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Identification of mechanosensitive genes in osteoblasts by comparative microarray studies using the rotating wall vessel and the random positioning machine

Identification of mechanosensitive genes in osteoblasts by comparative microarray studies using... Weightlessness or microgravity of spaceflight induces bone loss due in part to decreased bone formation by unknown mechanisms. Due to difficulty in performing experiments in space, several ground‐based simulators such as the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) have become critical venues to continue studying space biology. However, these simulators have not been systematically compared to each other or to mechanical stimulating models. Here, we hypothesized that exposure to RWV inhibits differentiation and alters gene expression profiles of 2T3 cells, and a subset of these mechanosensitive genes behaves in a manner consistent to the RPM and opposite to the trends incurred by mechanical stimulation of mouse tibiae. Exposure of 2T3 preosteoblast cells to the RWV for 3 days inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation, and downregulated 61 and upregulated 45 genes by more than twofold compared to static 1 g controls, as shown by microarray analysis. The microarray results were confirmed by real‐time PCR and/or Western blots for seven separate genes and proteins including osteomodulin, runx2, and osteoglycin. Comparison of the RWV data to the RPM microarray study that we previously published showed 14 mechanosensitive genes that changed in the same direction. Further comparison of the RWV and RPM results to microarray data from mechanically loaded mouse tibiae reported by an independent group revealed that three genes including osteoglycin were upregulated by the loading and downregulated by our simulators. These mechanosensitive genes may provide novel insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating bone formation and potential targets for countermeasures against decreased bone formation during space flight and in pathologies associated with lack of bone formation. J. Cell. Biochem. 101: 587–599, 2007. © 2007 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Wiley

Identification of mechanosensitive genes in osteoblasts by comparative microarray studies using the rotating wall vessel and the random positioning machine

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References (42)

Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0730-2312
eISSN
1097-4644
DOI
10.1002/jcb.21218
pmid
17243119
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Weightlessness or microgravity of spaceflight induces bone loss due in part to decreased bone formation by unknown mechanisms. Due to difficulty in performing experiments in space, several ground‐based simulators such as the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) have become critical venues to continue studying space biology. However, these simulators have not been systematically compared to each other or to mechanical stimulating models. Here, we hypothesized that exposure to RWV inhibits differentiation and alters gene expression profiles of 2T3 cells, and a subset of these mechanosensitive genes behaves in a manner consistent to the RPM and opposite to the trends incurred by mechanical stimulation of mouse tibiae. Exposure of 2T3 preosteoblast cells to the RWV for 3 days inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation, and downregulated 61 and upregulated 45 genes by more than twofold compared to static 1 g controls, as shown by microarray analysis. The microarray results were confirmed by real‐time PCR and/or Western blots for seven separate genes and proteins including osteomodulin, runx2, and osteoglycin. Comparison of the RWV data to the RPM microarray study that we previously published showed 14 mechanosensitive genes that changed in the same direction. Further comparison of the RWV and RPM results to microarray data from mechanically loaded mouse tibiae reported by an independent group revealed that three genes including osteoglycin were upregulated by the loading and downregulated by our simulators. These mechanosensitive genes may provide novel insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating bone formation and potential targets for countermeasures against decreased bone formation during space flight and in pathologies associated with lack of bone formation. J. Cell. Biochem. 101: 587–599, 2007. © 2007 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

Journal

Journal of Cellular BiochemistryWiley

Published: Jan 1, 2007

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