Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
J. Caudron, Nathaniel Ford, M. Henkens, C. Mace, R. Kiddle-Monroe, J. Pinel (2008)Substandard medicines in resource‐poor settings: a problem that can no longer be ignored
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 13
R. Bate, G. Jin, Aparna Mathur (2011)Does Price Reveal Poor-Quality Drugs? Evidence from 17 Countries
(1983)Medicines: spurious/falsely-labelled/ falsified/counterfeit (SFFC) medicines
(2005)According to the FDA, Cipro R oral tablets and Cipro R oral suspensions
E. Kaale, P. Risha, T. Layloff (2011)TLC for pharmaceutical analysis in resource limited countries.
Journal of chromatography. A, 1218 19
R. Bate, L. Mooney, Kimberly Hess (2010)Medicine Registration and Medicine Quality: A Preliminary Analysis of Key Cities in Emerging Markets
R. Bate, R. Tren, L. Mooney, Kimberly Hess, Barun Mitra, B. Debroy, A. Attaran (2009)Pilot Study of Essential Drug Quality in Two Major Cities in India
PLoS ONE, 4
Yi Qian (2008)Impacts of Entry by Counterfeiters
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123
T. Kelesidis, I. Kelesidis, P. Rafailidis, M. Falagas (2007)Counterfeit or substandard antimicrobial drugs: a review of the scientific evidence.
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 60 2
(2010)Drug Registration—A Necessary but not Sufficient Condition for Good Quality Drugs—A Preliminary Analysis of 12 Countries.
In the original example of the inspection game, it is between an inspector that chooses whether to perform an inspection and a smuggler that chooses whether to attempt an illegal act
M. Dresher (1962)A Sampling Inspection Problem in Arms Control Agreements: A Game-Theoretic Analysis
R. Cockburn, P. Newton, E. Agyarko, D. Akunyili, Nicholas White (2005)The Global Threat of Counterfeit Drugs: Why Industry and Governments Must Communicate the Dangers
PLoS Medicine, 2
Grossman Grossman, Shapiro Shapiro (1988)Counterfeit‐Product Trade
American Economic Review, 78
R. Bate, Philip Coticelli, R. Tren, A. Attaran (2008)Antimalarial Drug Quality in the Most Severely Malarious Parts of Africa – A Six Country Study
PLoS ONE, 3
Bate Bate, Jensen Jensen, Hess Hess, Mooney Mooney, Milligan Milligan (2013)Substandard and Falsified Anti‐Tuberculosis Drugs ‐ A Preliminary Field Analysis
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 17
R. Bate, R. Tren, Kimberly Hess, L. Mooney, Karen Porter (2009)Pilot Study Comparing Technologies to Test for Substandard Drugs in Field Settings
Yi Qian (2012)Brand Management and Strategies Against Counterfeits
Microeconomics: Intertemporal Firm Choice & Growth
(2009)“ Growing Threat of Substandard and Counterfeit Medicines in Developing Countries Addressed by New USAID - USP Cooperative Agreement
Paul Milgrom, John Roberts (1986)Price and Advertising Signals of Product Quality
Journal of Political Economy, 94
H. Leland. (1979)Quacks, Lemons, and Licensing: A Theory of Minimum Quality Standards
Journal of Political Economy, 87
C. Fitzpatrick, K. Floyd (2012)A Systematic Review of the Cost and Cost Effectiveness of Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
R. Bate, P. Jensen, Kimberly Hess, L. Mooney, Julissa Milligan (2012)Substandard and Falsified Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs: A Preliminary Field Analysis
Urban Economics & Regional Studies eJournal
P. Newton, Abdinasir Amin, C. Bird, Phillip Passmore, G. Dukes, G. Tomson, Bright Simons, R. Bate, P. Guérin, N. White (2011)The Primacy of Public Health Considerations in Defining Poor Quality Medicines
PLoS Medicine, 8
G. Buckley, L. Gostin, Counterfeit Products (2013)COMMITTEE ON UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SUBSTANDARD, FALSIFIED, AND COUNTERFEIT MEDICAL PRODUCTS
R. Bate, Kimberly Hess (2010)Anti-malarial drug quality in Lagos and Accra - a comparison of various quality assessments
Malaria Journal, 9
G. Buckley, L. Gostin (2013)Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs
J. Brant, R. Malpani (2011)Eye on the Ball: Medicine regulation - not IP enforcement - can best deliver quality medicine
(2006)Still Taxed to Death: An Analysis of Taxes and Tariffs on Medicines, Vaccines and Medical Devices, Washington , DC: AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies
S. Pincock (2003)WHO tries to tackle problem of counterfeit medicines in Asia
BMJ : British Medical Journal, 327
P. Newton, M. Green, F. Fernández (2010)Impact of poor-quality medicines in the ‘developing’ world
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 31
M. Maschler (1966)A price leadership method for solving the inspector's non-constant-sum game
Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 13
G. Grossman, C. Shapiro (1986)Counterfeit-Product Trade
D. Bennett, Wesley Yin (2014)The Market for High-Quality Medicine
NBER Working Paper Series
G. Nayyar, J. Breman, P. Newton, J. Herrington (2012)Poor-quality antimalarial drugs in southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 12 6
Report of the Working Group of Member States on Substandard/ Spurious/Falsely-Labelled/Falsified/Counterfeit Medical Products
A. Wolinsky (1983)Prices as Signals of Product Quality
The Review of Economic Studies, 50
R. Jähnke, G. Küsters, K. Fleischer (2001)Low-Cost Quality Assurance of Medicines Using the Gphf-Minilab®
Drug information journal : DIJ / Drug Information Association, 35
Pharmaceutical products can be of poor quality either because they contain zero correct active ingredient (referred to as “falsified”) or because they contain a nonzero but incorrect amount of the right active ingredient (referred to as “substandard”). Although both types of poor‐quality drugs can be dangerous, they differ in health consequence, price, and potential policy remedies. Assessing basic quality of 1437 samples of Ciprofloxacin from 18 low‐to‐middle‐ income countries, we aim to understand how price and nonprice signals can help distinguish between falsified, substandard, and passing drugs. Following the Global Pharma Health Fund e.V. Minilab® protocol, we find 9.88% of samples have less than 80% of the correct active ingredient and 41.5% of these failures are falsified. Falsified and substandard drugs tend to differ in two observable attributes: first, falsified drugs are more likely to mimic drugs registered with local drug safety regulators. Second, after controlling for other factors, substandard drugs are on average cheaper than passing generics in the same city but the price of falsified drugs is not significantly different from that of passing drugs on average. These data patterns suggest that careful consumers may have information to suspect a drug is substandard before purchase but substandard drugs can still exist to cater to poor and less‐educated population. In contrast, falsified drugs will be more difficult for consumers to identify ex ante because they appear similar to high‐quality, locally registered products in both price and packaging.
Journal of Economics & Management Strategy – Wiley
Published: Oct 1, 2015
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.