Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Pituitary abnormalities in Prader–Willi syndrome and early onset morbid obesity

Pituitary abnormalities in Prader–Willi syndrome and early onset morbid obesity Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a well‐defined syndrome of childhood‐obesity which can serve as a model for investigating early onset childhood obesity. Many of the clinical features of PWS (e.g., hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency) are hypothesized to be due to abnormalities of the hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland. Children who become severely obese very early in life (i.e., before age 4 years) may also have a genetic etiology of their obesity, perhaps with associated neuroendocrine and hypothalamo‐pituitary defects, as infants and very young children have limited access to environmental factors that contribute to obesity. We hypothesized that morphologic abnormalities of the pituitary gland would be seen in both individuals with PWS and other subjects with early onset morbid obesity (EMO). This case‐control study included individuals with PWS (n = 27, age 3 months to 39 years), patients with EMO of unknown etiology (n = 16, age 4–22 years; defined as body mass index greater than the 97th centile for age before age 4 years), and normal weight siblings (n = 25, age 7 months to 43 years) from both groups. Participants had 3‐dimensional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the pituitary gland, a complete history and physical examination, and measurement of basal pituitary hormones. Subjects with PWS and EMO had a higher prevalence of pituitary morphological abnormalities than did control subjects (74% PWS, 69% EMO, 8% controls; P < 0.001). Anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies were universal in individuals with PWS (low IGF‐1 in 100%, P < 0.001 PWS vs. controls; central hypothyroidism in 19%, P = 0.052, and hypoplastic genitalia or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 100%, P < 0.001), and was often seen in individuals with EMO (6%, P = 0.89 vs. control, 31%, P = 0.002, and 25%, P = 0.018, respectively). The presence of a hypoplastic pituitary gland appeared to correlate with the presence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies in individuals with EMO, but no correlation was apparent in individuals with PWS. In conclusion, the high frequency of both morphological and hormonal abnormalities of the pituitary gland in both individuals with PWS and EMO suggests that abnormalities in the hypothalamo‐pituitary axis are features not only of PWS, but also frequently of EMO of unknown etiology. © 2007 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Wiley

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/pituitary-abnormalities-in-prader-willi-syndrome-and-early-onset-yUwbIvHkuG

References (35)

Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
1552-4825
eISSN
1552-4833
DOI
10.1002/ajmg.a.31677
pmid
17431897
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a well‐defined syndrome of childhood‐obesity which can serve as a model for investigating early onset childhood obesity. Many of the clinical features of PWS (e.g., hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency) are hypothesized to be due to abnormalities of the hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland. Children who become severely obese very early in life (i.e., before age 4 years) may also have a genetic etiology of their obesity, perhaps with associated neuroendocrine and hypothalamo‐pituitary defects, as infants and very young children have limited access to environmental factors that contribute to obesity. We hypothesized that morphologic abnormalities of the pituitary gland would be seen in both individuals with PWS and other subjects with early onset morbid obesity (EMO). This case‐control study included individuals with PWS (n = 27, age 3 months to 39 years), patients with EMO of unknown etiology (n = 16, age 4–22 years; defined as body mass index greater than the 97th centile for age before age 4 years), and normal weight siblings (n = 25, age 7 months to 43 years) from both groups. Participants had 3‐dimensional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the pituitary gland, a complete history and physical examination, and measurement of basal pituitary hormones. Subjects with PWS and EMO had a higher prevalence of pituitary morphological abnormalities than did control subjects (74% PWS, 69% EMO, 8% controls; P < 0.001). Anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies were universal in individuals with PWS (low IGF‐1 in 100%, P < 0.001 PWS vs. controls; central hypothyroidism in 19%, P = 0.052, and hypoplastic genitalia or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 100%, P < 0.001), and was often seen in individuals with EMO (6%, P = 0.89 vs. control, 31%, P = 0.002, and 25%, P = 0.018, respectively). The presence of a hypoplastic pituitary gland appeared to correlate with the presence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies in individuals with EMO, but no correlation was apparent in individuals with PWS. In conclusion, the high frequency of both morphological and hormonal abnormalities of the pituitary gland in both individuals with PWS and EMO suggests that abnormalities in the hypothalamo‐pituitary axis are features not only of PWS, but also frequently of EMO of unknown etiology. © 2007 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

Journal

American Journal of Medical Genetics Part AWiley

Published: Jan 1, 2008

Keywords: ; ;

There are no references for this article.