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Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa )

Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry... Summary Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a fruit crop with a distinct biphasic flavonoid biosynthesis. Whereas, in the immature receptacle, high levels of proanthocyanidins accumulate, which are associated with herbivore deterrence and pathogen defense, the prominent color‐giving anthocyanins are primarily produced in ripe ‘fruits’ helping to attract herbivores for seed dispersal. Here, constitutive experimental down‐regulation of one branch of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was performed. As a result, the proportion of epicatechin monomeric units within the proanthocyanidin polymer chains was reduced, but this was not the case for the epicatechin starter unit. Shortened chain lengths of proanthocyanidins were also observed. All enzymatic activities for the production of color‐giving anthocyanins were already present in unripe fruits at levels allowing a striking red anthocyanin phenotype in unripe fruits of the RNAi silencing lines. An immediately recognizable phenotype was also observed for the stigmata of flowers, which is another epicatechin‐forming tissue. Thus, the down‐regulation of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) induced a redirection of the proanthocyanidin pathway, leading to premature and ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis via enzymatic glycosylation as the alternative pathway. This redirection is also seen in flavonol biosynthesis, which is paralleled by higher pollen viability in silencing lines. ANRi transgenic lines of strawberry provide a versatile tool for the study of the biological functions of proanthocyanidins. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png New Phytologist Wiley

Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa )

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References (41)

Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 New Phytologist Trust
ISSN
0028-646X
eISSN
1469-8137
DOI
10.1111/nph.12528
pmid
24117941
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Summary Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a fruit crop with a distinct biphasic flavonoid biosynthesis. Whereas, in the immature receptacle, high levels of proanthocyanidins accumulate, which are associated with herbivore deterrence and pathogen defense, the prominent color‐giving anthocyanins are primarily produced in ripe ‘fruits’ helping to attract herbivores for seed dispersal. Here, constitutive experimental down‐regulation of one branch of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was performed. As a result, the proportion of epicatechin monomeric units within the proanthocyanidin polymer chains was reduced, but this was not the case for the epicatechin starter unit. Shortened chain lengths of proanthocyanidins were also observed. All enzymatic activities for the production of color‐giving anthocyanins were already present in unripe fruits at levels allowing a striking red anthocyanin phenotype in unripe fruits of the RNAi silencing lines. An immediately recognizable phenotype was also observed for the stigmata of flowers, which is another epicatechin‐forming tissue. Thus, the down‐regulation of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) induced a redirection of the proanthocyanidin pathway, leading to premature and ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis via enzymatic glycosylation as the alternative pathway. This redirection is also seen in flavonol biosynthesis, which is paralleled by higher pollen viability in silencing lines. ANRi transgenic lines of strawberry provide a versatile tool for the study of the biological functions of proanthocyanidins.

Journal

New PhytologistWiley

Published: Jan 1, 2014

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