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Evolutionary origins of the blood vascular system and endothelium

Evolutionary origins of the blood vascular system and endothelium Summary Every biological trait requires both a proximate and evolutionary explanation. The field of vascular biology is focused primarily on proximate mechanisms in health and disease. Comparatively little attention has been given to the evolutionary basis of the cardiovascular system. Here, we employ a comparative approach to review the phylogenetic history of the blood vascular system and endothelium. In addition to drawing on the published literature, we provide primary ultrastructural data related to the lobster, earthworm, amphioxus, and hagfish. Existing evidence suggests that the blood vascular system first appeared in an ancestor of the triploblasts over 600 million years ago, as a means to overcome the time‐distance constraints of diffusion. The endothelium evolved in an ancestral vertebrate some 540–510 million years ago to optimize flow dynamics and barrier function, and/or to localize immune and coagulation functions. Finally, we emphasize that endothelial heterogeneity evolved as a core feature of the endothelium from the outset, reflecting its role in meeting the diverse needs of body tissues. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Wiley

Evolutionary origins of the blood vascular system and endothelium

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References (84)

Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis
ISSN
1538-7933
eISSN
1538-7836
DOI
10.1111/jth.12253
pmid
23809110
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Summary Every biological trait requires both a proximate and evolutionary explanation. The field of vascular biology is focused primarily on proximate mechanisms in health and disease. Comparatively little attention has been given to the evolutionary basis of the cardiovascular system. Here, we employ a comparative approach to review the phylogenetic history of the blood vascular system and endothelium. In addition to drawing on the published literature, we provide primary ultrastructural data related to the lobster, earthworm, amphioxus, and hagfish. Existing evidence suggests that the blood vascular system first appeared in an ancestor of the triploblasts over 600 million years ago, as a means to overcome the time‐distance constraints of diffusion. The endothelium evolved in an ancestral vertebrate some 540–510 million years ago to optimize flow dynamics and barrier function, and/or to localize immune and coagulation functions. Finally, we emphasize that endothelial heterogeneity evolved as a core feature of the endothelium from the outset, reflecting its role in meeting the diverse needs of body tissues.

Journal

Journal of Thrombosis and HaemostasisWiley

Published: Jun 1, 2013

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