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Sources and bioavailability of phosphorus fractions in freshwaters: a British perspective

Sources and bioavailability of phosphorus fractions in freshwaters: a British perspective This paper seeks a perspective on the forms of phosphorus which promote aquatic eutrophication, with the particular quest of establishing their sources. A short background traces the development of understanding of nutrient enrichment and the suppositions about the relative contributions of agriculture, sewage and detergent residues. Most aquatic systems, and their primary producers, are naturally deficient in biologically‐available phosphorus. Aquatic plants have evolved very efficient phosphorus uptake mechanisms. The biomass responses to an increase in the supply of phosphorus are stoichiometrically predictable. The most bioavailable forms of phosphorus are in solution, as orthophosphate ions, or are readily soluble or elutable from loose combinations. Ready bioavailability coincides well with what is measurable as molybdate‐reactive (MRP) or soluble‐reactive phosphorus (SRP). Most other forms, including phosphates of the alkaline earth metals, aluminium and iron are scarcely available at all. Orthophosphate ions sorbed to metal oxides and hydroxides are normally not biologically available either, except through weak dissociation (‘desorption’). The production of alkaline phosphatase provides organisms with an additional mechanism for accelerating the sequestration of phosphate from organic compounds. Bioavailable phosphate is liberated when redox‐ or alkali‐sensitive metal hydroxides dissolve but these processes are minor contributors to the biological responses to nutrient enrichment. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Biological Reviews Wiley

Sources and bioavailability of phosphorus fractions in freshwaters: a British perspective

Biological Reviews , Volume 76 (1) – Jan 1, 2001

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References (161)

Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2001 Wiley Subscription Services
ISSN
1464-7931
eISSN
1469-185X
DOI
10.1111/j.1469-185X.2000.tb00058.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

This paper seeks a perspective on the forms of phosphorus which promote aquatic eutrophication, with the particular quest of establishing their sources. A short background traces the development of understanding of nutrient enrichment and the suppositions about the relative contributions of agriculture, sewage and detergent residues. Most aquatic systems, and their primary producers, are naturally deficient in biologically‐available phosphorus. Aquatic plants have evolved very efficient phosphorus uptake mechanisms. The biomass responses to an increase in the supply of phosphorus are stoichiometrically predictable. The most bioavailable forms of phosphorus are in solution, as orthophosphate ions, or are readily soluble or elutable from loose combinations. Ready bioavailability coincides well with what is measurable as molybdate‐reactive (MRP) or soluble‐reactive phosphorus (SRP). Most other forms, including phosphates of the alkaline earth metals, aluminium and iron are scarcely available at all. Orthophosphate ions sorbed to metal oxides and hydroxides are normally not biologically available either, except through weak dissociation (‘desorption’). The production of alkaline phosphatase provides organisms with an additional mechanism for accelerating the sequestration of phosphate from organic compounds. Bioavailable phosphate is liberated when redox‐ or alkali‐sensitive metal hydroxides dissolve but these processes are minor contributors to the biological responses to nutrient enrichment.

Journal

Biological ReviewsWiley

Published: Jan 1, 2001

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