Herb - GA Halenia elliptica D. Don PLP9430 Herb - Kharogla Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulfen) Richb. PLP9732 Herb - GA Lomatogonium spathulatum (A. Kern) Fernald PLP3285 Herb - GA Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham ex D. Don PLP7432 Herb - Karcham Swertia ciliata (D. Don ex G. Don) B. L. Burtt PLP3268 Herb - F, GA Swertia cordata (Wall. ex G.Don) C.B. Clarke PLP3226 Herb - GA Swertia petiolata Royle ex D. Don PLP3289 Herb - GA Swertia speciosa D. Don PLP9478 Herb - GA Geraniaceae Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Her. PLP2641 Herb - S Geranium aconitifolium L’Her. PLP2521 Herb - Solding Geranium collinum Stephan ex Willd. PLP2962 Herb - F, S Geranium himalayense Klotzsch PLP3286 Herb - F, GA, S Geranium nepalense Sweet PLP11302 Herb - F, S, GA Geranium pratense L. PLP8421 Herb - F, GA Geranium robertianum L. PLP4070 Herb - Surchoo Geranium rotundifolium L. PLP2587 Herb - G, S Geranium sibiricum L. PLP3002 Herb - GA Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet PLP3181 Herb - F, G, GA, S Grossulariaceae Ribes alpestre Wall. ex Decne. PLP9782 Shrub - S Ribes orientale Desf. PLP6329 Shrub - S Hydrangeaceae Deutzia compacta Craib PLP9451 Shrub - Kharogla, Yangpa Deutzia staminea R. Br. ex Wall. PLP7793 Shrub - F Hypericaceae Hypericum elodeoides Choisy PLP7740 Shrub - Ponda Hypericum oblongifolium Choisy PLP2566 Shrub - Nigulseri Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis aurea Lour. PLP8503 Herb - Rupi Iridaceae Iris ensata Thunb. PLP2601 Herb - GA Iris hookeriana Foster PLP7728 Herb Endemic GA Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. PLP2755 Tree Endemic F Juncaceae Juncus articulatus L. PLP9428 Rush - Kharogla Juncus articulatus subsp. articulatus (Syn. J. lampocarpus Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) PLP4386 Rush - Hango Juncus himalensis Klotzsch PLP9796 Rush - GA Juncus thomsonii Ten. PLP2763 Rush - Chansu Lamiaceae 336 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. (Syn. A. bracteosa Wall. ex Benth.) PLP8544 Herb - F Ajuga parviflora Benth. PLP2552 Herb - F, G, S Clinopodium umbrosum (M. Bieb.) Kuntze(Syn. Calamintha umbrosa (M. PLP2697 Herb - F Bieb.) Fisch and C.A. Mey.) Clinopodium vulgare L. PLP2922 Herb - F, S Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyl. (Syn. E. cristata Willd.) PLP5043 Herb - F, S Elsholtzia eriostachya (Benth.) Benth. PLP9459 Herb - F, GA, S Elsholtzia fruticosa (D. Don) Rehder PLP2727 Shrub - F Elsholtzia pilosa (Benth.) Benth. PLP9444 Herb - F Elsholtzia strobilifera (Benth.) Benth. PLP9450 Herb - Kharogla Hyssopus officinalis L. PLP5001 Herb - S Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd.(Syn. Plectranthus rugosus Wall. ex PLP2506 Shrub - F, S Benth.) Lamium album L. PLP2764 Herb - Urni Hoye, Pangi, Leonurus cardiaca L. PLP3612 Herb - Chansu Leucas lanata Benth. PLP2742 Herb - Wangtoo Mentha longifolia (L.) L. PLP2518 Herb - F, G, S Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Benth. PLP2583 Herb - F, G, S Nepeta discolor Royle ex Benth. PLP7483 Herb Endemic F, GA Nepeta erecta (Royle ex Benth.) Benth. PLP3007 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Nepeta eriostachya Benth. PLP3270 Herb - F, GA Nepeta floccosa Benth. PLP5005 Herb Endemic S Nepeta glutinosa Benth. PLP4389 Herb - GA, S Nepeta hindostana (Roth.) Haines PLP2570 Herb - Chetetang Tee Nepeta laevigata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz. PLP6345 Herb - S Nepeta linearis Royle ex Benth. PLP11294 Herb - Sangla Nepeta nervosa Royle ex Benth. PLP3613 Herb - Hoye Nepeta podostachys Benth. PLP11294 Herb - F Ocimum americanum L.(Syn. O. canum Sims.) PLP2771 Herb - Sangla Origanum vulgare L. PLP2533 Herb - F, G, GA, S Phlomis bracteosa Royle ex Benth. PLP3201 Herb - GA Solding, Rupi, Prunella vulgaris L. PLP3170 Herb - Yangpa Salvia coccinea Buc’hoz ex Etl. PLP3195 Herb - GA Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth. PLP2562 Herb Endemic F Salvia mukerjeei Bennet and Raizada PLP2581 Herb - F, G, S Salvia nubicola Wall. ex Sweet PLP2544 Herb - F, G, GA, S Scutellaria prostrata Jacquem ex Benth. PLP9822 Herb - GA Stachys melissaefolia Benth. PLP3249 Herb - F Stachys sericea Cav. PLP3393 Herb Endemic GA Thymus linearis Benth. PLP2567 Herb - F, G, GA, S Leguminosae Astracantha strobilifera (Benth.) Podlech(Syn. Astragalus strobiliferus PLP2913 Herb - Leo, Moorang Benth.) Astragalus amherstianus Benth. PLP9744 Herb - S Astragalus chlorostachys Lindl. PLP2776 Herb - Pangi Astragalus graveolens Benth. PLP2868 Herb - F, S Astragalus himalayanus Klotzsch (Syn. Astragalus maddenianus Baker) PLP9684 Shrub Endemic Kharogla Astragalus oplites Benth. ex R. Parker PLP9799 Shrub Endemic S Astragalus peduncularis Royle PLP9811 Herb - GA Astragalus rhizanthus Benth. PLP7484 Shrub Endemic F, GA, S Astragalus rhizanthus subsp. candolleanus (Benth.) Podlech. (Syn. PLP2954 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Astragalus candolleanus Benth.) Astragalus rhizanthus subsp. rhizanthus Benth. (Syn. Astragalus PLP2966 Herb - F melacophyllus Bunge) Caragana brevispora Royle PLP3659 Shrub - S Caragana gerardiana Benth. PLP4383 Shrub Endemic GA, S 337 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Chesneya cuneata (Benth.) Ali PLP6317 Herb - GA Colutea nepalensis Sims PLP2886 Shrub - S Desmodium elegans DC. PLP2573 Shrub Endemic F, G, S Desmodium multiflorum DC. (Syn. D. sambuense (D. Don) DC.) PLP8578 Shrub - Katgaon, Nigulseri Rarang Panoong, Desmodium nutans Wall. PLP5051 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. PLP7723 Shrub - Katgaon Dolichos tennuicaulis (Baker) Craib PLP4377 Herb - Shudhrang Hedysarum microcalyx Baker PLP4119 Herb Endemic F Endemic and Indigofera cedororum Dunn PLP3547 Shrub F, GA Indeterminate Indigofera dosua D. Don PLP3262 Herb Endemic F, GA Indigofera hebepetala Baker PLP3208 Shrub - S Indigofera heterantha Brandis PLP2585 Shrub - F Lathyrus emodi (Fritch.) Ali PLP3637 Herb - F, S Lespedeza elegans Cambess. PLP7468 Herb - Sharbo Lespedeza juncea (L.f.) Pers. PLP3029 Herb - F Lotus corniculatus L. PLP3647 Herb - F, GA Medicago falcata L. PLP4156 Herb - S Medicago lupulina L. PLP6257 Herb - Urni, Pangi Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. (Syn. Medicago officinalis (L.) E.H.L.Krause) PLP2783 Herb - F, S Medicago sativa L. PLP2906 Herb - S Oxytropis humifusa Kar. and Kir. PLP6265 Herb - GA Oxytropis mollis Benth. PLP2967 Herb Endemic F Parochetus communis D. Don PLP2778 Herb - Rekong Peo Phaseolus coccineus L. PLP7618 Herb - F Piptanthus nepalensis (Hook.) D. Don PLP9653 Shrub - Kharogla Pisum sativum L. PLP3624 Herb - Hoye Robinia pseudo-acacia L. PLP2502 Tree - F Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker PLP2554 Shrub Endemic F Thermopsis barbata Benth. PLP3190 Herb - F, GA Trifolium pratense L. PLP2789 Herb - F, G, GA Trifolium repens L. PLP2661 Herb - G, GA Trigonella emodi Benth. PLP2846 Herb - GA Medicago edgeworthii Sirj. (Syn. Trigonella pubescens Baker) PLP2803 Herb Endemic F Vicia bakeri Ali PLP2810 Herb Endemic Sangla Vicia faba L. PLP2765 Herb - Sangla Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray PLP6292 Herb - Pangi Vicia pallida Hook. and Arn. PLP6246 Herb - Pangi, Sangla Vicia sativa L. PLP2593 Herb - F Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. PLP3117 Herb - Rarang Panoong Liliaceae Herb - Gagea lutea (L.) Ker.Gawl. PLP2736 Herb - S Lilium polyphyllum D. Don PLP6301 Herb - Ralli Notholirion thomsonianum (Royle) Stapf PLP2561 Herb - Karcham Linaceae Linum perenne L. PLP4155 Herb - Chulling Reinwardtia indica Dumort. PLP2802 Shrub - Nigulseri Malvaceae Grewia optiva J.R. Drumm. ex Burret PLP2721 Tree - Sangla Malva neglecta Wallr. PLP3127 Herb - F, G, GA, S Malva pusilla Sm. (Syn. M. rotundifolia L.) PLP2751 Herb - Sangla Malva sylvestris L. PLP6348 Herb - Kalpa Malva verticillata L. PLP2809 Herb - Nichar Melanthiaceae Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D. Don (Syn. Trillidium govanianum (Wall. ex PLP3245 Herb - F, GA D. Don) Kunth. Melastomataceae 338 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Osbeckia stellata Buch. -Ham. ex Ker.Gawl. PLP2817 Shrub - Tapri Meliaceae Toona sinensis (Juss.) M. Roem. (Syn. T. serrata (Royle) M. Roem.) PLP2820 Tree - Sholtu Menispermaceae Cissampelos pariera L. PLP11216 Climber - Chaura Moraceae Ficus palmata Forssk. PLP2535 Tree - F, S Morus serrata Roxb. PLP11255 Tree Endemic Tapri Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia diffusa L. PLP5037 Herb - Pangi Oxybaphus himalaicus Edgew. PLP3120 Herb - F Olacaceae Olax scandens Roxb. PLP11284 Shrub - Karcham Oleaceae Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (G. Don) Wall. ex A. DC. PLP2888 Tree Endemic F, S Jasminum humile L. PLP6296 Shrub - F Olea cuspidata Wall. ex G. Don PLP2640 Tree - Sholtu Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. and G. Don) Cif. PLP3036 Tree - F (Syn. O. ferruginea Royle) Syringa emodi Wall. ex Royle PLP9454 Shrub - F Onagraceae Circaea alpina L. PLP2955 Herb - GA Circaea alpina subsp. imaicola (Asch. and Magnus) Kitam. (Syn. Circaea PLP8549 Herb - GA imaicola (Asch.-Magus) Hand.- Mazz.) Epilobium angustifolium L. PLP9779 Herb - GA Epilobium chitralense P.H. Raven PLP3259 Herb - GA, S Epilobium cylindricum D. Don PLP3248 Herb - GA Epilobium hirsutum L. PLP3639 Herb - Yangpa Epilobium latifolium L. PLP3274 Herb Endemic F, GA Epilobium roseum (Schreb.) Schreb. PLP9490 Herb - F, GA Epilobium royleanum Hausskn. PLP8516 Herb - F Oenothera rosea L’Her. ex Aiton PLP7606 Herb - F Raimannia drummondii Rose PLP2919 Herb - Sering Chey Orchidaceae Calanthe plantaginea Lindl. PLP8591 Herb - Rupi Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch.(Syn. C. ensifolia Rich.) PLP2985 Herb - Kharogla Critically Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo PLP3252 Herb F, GA Endangered Epipactis gigantea Douglas ex Hook. PLP5040 Herb - F Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz PLP4128 Herb - F Epipactis helleborine subsp. Helleborine(Syn. Epipactis latifolia (L.) All.) PLP8512 Herb - F Epipactis veratrifolia Boiss. and Hohen. PLP9785 Herb - Shurting Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. PLP9677 Herb - F Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijkj PLP3654 Herb - Yangpa Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze. PLP7962 Herb - Sangla Neottia listeroides Lindl. PLP9442 Herb - Kharogla Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. PLP7955 Herb - Solding Orobanchaceae Euphrasia himalayica Wettst. PLP7447 Herb - F, GA Euphrasia platyphylla Pennell PLP9735 Herb - GA Leptorhabdos parviflora (Benth.) Benth. PLP3158 Herb - F, S Orobanche alba Stephen PLP2872 Herb - F, GA, S Orobanche epithymum DC. PLP3025 Herb - Hoye Pedicularis bicornuta Klotzsch PLP3163 Herb Endemic F Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph PLP3394 Herb - F, GA Pedicularis pectinata Wall. ex Benth. PLP3211 Herb Endemic GA Pedicularis porrecta Wall. PLP3153 Herb - F Pedicularis tenuirostris Aitch. PLP3004 Herb Endemic Kharogla 339 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Oxalidaceae Oxalis acetosella L. PLP9635 Herb - Sangla Oxalis corniculata L. PLP2578 Herb - F, G, S Papaveraceae Corydalis cashmeriana Royle PLP9848 Herb - GA Corydalis cornuta Royle PLP3235 Herb - F, GA Corydalis govaniana Wall. PLP3626 Herb Endemic Hoye Corydalis meifolia Wall. PLP3292 Herb - GA Corydalis moorcroftiana Wall. ex Hook. f. and Thomson PLP11300 Herb - F Corydalis vaginans Royle (Syn. C. ramosa Hook. f. and Thomson) PLP9743 Herb - GA Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsley PLP2663 Herb - Karaba, Boktu Endemic and Meconopsis aculeata Royle PLP3216 Herb GA Vulnerable Papaver dubium L. PLP2596 Herb - Katgaon Papaver nudicaule L. PLP2767 Herb - Sangla Papaver somniferum L. PLP9806 Herb - F Parnessiaceae Parnassia laxmanii Pall. ex Schult. PLP3141 Herb - GA Parnassia nubicola Wall. ex Royle PLP8507 Herb - F Phrymaceae Lancea tibetica Hook. f and Thomson PLP6327 Herb - Nako Mazus surculosus D. Don PLP7988 Herb - F Phyllanthaceae Leptopus cordifolius Decne. (Syn. Andrachne cordifolia (Decne.) Müll. Arg.) PLP2539 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Phytolacaceae Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. PLP9812 Herb - Nichar, Sangla Piperaceae Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forst.) Hook. and Arn. PLP2687 Herb - Wangtoo Plantaginaceae Hemiphragma heterophyllum Wall. PLP7967 Herb - Rupi Hippuris vulgaris L. PLP7670 Herb - Rupi Endemic and Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. PLP3255 Herb GA Endangered Plantago depressa Willd. PLP2821 Herb - F, G, GA Plantago erosa Wall. PLP6242 Herb - Sangla Plantago himalaica Pilg. PLP2733 Herb - G, S Plantago major L. PLP2984 Herb - F Veronica agrestis L. PLP2785 Herb - Kuppa Veronica beccabunga L. PLP3272 Herb - GA Veronica biloba L. PLP2644 Herb - Kalpa Veronica hederifolia L. PLP2645 Herb - Rekong Peo Veronica lanosa Royle ex Benth. PLP7445 Herb Endemic GA Veronica persica Poir. PLP3381 Herb - Sangla Poaceae Agrostis canina L. PLP9801 Grass - GA Agrostis munroana Aitch. and Hemsl. PLP9649 Grass Endemic G Agrostis pilosula Trin. PLP11236 Grass - GA Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir PLP2804 Grass - G, S Andropogon munroi C.B. Clarke PLP2651 Grass - Katgaon, Kafnu Apluda mutica L. PLP2662 Grass - Urni Arundo donax L. PLP3556 Grass - S Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv. PLP9665 Grass - GA Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. PLP2653 Grass - S Bromus arvensis L. PLP5032 Grass - F Bromus catharticus Vahl (Syn. B. uniloides Kunth.) PLP3033 Grass - Surchoo Bromus japonicus Thunb. PLP2652 Grass - Kalpa Bromus lanceolatus Roth PLP6320 Grass - Shyasu Khud Bromus pectinatus Thunb. PLP2592 Grass - F, GA, S 340 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Haller) Koeler PLP3549 Grass - Kafnu, Kharogla Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. (Syn. C. echinulatus (Nees) W. Watson) PLP7993 Grass - F, GA Cymbopogon distans (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson PLP2876 Grass - S Cymbopogon jawarancusa (Jones) Schult PLP2972 Grass - Rarang Panoong Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) W. Watson PLP8551 Grass - Katgaon Cymbopogon pospischilii (K. Schum.) C.E. Hubb. (Syn. C. stracheyi (Hook. f.) PLP3105 Grass - F, S Raizada and S.K. Jain) Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. PLP2540 Grass - F, G, S Dactylis glomerata L. PLP3586 Grass - F, G, GA Danthonia cachemyriana Jaub. ex Spach. PLP2520 Grass - GA Danthonia cumminsii Hook. f. (Syn. D. jacquemontii Bor) PLP9642 Grass - F, GA, G, S Digitaria cillaris (Retz.) Koeler (Syn. Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard) PLP7449 Grass - F, GA, S Digitaria cruciata (Nees) A. Camus PLP3123 Grass - G, GA Digitaria stricta Roth PLP4109 Grass - F Elymus nutans Griseb. PLP9751 Grass - S Elymus semicostatus (Nees ex Steud.) Melderis PLP7941 Grass - S Festuca undata Stapf PLP3577 Grass - Surchoo Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin PLP3260 Grass - GA Helictotrichon junghuhnii (Buse) Henrard (Syn. H. virescens (Nees ex Steud.) PLP2914 Grass - Sangla Henrard) Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult PLP4169 Grass - Nichar Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. PLP3310 Herb - G Koeleria royleana (L.) Pers. PLP7486 Grass - S Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes PLP2909 Grass - Moorang Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.) P. Beauv.(Syn. K. cristata (L.) Pers.) PLP2624 Grass - F, GA, S Melica persica Kunth PLP9789 Grass - S Microstegium nudum (Trin.) A. Camus PLP7960 Grass - Solding Muhlenbergia duthieana Hack. PLP9415 Grass - GA Muhlenbergia himalayensis Hack. ex Hook. f. PLP6224 Grass - F Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henr. PLP6367 Grass - S Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv. PLP7609 Grass - F, S Oryzopsis aequiglumis Duthie ex Hook. f. PLP7497 Grass - F, GA Oryzopsis munroi Stapf ex Hook. f. PLP5029 Grass - F, S Oryzopsis vicaria Grig. (Syn. O. microcarpa Pilg., Piptatherum microcarpam PLP3183 Grass - Mulling, Jangi (Pilg.) Tzvelev) Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb. PLP3551 Grass - F, G Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (Syn. Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv.) PLP8464 Grass - F Pennisetum lanatum Klotzsch PLP2861 Grass - F, GA, S Bhabhanagar, Pennisetum orientale Rich. PLP6381 Grass - Katgaon Phacelurus speciosus (Steud.) C.E. Hubb PLP2775 Grass - Urni Phleum alpinum L. PLP3193 Grass - GA Phleum himalaicum Mez PLP11335 Grass - F Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. PLP2514 Grass - F Poa annua L. PLP8545 Grass - F Poa polycolea Stapf PLP6248 Grass - F Poa supina Schrad. PLP7462 Grass - F Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud. PLP7615 Grass - F Saccharum filifolium Steud. PLP2837 Grass - Sangla Schizachyrium exile (Hochst.) Pilg. PLP2572 Grass - F, G Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem and Schult. PLP3569 Grass - F Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. PLP2827 Grass - Kafnu Stipa brandisii Mez PLP5044 Grass - F Themeda anathera (Nees ex Steud.) Hack. PLP3019 Grass - F Themeda arundinacea (Roxb.) A. Camus PLP3568 Grass - F, GA Themeda triandra Forssk. PLP2612 Grass - G Trisetum klarkei (Hook. f.) R.R. Stewart PLP7414 Grass - F, GA Trisetum spicatum (L.) K. Richt. PLP3192 Grass - F, GA 341 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Polemoniaceae Polemonium caeruleum L. PLP3395 Herb - Chansu Polygalaceae Polygala hottentotta C. Presl (Syn. P. abyssinica R. Br. ex Fresen.) PLP2716 Herb - Wangtoo Polygonaceae Bistorta vaccinifolia (Wall. ex Meisn.) Greene (Syn. Polygonum vaccinifolia) PLP9605 Herb - GA Fagopyrum esculentum Moench PLP2597 Herb - F, S Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. PLP2757 Herb - Sangla Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve (Syn. Polygonum convolvulus L.) PLP2689 Climber - F Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub (Syn. Polygonum dumetorum L.) PLP9619 Herb - F Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill PLP3221 Herb - F, GA, S Persicaria amplexicaulis (D. Don) Ronse Decr. (Syn. Polygonum amplexicaule PLP2549 Herb - F D. Don) Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross (Syn. Polygonum PLP6239 Herb - F capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don) Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre (Syn. Polygonum hydropiper L.) PLP3638 Herb - F Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe(Syn. Polygonum nepalense Meisn.) PLP7964 Herb - F Persicaria vivipara (L.) Ronse Decr. (Syn. Polygonum viviparum L.) PLP2971 Herb - F, GA, S Persicaria wallichii Greuter and Burdet (Syn. Polygonum polystachyum Wall. PLP3138 Shrub - F, GA ex Meisn.) Polygonum affine D. Don PLP3142 Herb - GA Polygonum aviculare L. PLP3589 Herb - F, G, GA, S Polygonum cognatum Meisn. PLP9790 Herb - S Polygonum glaciale var. glaciale (Syn. P. glaciale (Meissn.) Hook. f.) PLP3602 Herb - Katgaon Polygonum molliforme Boiss. PLP6312 Herb - S Polygonum paronychioides C.A. Mey. PLP2881 Herb Endemic F, G, S Polygonum plebeium R. Br. PLP3557 Herb - S Polygonum pubescens Blume (Syn. Persicaria pubescens (Blume) Hara) PLP7641 Herb - F Polygonum somdevae Aswal and Mehrotra PLP3388 Shrub - GA Polygonum tortuosum D. Don PLP3315 Herb - GA, S Polygonum rottboellioides Jaub. and Spach(Syn. P. tubulosum Boiss.) PLP3018 Herb - F, GA Rheum australe D. Don PLP2673 Herb Vulnerable F, GA Rheum webbianum Royle. PLP6280 Herb Endemic GA Rumex acetosa L. PLP9472 Herb - Chansu Rumex hastatus D. Don PLP2541 Herb - G Rumex nepalensis Spreng. PLP2895 Herb - F, G, GA, S Rumex patientia subsp. orientalis (Bernh. ex Schult. and Schult. f. ) PLP6338 Herb - GA Danser(Syn. R. orientalis Benth. ex Schult. and Schult. f.) Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea L. PLP3118 Herb - F Primulaceae Androsace globifera Duby PLP3294 Herb - GA Androsace lanuginosa Wall. PLP3136 Herb - F, GA Androsace rotundifolia Hardw. PLP7661 Herb - F Androsace sarmentosa Wall. PLP4106 Herb - Rupi, Kharogla Myrsine africana L. PLP2921 Shrub - Bhabhanagar Primula denticulata Sm. PLP2806 Herb - GA Primula floribunda Wall. PLP2569 Herb Endemic G Primula macrophylla D. Don PLP9847 Herb - GA Primula sessilis Royle ex Craib PLP3034 Herb Endemic Sangla Ranunculaceae Endemic and Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle PLP3215 Herb GA Endangered Aconitum rotundifolium Kar and Kir PLP11260 Herb - GA Endemic and Aconitum violaceum Jacquem ex Stapf PLP3288 Herb GA Vulnerable Adonis aestivalis L. PLP2719 Herb - F, S Anemone obtusifolia D. Don PLP7656 Herb - F 342 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. PLP3140 Herb - F, GA Aquilegia fragrans Benth. PLP3617 Herb Endemic F, S Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. ex Royle PLP2937 Herb - F Caltha palustris L. PLP3242 Herb - GA Rekong Peo, Ceratocephala falcata (L.) Pers. (Syn. Ranunculus falcatus L.) PLP2656 Herb - Sangla Clematis buchananiana DC. PLP7731 Climber - Ponda Clematis connata DC. PLP3609 Climber - Hoye Clematis grata Wall. PLP3151 Climber - F, S Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. ex DC. PLP4122 Climber - F Clematis orientalis L. PLP2896 Climber Endemic S Delphinium brunonianum Royle PLP3291 Herb - GA Delphinium cashemerianum Royle PLP3630 Herb Endemic GA Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook. f. and Thomson PLP2616 Herb Endemic F Delphinium vestitum Wall. ex Royle PLP9463 Herb Endemic GA Ranunculus brotherusii Freyn. PLP2940 Herb - F Ranunculus hirtellus Royle PLP4124 Herb - F, GA Ranunculus distans Royle PLP3642 Herb - F (Syn. R. laetus Wall. ex Royle) Thalictrum chelidonii DC. PLP2855 Herb - Katgaon, Ribba Thalictrum cultratum Wall. PLP5036 Herb - F, GA Thalictrum foetidum L. PLP11363 Herb - F Thalictrum foliolosum DC. PLP2717 Herb - F, G, S Thalictrum minus L. PLP6331 Herb Endemic F, GA, S Thalictrum pauciflorum Royle PLP4384 Herb - F Thalictrum platycarpum (Trel.) Greene PLP2836 Herb - F, GA Thalictrum reniforme Wall. PLP4057 Herb - F Rhamnaceae Rhamnus triquetra (Wall.) Brandis PLP2723 Tree - F Rhamnus virgata Roxb. PLP7785 Tree - F Sageretia thea var. thea (Syn. S. theezans (L.) Brongn.) PLP2528 Shrub - F Rosaceae Acomastylis elata (Wall. ex G. Don) F. Bolle (Syn. Geum elatum Wall. ex G. PLP3269 Herb Endemic F, GA Don) Agrimonia aitchisonii Schonbeck-Temesy PLP8410 Herb - Nigulseri, Rupi Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. PLP9614 Herb - GA Cerasus cerasoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) S.Y. Sokolov (Syn. Prunus PLP7913 Tree - Kalpa cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Cotoneaster acuminatus Lindl. PLP9446 Shrub - Kharogla Cotoneaster affinis Lindl. PLP2884 Shrub - Pooh Cotoneaster bacillaris Wall. ex Lindl. PLP9688 Shrub - Kharogla Cotoneaster falconeri Klotz PLP3143 Shrub - F, GA Cotoneaster gilgitensis Klotz PLP2910 Shrub - S Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. ex Lindl. PLP7498 Shrub - GA Cotoneaster obovata Wall. ex Dunn PLP4117 Shrub Endemic F Cotoneaster rotundifolius Wall. ex Lindl. PLP6259 Shrub - Sangla Cotoneaster schubertii Klotz PLP4092 Shrub - F Crataegus curvisepala Lindm. (Syn. C. oxyacantha L.) PLP7919 Tree - Kalpa Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke (Syn. Fragaria indica Andrews) PLP2698 Herb - F Filipendula vestita (Wall. ex G. Don) Maxim. PLP3204 Herb - F, GA Fragaria nubicola (Hook. f.) Lindl. ex Lacaita PLP2545 Herb - F, GA, S Fragaria vesca L. PLP4069 Herb - F, S Geum roylei F. Bolle PLP3657 Herb - Yangpa Geum urbanum L. PLP4068 Herb - Surchoo Malus pumila Mill. (Syn. Pyrus malus L.) PLP3585 Tree - F Padus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) Carrière(Syn. Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) PLP3165 Tree - F Steud.) Photinia nussia (Buch.-Ham ex D. Don) Kalkman PLP3608 Tree - Hoye 343 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Potentilla anserina L. PLP6342 Herb - Nako Potentilla argyrophylla Wall. ex Lehm. PLP3258 Herb - F, GA, S Potentilla atrosanguinea Lodd., G. Lodd. and W. Lodd. PLP2948 Herb - F, G, GA Potentilla bifurca L. PLP3109 Herb - G, GA Potentilla cuneata Wall. ex Lehm. PLP9604 Herb - GA Potentilla cuneifolia (Rydb.) Th. Wolf PLP2961 Herb - GA Potentilla fragarioides L. PLP2739 Herb - S Potentilla fruticosa var. arbuscula (D. Don) Maxim. (Syn. P. arbuscula D. Don) PLP9814 Herb - GA Potentilla gerardiana Lindl. ex Lehmann PLP11316 Herb - Bhabhanagar Potentilla leucochroa Lindl. PLP2580 Herb - F, G Potentilla multifida L. PLP6344 Herb Endemic Nako Potentilla nepalensis Hook. PLP3214 Herb - F, GA Potentilla parviflora Desf. PLP6397 Herb - F, GA Potentilla sundaica Kuntze PLP3222 Herb - F, GA Prinsepia utilis Royle PLP2505 Shrub - F, S Prunus amygdalus Batsch (Syn. P. communis (L.) Arcang) PLP5020 Tree - F Prunus armeniaca L. PLP2747 Tree - Sangla, Nigani Prunus domestica L. PLP2746 Tree - Sangla Prunus persica (L.) Stokes PLP2715 Tree - S Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham ex D. Don PLP7758 Tree - F Rosa brunonii Lindl. PLP7643 Shrub - F Rosa cymosa Tratt. (Syn. R. indica L.) PLP5049 Shrub - F Rosa macrophylla Lindl. PLP2794 Shrub Endemic F, GA, S Rosa sericea Lindl. PLP4062 Shrub - Katgaon Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle PLP2875 Shrub - F, S Rubus biflorus Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. PLP7782 Shrub - Katgaon Rubus ellipticus Sm. PLP7651 Shrub - F Rubus irritans Focke (Syn. R. purpureus Bunge ex Hook. f.) PLP2722 Shrub - F, GA Rubus niveus Thunb.(Syn. R. foliolosus D. Don) PLP7625 Shrub - F Rubus paniculatus Sm. PLP4113 Climber - Sangla Sibbaldia cuneata Hornem. ex Kuntze PLP6278 Herb - GA Sibbaldia parviflora Willd. PLP3182 Herb - G, GA Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder PLP2724 Shrub - F Sorbus lanata (Don) Schauer PLP7421 Shrub - Homte Spiraea canescens D. Don PLP7434 Shrub - F, S Rubiaceae Agrostemma verticillatum L. PLP2738 Herb - Wangtoo Asperula oppositifolia Regel and Schmalh. PLP9775 Herb - GA Galium aparine L. PLP3387 Climber - F, G, GA, S Galium asperifolium Wall. PLP7695 Climber - S Galium asperuloides Edgew. PLP3236 Climber - F Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb. (Syn. Galium vestitum D. Don) PLP8428 Climber - F Galium serpylloides Royle ex Hook. f. PLP9730 Climber - GA, S Galium verum L. PLP3197 Herb - F, GA Leptodermis lanceolata Wall. PLP7908 Shrub - Ponda Rubia cordifolia L. PLP3601 Climber - F, S Rutaceae Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn. PLP7768 Herb - Chaura Dictamnus albus L. PLP7737 Herb - Pangi Skimmia anquetilia N.P. Taylor and Airy Shaw PLP3566 Shrub Endemic Surchoo Zanthoxylum armatum DC. PLP7735 Shrub - Ponda Salicaceae Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle PLP4118 Tree - F Populus nigra L. PLP2900 Tree - F Salix alba L. PLP2503 Tree - F Salix denticulata Andersson PLP2965 Shrub Endemic F, GA Salix flabellaris Andersson PLP3275 Shrub - F, GA 344 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Salix pycnostachya var. oxycarpa (Andersson) Y.L. Chou and C.F. Fang (Syn. PLP4065 Tree - F, GA, S S. oxycarpa Andersson) Salix pycnostachya Andersson PLP2731 Tree - F Salix tetrasperma Roxb. PLP11280 Tree - F Santalaceae Arceuthobium minutissimum Hook. f. PLP2703 Herb Endemic F Thesium multicaule Ledeb. PLP2973 Herb - F Viscum album L. PLP2700 Shrub - F Sapindaceae Endemic and Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis PLP3239 Tree F Vulnerable Acer lobelia subsp. pictum (Thunb.) Wesm. (Syn. Acer pictum Thunb.) PLP3578 Tree - F Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook. PLP7754 Tree - F Saxifragaceae Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. PLP4059 Herb Endemic F Bergenia stracheyi (Hook. f. and Thomson) Engl. PLP2728 Herb - F, G, GA Saxifraga diversifolia Wall. ex Ser. PLP2711 Herb - GA Saxifraga jacquemontiana Decne. PLP3295 Herb Endangered GA Saxifraga parnassifolia D. Don PLP3283 Herb - GA Scrophulariaceae Buddleja asiatica Lour. PLP2586 Shrub - Rarang Panoong Buddleja crispa Benth. PLP5031 Shrub - Pangi Scrophularia decomposita Royle ex Benth. PLP2610 Herb - GA Scrophularia koelzii Pennell PLP9608 Herb Endemic F Scrophularia polyantha Royle ex Benth. PLP4160 Herb - Chulling Verbascum thapsus L. PLP2543 Herb - F, G, GA, S Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle PLP2525 Tree - F, S Smilacaceae Smilax menispermoidea A. DC. PLP3001 Climber - Ponda Smilax vaginata Decne. PLP2636 Climber - F Solanaceae Datura stramonium L. PLP8584 Herb - S Hyoscyamus niger L. PLP5014 Herb - S Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. PLP7939 Herb - Solding Physalis divaricata D. Don PLP8468 Herb - Bhabhanagar Physochlaena praealta (Walp.) Miers. PLP6328 Herb - Nako Solanum americanum Mill. (Syn. S. nigrum L.) PLP3027 Herb - F, S Solanum viarum Dunal PLP8484 Herb - Bhabhanagar Tamaricaceae Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv. PLP4159 Shrub - GA, S Thymelaeaceae Daphne cannabina Lour PLP4371 Shrub - Shudhrang Daphne mucronata Royle PLP2643 Shrub - F, S Daphne oleoides Schreb. PLP4080 Shrub - F Daphne papyracea Wall. ex W.W. Sm. and Cave PLP7786 Shrub - Moorang Wikstroemia canescens Wall. ex Meisn. PLP4390 Shrub - Rarang Ulmaceae Ulmus villosa Brandis. PLP7788 Tree - F Endemic and Ulmus wallichiana Planch. PLP4127 Tree F Endangered Urticaceae Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk.) Hepper and J.R.I. Wood PLP2522 Shrub - F Elatostema monandrum (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Hara (Syn. E. surculosum PLP4125 Herb - Surchoo Wight.) Girardinia ardens Blume PLP7726 Herb - F Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis PLP8461 Herb - F Girardinia palmata (Forssk.) Gaudich. PLP7684 Herb - F 345 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 1. Continued. ENDEMIC / VOUCHER HABITAT / SPECIES HABIT THREATENED SPECIMEN NO. LOCALITY STATUS Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq. PLP6237 Herb - Chaura Pilea scripta (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Wedd. PLP6240 Herb - Bhabhanagar Pilea umbrosa Blume PLP2517 Herb - F Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn. and R. Br. PLP7649 Herb - F Urtica ardens Link. PLP2512 Herb - F Urtica dioica L. PLP2589 Herb - G Urtica parviflora Roxb. PLP6232 Herb - Nichar Violaceae Viola betonicifolia J. Sm. PLP2617 Herb - GA, S Viola biflora L. PLP6227 Herb - GA Viola canescens Wall. PLP2542 Herb - F, GA, S Viola kashmiriana W. Becker PLP2550 Herb - Bhabhanagar Viola pilosa Blume PLP7495 Herb - F Viola pilosa Blume var. canescens (Wall.) Hook. f. and Thomson PLP3205 Herb - G, GA Vitaceae Ampelocissus divaricata (Wall. ex M.A. Lawson) Planch. PLP3146 Climber - Surchoo, Shelti Parthenocissus semicordata (Wall.) Planch. PLP7604 Climber Endemic F Xanthorrhoeaceae Eremurus himalaicus Baker PLP2761 Herb Endemic S Zingiberaceae Hedychium spicatum Sm. PLP7976 Herb - F Gymnosperms Pinaceae Abies pindrow (Royle ex D. Don) Royle PLP2834 Tree - F Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lamb.) G.Don PLP6287 Tree - F Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. PLP2833 Tree - F Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don PLP2639 Tree Rare F Pinus roxburghii Sarg. PLP2574 Tree - F Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks. PLP2968 Tree - F Cupresussaceae Juniperus communis L. PLP2952 Shrub - F, GA Juniperus indica Bertol. PLP3386 Shrub - F Juniperus polycarpos K. Koch PLP2885 Tree - S Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don PLP9770 Tree - F, S Taxaceae Taxus wallichiana Zucc. (Syn. Taxus baccata L. ssp. wallichiana L.) PLP4052 Tree - F Ephederaceae Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf PLP2762 Shrub - S Ephedra intermedia Schrenk and C.A. Mey. PLP 5011 Shrub - S F: Forests, G: Temperate Grasslands, GA: Alpine grasslands and meadows, S: Scrublands; Localities: Akpa 2194m, Bari 2117m, Bhabhanagar 1606m, Boktu 2478m, Chandriam 2581m, Chansu 2800m, Charang 3400m, Chaura 1535m, Chetetang Tee 2074m, Chitkul 3389m, Chulling 2700m, Hango 2800m, Homte 2670m, Hoye 2521m, Jangi 2779m, Ka 2983m, Kafnu 2951m, Kalpa 2759m, Karaba 2707m, Karcham , Katgaon 2341m, Kharogla 2982m, Kuppa 2580m, Leo 2947m, Moorang 2810m, Mulling, 3199m, Nako 3646m, Neugal 3463m, Nichar 2108m, Nigani 1600m, Nigulseri 1687m, Pangi 2593m, Ponda 1874m, Pooh 2749m, Ralli 2199m, Rarang 2770m, Rarang Panoong 1876m, Rekong Peo 2311m, Ribba 2262m, Rupi 1543m, Sangla 2640m, Sering Chey 2400m, Shango 2230m, Sharbo 2184m, Shelti 2810m, Sholtu 1776m, Shudhrang 2600m, Shurting 3408m, Shyasu Khud 2390m, Solding 1573m, Sunnam 2670m, Surchoo 2455m, Tapri 1781m, Urni 2286m, Wangtoo 1550m, Yangpa 2440m, Yangthang 3296m.” Table 2. List of Ferns and Fern Allies from Kinnaur. SPECIES VOUCHER NO. LOCALITY Adiantaceae Adiantum venustum D.Don PLP2546 Bhabhanagar Adiantum incisum Forssk. subsp. incisum PLP7664 Nigulseri Adiantum capillus-veneris L. PLP7662 Sangla Aspleniaceae Asplenium dalhousiae Hooker PLP2530 Bhabhanagar Asplenium septintrionale Hoffm. PLP9445 Kharogla Asplenium trichomanes L subsp. trichomanes PLP2531 Bhabhanagar Asplenium laciniatum D.Don subsp. laciniatum PLP7682 Rupi 346 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 2. Continued. SPECIES VOUCHER NO. LOCALITY Athriaceae Athyrium schimperi Moug ex Fée subsp. biserrulatum (Christ) Fraser-Jenk. PLP11381 Rupin Pass Blechnaceae Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai PLP9862 Ponda Cryptogrammaceae Cryptogramma brunoniana (Wall. ex Hk.) Grev. PLP2529 Bhabhanagar Davalliaceae Araiostegia delavayi (Bedd. ex C.B.Clarke and Baker) Ching PLP8519 Raksham Dryopteridaceae Deparia allantodioides (Bedd.) M. Kato PLP3385 Mulling Dryopteris barbigire (Hook.) Ktze. PLP9464 Chansu Dryopteris redactopinnata S.K.Basu and Panigrahi PLP3544 Kharogla Dryopteris cochleata (Don.) C. Chr. PLP2511 Solding Dryopteris chrysocoma (Christ) C.Chr PLP11290 Katgoan, Rupi Dryopteris juxtaposita Christ PLP3563 Rekong Peo Diplazium maximum (D.Don) C.Chr PLP7720 Solding Polystichum squarrosum (D. Don) J.Sm. PLP7657 Ralli Polystichum discretum (D.Don) J.Sm. PLP9752 Ralli Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense L. PLP2729 Sangla Equisetum diffusum L. PLP9746 Solding, Karaba, Kuppa, Shurting Hymenophyllacae Mecodium exsertum (Wall. ex Hook. et Grev.) Cop PLP2735 Sangla Ophioglossaceae Botrychium ternatum (Thunb.) Swartz PLP2740 Sangla Pteridaceae Pteris cretica L. PLP2516 Bari, Ponda, Solding Pteris pseudo-quadriaurita PLP3564 Surchoo Notholaena marantae (L.) Desv. PLP2683 Roghi Onychium contiguum (Wall.) Hope. PLP7738 Ponda Onychium japonicum (Thunberg) Kunze var. lucidum (D. Don) Christ PLP8579 Kafnu Selaginellaceae Selaginella subdiaphana Spreng. PLP8542 Rupi Table 3. The number of families, genera and species of higher plants in Kinnaur. GROUPS FAMILIES GENERA SPECIES Angiosperms 98 (96.07 %) 426 (98.37 %) 869 (98.52 %) Gymnosperms 4 (3.92 %) 7 (1.62 %) 13 (1.47 %) Total 102 433 882 Table 4. Comparison of ten dominant families of Angiosperms with flora of adjacent regions in Himalaya and India. RANK FAMILIES PRESENT STUDY - FLORA LAHAUL-SPITI WESTERN HIMALAYA EASTERN HIMALAYA BRITISH INDIA KINNAUR SIMLENSIS Compositae 1 1 3 2 4 7 Poaceae 2 2 1 1 2 3 Rosaceae 3 5 6 8 8 Leguminosae 4 4 2 3 3 2 Lamiaceae 5 4 5 9 Ranunculaceae 6 7 10 6 Polygonaceae 7 9 Brassicaceae 8 3 7 Apiaceae 9 8 Caryophyllaceae 10 Cyperaceae 10 5 4 5 8 Orchidaceae 8 9 1 1 Scrophulariaceae 6 7 10 7 347 Chawla et al. | Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India Table 4. Continued. RANK FAMILIES PRESENT STUDY - FLORA LAHAUL-SPITI WESTERN HIMALAYA EASTERN HIMALAYA BRITISH INDIA KINNAUR SIMLENSIS Urticaceae 9 6 10 Rubiaceae 9 4 Euphorbiaceae 10 5 Acanthaceae 6 Table 5 . The genus-to-species and family-to-genera ratios of different regions of Western Himalaya (Source: Collett 1902; Raizada and Saxena 1978; Aswal and Mehrotra 1994; Singh and Rawat 1999). REGION FAMILIES GENERA SPECIES GENERA-TO-SPECIES FAMILY-TO-GENERA Nainital 107 457 869 1:1.90 1:4.27 Shimla - 639 1326 1:2.08 - Mussoorie 131 649 1219 1:1.88 1:4.95 Upper Liddar valleys Kashmir 86 341 764 1:2.24 1:3.97 Tons valley 132 480 761 1:1.58 1:3.64 GHNP 128 427 832 1:1.94 1:3.33 Srinagar - 741 2928 1:3.95 - Sirmour 139 544 898 1:1.65 1:3.91 Lahaul & Spiti 79 353 985 1:2.5 1:4.47 Garhwal 189 1032 2150 1:2.08 1:5.46 Udhampur 119 495 807 1:1.63 1:4.16 Kullu 126 504 930 1:1.84 1:4 Acknowledgments : We are thankful to Dr. P.S. Ahuja, Director, IHBT for Myers, N, R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. daFonseca, and J. Kent. providing facilities and to Department of Biotechnology, Government of 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, India for funding our research. We are grateful to Mr. P.C. Pant, ex staff, 853-858. Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Dehradun for helping in authentication Nayar, M.P. 1996. “Hot spots” of Endemic Plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. of herbarium samples. We are also thankful to the project and field staff Thiruvanthapuram: Director, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research for support. We express our heartiest gratitude to Late Dr. H.R. Negi for Institute. initiating this work and for his constant encouragement. This is IHBT Olson, D.M., E. Dinerstein, E.D. Wikramanayake, N.D. Burgess, G.V.N. Publication No. 3166. Powell, et al., 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. Bioscience 51(11), 933-938. Raha, M. K. 2000. Structure and culture in a high Himalayan society. Literature Cited Science and Culture 66, 77-83. Aswal, B.S., and B.N. Mehrotra. 1994. Flora of Lahaul-Spiti. Dehradun: Raizada, M.B., and H.O. Saxena. 1978. Flora of Mussoorie. Dehradun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Bennet, S.S.R. 1987. Name Changes in Flowering Plants of India and Rau, M.A. 1975. High Altitude Flowering Plants of Western Himalaya. Adjacent Regions. Dehradun: Triseas Publishers. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India. Champion, H.G., and S.K. Seth. 1968. A Revised Survey of the Forest Types Singh, J.S., and S.P. Singh. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Himalaya. of India. Delhi, India: Manager of Publications, Govt. of India Press. Botanical Review 53 (1):80-192. Chawla, A., A. Kumar , B. Lal, R.D. Singhand A.K. Thukral. 2011. Ecological Ved, D.K., G.K. Kinhal, K. Ravikumar, V. Prabhakaran, U. Ghate, R. Vijaya characterization of high altitude Himalayan landscapes in the upper Shankar, and J. H. Indreshu, (ed.). 2003. Conservation Assessment Satluj river watershed in Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of and Management Prioritisation for the Medicinal Plants of Jammu & Indian Society of Remote Sensing OnlineFirst DOI: 10.1007/s12524- Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. A Synthesis of Regional 011-0169-0 . Expertise in Medicinal Plants Taxonomy and Distribution. Bangalore, Chowdhery, H.J., and B. M. Wadhwa. 1984. Flora of Himachal Pradesh India: Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions. Analysis. 3 vols. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India. Collett, H. 1982. Flora Simlensis. Dehradun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Hara, H., and H. Hohashi. 1966-1974. The Flora of Eastern Himalaya. 3 Vols. Tokyo, Japan: The University of Tokyo Press. Hooker, J.D. 1904. A Sketch of the Flora of British India. London: Kessinger Publishing. Jarvinen, O. 1982. Species-to-genus ratios in biogeography: a historical note. Journal of Biogeography 9(4): 363-370. Krug, A.Z., D. Jablonski, and J.W. Valentine 2008. Species–genus ratios Received: March 2011 reflect a global history of diversification and range expansion in Accepted : April 2012 marine bivalves. Proceedings of the Royal Scociety: Biological Sciences Published online : June 2012 275(1639): 1117-1123. Editorial responsibility : Marco Schmidt

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